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Emblica Officinalis A Review

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About Authors:
Mohd Farhan
Department of Pharmacology,
Vidyabharti college of pharmacy
Amravati.
farhan.pharma66@gmail.com

Abstract:
The herbal medicine are in the great demand in the developed as well as developing countries for primary health care because of their large biological activities, higher safety margin and lesser cost. one of the common traditional herbal drug is Emblica officinalis, commonly known as Amla, is a member of a small genus Emblica (Euphorbiaceae). It grows in tropical and subtropical parts of China, India, Indonesia and the Malay Peninsula. All parts of the plant are used for medicinal purpose. The fresh (or) the dry fruit is used in traditional medicines for the treatment of diarrhoea, jaundice and inflammations. The pulp of the fruit is smeared on the head to dispel headache and dizziness Emblica officinalis leaves and fruit have been used for fever and inflammatory treatments by rural populations in its growing areas. The earlier study have demonstrated potent anti-microbial, adaptogenic, hepatoprotective, anti-tumour and anti-ulcerogenic activities in the fruits of Emblica officinalis. Leaf extracts have been shown to posses anti- inflammatory activity. vitamin C, tannins and flavanoids present in amla have very powerfull antioxidant activity. Due to rich in vitamin C amla is successfully use in the treatment of human scurvy.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1557

Introduction:
Emblica officinalis(EO) enjoys a hallowed position in Ayurveda- an Indian indigenous system of medicine. According to believe in ancient Indian mythology, it is the first tree to be created in the universe. It belongs to family Euphorbiaceae. It is also named as Amla, Phyllanthus Emblica or Indian gooseberry. Other vernacular names of EO  are Dhatriphala, Amla, Amaliki, Amalakan, Sriphalam, Vayastha. It  grows in tropical and subtropical regions including Pakistan, Uzbekistan, Srilanka, South East Asia, China and Malaysia. The fruits of EO are widely used in the Aryuveda and are believed to increase defense against diseases. It has its beneficial role in cancer, diabetis, liver treatment, heart trouble, ulcer, anemia and various other diseases. Similarly, it hasapplication as antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antipyretic, analgesic, cytoprotective, antitussive and gastroprotective. Additionally, it is useful in memoryenhancing, ophthalmic disorders and loweringcholesterol level. It is also helpful in neutralizingsnake venom and as an antimicrobial.

Geographical Distribution:
E. officinalis Geart. genus Phyllanthus (Euphorbiaceae) is widely distributed in most tropical and subtropical countries. It grows in tropical and subtropical parts of China, India, Indonesia and on the Malay Peninsula and indigenous to tropical India and Southeast Asia .(18)

Description:
Tree; leaves alternate, bifarious, pinnate, flower -'bearing; leaflets numerous, alternate, linear-obtuse, entire; petioles striated, round; calyx 6-parted; flowers in the male very numerous in the axils of the lower leaflets, and round the common petiole below the leaflets; in the female few, solitary, sessile, mixed with some males in the most exterior floriferous axils; stigmas 3; drupe globular, fleshy, smooth, 6-striated; nut obovate-triangular, 3-celled; seeds 2 in each cell; flowers small, greenish yellow. Flowers during October.15,18

Morphology: 
It is a tree of small or moderate size with a greenish-grey bark and greenish-yellow flowers, formed in axillary clusters. The feathery leaves are linear-oblong, with a rounded base and obtuse or acute apex, subsessile, closely set along branchlets, light green and resembling pinnate leaves. The flowers are greenish yellow, borne in axillary fascicles, giving way to a globose fruit. The tender fruits are green, depressed, globose or oblate, indented at the base, smooth, fleshy and shining. The nearly stem 6-lobed splitting into three segments. Fruits are about 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter with six softly defined ridges and six seeds and green at first, become whitish or a dull, greenish-yellow or more rarely, brick-red as it matures. They are hard and unyielding to the touch. The skin is thin, translucent and adherent to the very crisp, juicy, concolorous flesh. They average 5 to 6 g in weight and 4 to 5 mL in volume. Ripe fruits are astringent, extremely acidic and some are distinctly bitter. They are capsular (drupaceous) berries with a fleshy exocarp. The edible part of the fruit is the mesocarp and the endocarp forms the hard stone which encages the seeds.15

