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About Authors:
Vivek Chourasia*, Hemant Nagar, H.S. Chandel, Anindya Goswami
Truba Institute of Pharmacy,
Karond Gandhinagar Bypass
Bhopal (M.P.)-India

Ficus religiosawas investigated for its possible protective effect against paracetamol and CCl4-induced hepatic damage. IV administration of a sub-lethal dose of paracetamol (500 mg/kg) produced liver damage in rats as manifested by the rise in serum level of transaminases (AST and ALT). Ttreatment of rats with Ficus religiosa (200 mg/kg) prevented the paracetamol-induced rise in serum enzymes. The hepatotoxic dose of CCl4 (1.5 ml/kg; orally) also raised the serum AST and ALT levels. The same dose of Ficus religiosa (200 mg/kg) was able to prevent the CCl4-induced rise in serum enzymes. These results indicate that Ficus religiosa possesses hepatoprotective activity.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1380

Liver is the most important organ in the body. It plays a pivotal role in regulating various physiological processes. It is also involved in several vital functions, such as metabolism, secretion and storage. It has great capacity to detoxicate toxic substances and synthesize useful principles. It helps in the maintenance, performance and regulating homeostasis of the body. It is involved with almost all the biochemical pathways to growth, fight against disease, nutrient supply, energy provision and reproduction. In addition, it aids metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat, detoxification, secretion of bile and storage of vitamins. The role played by this organ in the removal of substances from the portal circulation makes it susceptible to first and persistent attack by offending foreign compounds, culminating in liver dysfunction.

Liver diseases remain one of the major threats to public health and are a worldwide problem. They are mainly caused by chemicals like acetaminophen (in large doses), excess consumption of alcohol, infections and autoimmune disorders. Most of the hepatotoxic chemicals damage liver cells mainly by inducing lipid peroxidation and other oxidative damages (Recknagel, 1983; Wendel et al., 1987; Dianzani et al., 1991). Acetaminophen, a mild analgesic and antipyretic drug, developed in the last century, causes serious liver necrosis in humans and in experimental animals if taken in large doses (Lin et al., 1995; Mitchell et al., 1973; Hinson 1980 and Mitchell, 1988). While alcohol is one of the main causes of end stage liver disease worldwide, alcoholic liver disease is the second most common reason for liver transplantation in the United States (Mandayam et al., 2004). Due to increased frequency of drinking and change of diet construction, such as the increase of fat content, the incidence of liver diseases has increased in China, becoming another important risk factor for morbidity and mortality in addition to viral hepatitis (Zhuang and Zhang, 2003). The spectrum of alcoholic liver disease ranges from fatty liver to alcoholic hepatitis and ultimately fibrosis and cirrhosis.

A large number of medicinal plants, natural products and dietary components have been evaluated as potential nephroprotective agents [Bergstrom J, Furst P et al,1974]. The Ficus religiosa (family-Moraceae) is widely planted in the tropics [Bailey, L. H. and E. Z. Bailey,1976]. The tree is very long lived and one tree near Bombay is reported to be over 3,000 years old [Neal, M.C,1965]. The barks of Ficus religiosa species contains tannin, saponin gluanol acetate, βsitosterol, leucopelargonidin– 3 – O – β – D -glucopyranoside, leucopelargonidin – 3 – O – α –L - rhamnopyranoside, lupeol, ceryl behenate, lupeol acetate, α-amyrin acetate, leucoanthocyanidin, and leucoanthocyanin [Husain A, Virmani OP,1992]. Some reported pharmacological activity of F. religiosa like fruit extracts exhibited antitumor activity in the potato disc bioassay [Mousa O, Vuorela P,1994]. Aqueous extract was decreased the fasting blood glucose and exaggerated activity of superoxide dismutase SOD in streptozotocin induced type II diabetic rats [Kirana H. ,SS Agarwal,2009], anthelmintic activity of the methenolic extract [Zafar Iqbal, Qazi khalid Nadeem,2001].

Materials and Methods
Wistar rats weighing 130-165g were used in the present study. The experimental animals were maintained under standard laboratory conditions in an animal house approved by the committee for the purpose of control and supervision on experiments on animals (CPCSEA) under 12 h light/dark cycle and controlled temperature (24 ± 2°C) and fed with commercial pellet diet and water ad libitum. All animals were acclimatized to the laboratory environment for at least one week before the commencement of experiment. The experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Animal Ethical Committee,Truba institute of Pharmacy, Bhopal Madhya Pradesh, India.

Collection & Authentification of plant
The plant material was collected from local area of Bhopal in March 2011 and was authenticated at the Department of Botany, Hari Singh Gour University Sagar. A voucher specimen number or the herbarium number is Bot/Her/Bl763 has been deposited.

Preparation of the extract
The preparation of extract was carried out according to the method of (Oktay et al. 2003). Briefly, the stem bark of F. religiosawas shade dried after collection for 5 days and was powdered. Approximately 0.95 kg of powdered drug material was extracted using 99% pure ethanol in the ratio of 1:2 (w/v) in a air tight container. The extract obtained (EBFR) was dried in a steam bath and the dried mass was weighed and recorded. The percentage of yield was calculated. The weight of dried crude extract obtained was approximately 0.16 g which commemorated with the percentage yield of 17.16%.


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