Chemical Composition:
 Plant have so many important chemical constituents Zhang and coworkers have reported that fruit juice of E. officinalis contains phenolic constituents like gallic acid, L-malic acid 2-o-gallate, Mucic acid 2-o-gallate, Corilagin Chebulagic acid, putrajivain A, elacocarpusin, mucic acid, 1-o-galloyl-β-D-glucose, Mucic acid 6-methyl ester 2-o-gallate, Mucic acid 1,4- lactone 2-o-gallate, Mucic acid 1-methyl ester 2-o-gallate, Mucic acid 2-o-gallate, Mucic acid 1, 4-lactone 6-methyl ester 2-o-gallate, mucic acid 1, 4-lactone 3-o-gallate, mucic acid 1,4-lactone 3,5-di-o-gallate   have reported that fresh pericarp of E. officinalis contain higher amount of hydrolysable tannins like emblicanin A and B, punigluconin, pedunculagin The structure have been established by spectroscopic analysis and chemical transformation ( Kumaran and karunakaran have performed an activity-directed fractionation and purification process to identify phytochemicals present in E. officinalis. They have identified gallic acid, methyl gallate, corilagin, furosin and geraniin inE. officinalis by chromatographic and spectroscopic method Phytochemical investigations reveled thatE. officinalis contains higher amount of flavonoid like quercetin and fruits were also analyzed for their alkaloidal content. Alkaloids like phyllantine and phyllantidine were confirmed by chromatography and IR spectral studies.It has been reported that fruits ofE. officinalis contains higher amount of Vitamin C  and considerably higher concentrations of most minerals, protein and amino acids like Glutamic acid, proline, aspartic acid, alanine, cystine and lysine.18

Ethnobotnical uses:
Emblica Officinalis has been used as a valuable ingredient of various medicines in India and Middle East from time immemorial. The green fruits are made into pickles and preserves to stimulate the appetite. Medical studies conducted on Amla fruit suggest that it has antiviral properties [Udupa] and also functions as an antibacterial and anti-fungal agent The use of amla as an antioxidant has been examined by a number of authors [Bhattacharya; Chaudhuri]. Experiments conducted at the Niwa Institute of Immunology in Japan have shown Amla to be a potent scavenger of free radicals. The studies showed that Amla preparations contained high levels of the free-radical scavenger, superoxide dimutase (SOD), in the experimental subjects [Treadway]Amla is believed to increase ojas, and is considered to be one of the strongest rejuvenative herbs in Ayurvedic medicine. It is the primary ingredient used in one of the renowned Ayurvedic herbal formulae, called Chayavanprasha which has great respect as a tonic. The preparation is named after Chayavan who was sitting in the forest when the Emperor’s daughter who was playing while blindfolded in the forest fell over him. Not knowing he was a stranger, she ran her fingers through his hair and decorated him with a garland of flowers, which must have been quite an accomplishment while wearing a blindfold! Needless to say, her father found out and insisted that the wise old sage marry his daughter (as a woman was only allowed to be touched by one woman in her lifetime). The old sage created chayavanprasha and lived on it for 2 months, during which time he regained youthfulness and sexual vitality [Watson]. Beside amla, chayavanprasha contains around 30 to 50 other herbs depending on where it is prepared.  For sexual rejuvenation, stir Chyavanprash into warm milk or spread on toast, and consume every day The pericarp of the fruit is often used in decoctions along with other ingredients and also applied externally on boils with cow ghee to promote suppuration [Jayaweera].  Photoaging of the skin is a complex biologic process affecting various layers of the skin with major changes seen in the connective tissue within the dermis. Emblica was shown to reduce UV-induced erythema and had excellent free-radical quenching ability, chelating ability to iron and copper as well as MMP-1 and MMP-3 inhibitory activity [Chaudhuri, Guttierez, and Serrar, 2003]

Pharmacological and biological activities:

Antioxidant activity:
In this study The antioxidant activity of free and bound phenolics of amla (Emblica officinalis) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) was investigated. The Emblica officinalis free (EOFP) and bound phenolics (EOBP) showed between four- to 10-fold higher levels of antioxidant activity as evaluated by both free radical scavenging and reducing power assays compared to that of Curcuma longa free (CLFP) and bound phenolics (CLBP). Higher level of antioxidant activity in E. officinalis has been attributed to the phenolic content (12.9%, w/w,correlation coefficient R ¼ 0:74) in them. results clearly suggest the presence of potent antioxidants such as gallic acid in E. officinalis and protocatechuic acid and ferulic acid in C. longa, in addition to the known ascorbic acid and curcumin in E. officinalis and C. longa, respectively.10

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Antipyretic analgesic activity:
This study was designed to investigate the anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of ethanol (EEO) and aqueous (AEO) extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits in several experimental models. A single oral dose of EEO and AEO (500 mg/kg, i.p.) showed significant reduction in brewer’s yeast induced hyperthermia in rats. EEO and AEO also elicited pronounced inhibitory effect on acetic acid-induced writhing response in mice in the analgesic test. Both, EEO and AEO did not show any significant analgesic activity in the tail-immersion test. These findings suggest that extracts of Emblica officinalis fruits possessed potent anti-pyretic and analgesic activity.7

Cyto-protective and Immunomodulatory property:
In this study The fruits extracts of Emblica officinalis (Amla) has been reported to have strong anti oxidant properties. There is a paucity of studies on the immunomodulatory properties of fruit extracts of Amla in immuno-compromised states, with the emphasis on lymphocytes. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine the anti-oxidant and immunomodulatory properties of Amla using chromium (VI) as an immunosuppressive agent. Chromium (Cr) treatment results in enhanced cytotoxicity, free radical production, lipid peroxidation and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and diminished glutathione (GSH) levels.3

Anti aging tonic:
In this studyuse of  Emblica Officinalis in daily diet for prevention and treatment is described. Cultural beliefs, experiences and availability of various herbs in India has made herbal preparations a part of Indian daily food supplements. The use of functional foods and nutraceuticals can be traced back to ancient Indian system of medicine  Ayurveda, a 5000 year old medical science. The classic texts of Ayurveda are full of references of the effects of food in various health conditions. Ayurveda clearly defines the use of food products for improving quality of life and general rejuvenation. Long before there were vitamins, minerals and antioxidant supplements, there was Chyawanprash (Cha-van-prash). One of the most respected anti-aging tonic used in Ayurveda.

Anti diabetic property:
This study suggest the anti diebetic potential of the Emblica officinalis. The level of blood glucose in type-2 diabetic patient was studied after the administration of amla powder 250 mg twice a day for 60 days it was observed that drug treatment decreases blood glucose level and hence the Emblica Officinalis is good agent to treat type-2 diabetic patient.8

Atheroscleroesis treatment:
According to this study Emblica Officinalis found to be effective for the reversal  dyslipidemia and intema media thickening and the plaque formation in the aorta in hyper cholesterolaemic rabbit in this study the cholesterol powder (100mg/kg body weight) was administerd orally to the white healthey rabbit for four month to induce hypercholesterolaemia And there after amla extract was given into two dose 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight. For four month.12

Anti-Ulcer :
In this paper  report a novel property of ethanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (amla) fruit pulp in inhibiting thegrowth of Helicobacter pylori in-vitro. In this study, three standard laboratory strains, and five clinical isolates of H. pylori showed sensitivity towards amla extract with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 0.91 to 1.87 μg/μl. Out of five clinical isolates two were resistant to clarithromycin. The anti-H. pylori bioactive spot with retention factor (Rf) value 0.16 in toluene: choloroform: acetone (40:25:35) has been separated using thin layer chromatography followed by contact bioautography. The bioactive spot appears to be essential oil and/or phenolics. The extract contained 20.55 mg gallic acid equivalent/gm of dry weight of extract. Total reducing power was estimated to be 75.8 mg ascorbic acid equivalent per gram of dry weight of extract. Antioxidant activity was checked by 2,2'-azino-bis (3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) was 175.76 mg/gm of dry weight of extract when checked by ABTS assay. Thus total phenolics, flavanoids, reducing power and the antioxidant properties of amla is very well retained in the ethanolic extract and makes it suitable for a therapeutic use against H. pylori infection and gastric ulcer.14

Ischemia-reperfusion:
This papersuggest thatThe tannoid principles of the fruits of Emblica officinalis have been reported to exhibit antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, an emblicanin-A (37%) and -B (33%) enriched fraction of fresh juice of Emblica fruits (EOT) was investigated for antioxidant activity against ischemia- reperfusion (IRI)-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Vitamin E (VE) was used as the standard antioxidant agent. IRI was induced in isolated rat heart by perfusing it with modified Kreb-Hensleitt’s solution for 5 min, followed by a period of ischemia (stoppage of perfusion) for 10 min and then restoring the perfusion (reperfusion) for 15 min. IRI induced a significant decrease in the activities of cardiac superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, with a concomitant increase in lipid peroxidation. These IRI-induced effects were prevented by the administration of EOT (50 and 100 mg/kg body wt.) and VE (200 mg/kg body wt.) given orally twice daily for 14 days prior to the sacrifice of the animals and initiation of the perfusion experiments. The study confirms the antioxidant effect of E. officinalis and indicates that the fruits of the plant may have a cardioprotective effect.4

Antioxidant activity:
this study shows  Emblica officinalisGaertn. is one of the most important plants of A¯ yurved, the traditional Indian medicine. In this ancient medicine, the fruit of Emblica officinalis is processed according to a method named “Svaras Bhavana”, whereby the therapeutic potential of the plant is enhanced by treating the main herb with its own juice. For many years, the activity of the fruits was attributed to the high content of ascorbic acid; however, this has recently been questioned. The aim of the paper is to clarify this matter. A reliable and feasible HPLC method with diode array detection has been developed for the determination of ascorbic acid in Emblica fruit and particularly in Emblica fruit processed according to the Ayurvedic method. The antioxidant effects have also been evaluated in comparison to the real levels of Vitamin C by different antioxidant tests. The data obtained show that the Emblica fruit contains ascorbic acid (0.40%, w/w), and that the Ayurvedic method of processing increases the healthy characteristics of the fruit thanks to a higher antioxidant activity and a higher content of ascorbic acid (1.28%, w/w). It has also been found that Vitamin C accounts for approximately 45–70% of the antioxidant activity.9

Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory and anticancer activity: 
As Amla is traditionally use for severdiseases. Antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anticancer, cytoprotective, analgesic, antipyretic, antimicrobial. And again due to rich vitamin C contain use to treat scurvy.

Antitussive activity:
according to the studyThe antitussive activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (E. officinalis, Fam. Euphorbiaceae) was tested in conscious cats by mechanical stimulation of the laryngopharyngeal and tracheobronchial mucous areas of airways. The results showed that at a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt. perorally, the cough suppressive effect of E. officinalis is not unambiguous. Ahigher dose (200 mg/kg body wt.) of this substance perorally was more effective, especially in decreasing the number of cough efforts (NE), frequency of cough (NE/min–1) and the intensity of cough attacks in inspirium (IA+) and expirium (IA–) was more pronounced. These results showed that the cough suppressive activity of E. officinalis is dose-dependent. We could also demonstrate that the antitussive activity of E. officinalis is less effective than shown by the classical narcotic antitussive drug codeine, but more effective than the non-narcotic antitussive agent dropropizine. It is supposed that the antitussive activity of the dry extract of Emblica officinalis is due not only to antiphlogistic, antispasmolytic and antioxidant efficacy effects, but also to its effect on mucus secretion in the airways.6

Anti venom:
As per this study concern The methanolic root extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. and Emblica officinalis Gaertn. were explored for the first time for antisnake venom activity. The plant (V. negundo and E. officinalis) extracts significantly antagonized the Vipera russellii and Naja kaouthia venom induced lethal activity both in in vitro and in vivo studies. V. russellii venom-induced haemorrhage, coagulant, defibrinogenating and inflammatory activity was significantly neutralized by both plant extracts. No precipitating bands were observed between the plant extract and snake venom. The above observations confirmed that the plant extracts possess potent snake venom neutralizing capacity and need further investigation.5

Hepato protective:
This study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. (PE) extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury. PE (0.5 and 1 mg/ml) increased cell viability of rat primary cultured hepatocytes being treated with ethanol (96 _l/m) by increasing % MTT and decreasing the release of transaminase. Hepatotoxic markers studied in rats included serum transaminases (AST and ALT), serum triglyceride (STG), hepatic triglyceride (HTG), TNF-alpha and IL-1beta together with histopathological examination. Pretreatment of rats with PE at oral dose of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg or SL (silymarin, a reference hepatoprotective agent) at 5 mg/kg, 4 h before ethanol, lowered the ethanol induced levels of AST, ALT and IL-1beta. The 75 mg/kg PE dose gave the best result similar to SL. Treatment of rats with PE (75 mg/kg/day) or SL (5 mg/kg/day) for 7 days after 21 days with ethanol (4 g/kg/day, p.o.) enhanced liver cell recovery by bringing the levels of AST, ALT, IL-1beta back to normal. Histopathological studies confirmed the beneficial roles of PE and SL against ethanol induced liver injury in rats.11

Hypolipidaemic activity:
In this article lipid lowering activity of emblica officinalis was evaluated . rabbit is subjected to cholesterol rich feeding and treated with the fresh juice of emblica officinalis as( 5mg/kg body weight) per rabbit per day for 60 days.1

Antitumour activity:
As per this study is concernAqueous extract of Emblica officinalis (E.O) was found to be cytotoxic to L 929 cells in culture in a dose dependent manner. Concentration needed for 50% inhibition was found to be 16.5 mg:ml. E.O and chyavanaprash (a non-toxic herbal preparation containing 50% E.O) extracts were found to reduce ascites and solid tumours in mice induced by DLA cells. Animals treated with 1.25 g:kg b.wt. of E.O extract increased life span of tumour bearing animals (20%) while animals treated with 2.5 g:kg b.wt. of chyavanaprash produced 60.9% increased in the life span. Both E.O and chyavanaprash significantly reduced the solid tumours. Tumour volume of control animals on 30th day was 4.6 ml where as animals treated with 1.25 g:Kg b.wt. of E.O extract and 2.5 g:kg b.wt. of chyavanaprash showed a tumour volume of 1.75 and 0.75 ml, respectively. E.O extract was found to inhibit cell cycle regulating enzymes cdc 25 phosphatase in a dose dependent manner. Concentration needed for 50% inhibition of cdc 25 phosphatase was found to be 5 mg:ml and that needed for inhibition of cdc2 kinase was found to be \100 mg:ml. The results suggest that antitumour activity of E.O extract may partially be due to its interaction with cell cycle regulation. 2

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Conclusion :
Emblica Officinalis has been proved use full against the various severe disease including cancer, diabetes, hepatic disorder, heart related complications, cyto-protective, antioxidants, also immunomodularory and protective against the many emerging infectious diseases. It realize that many diseases occur due to the imbalance between the pro oxidants and  antioxidants  homeostasis phenomena In the body  and amla balance these because of its antioxidant activity Emblica officinalis also reduce the side effct of chemotherapy and radiotherapy with all these potential amla may prove a miracle drug  in the field of pharmaceutical sciences . so serious attemps should be taken for proper identification of chemical constituents present in the amla. So that its therapeutic properties should come in focus which are still unknown.

Refrences :
1) Rithu mathur,Arti Sharma,Dixit V.P,Mira Verma. Journal of Ethanopharmacology 50(1996)61-68     Aug-1995
2) Jeena K. Jose, Girija Kuttan, Ramadasan Kuttan * Antitumour activity of Emblica officinalis  Journal of  Ethnopharmacology 75 (2001) 65–69 Oct-2000
3) Sai Ram.M*,. Neetu D,  Yogesh.B,  Anju.B, .Dipti.P, . Pauline.T, .Sharma.S.K,  Sarada.S.K.S, .            Ilavazhagan.G, Devendra Kumar,  Selvamurthy.W.(2001). Cyto-protective and immunomodulating properties of    Amla (Emblica officinalis) on lymphocytes: an in-vitro study. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 81. 5 -10.
4)  Salil . Bhattacharya K,  Bhattacharya,A., . Sairam,.K .. Ghosal,S.(2002) Effect of bioactive tannoid principles of Emblica officinalis on ischemia-reperfusion-induced oxidative stress in rat heart. Phytomedicine, Vol. 9: 171–174,.
5)  Alam M.I,Games A  Snake venom neutralization by Indian medicinal plants (Vitex negundo and Emblica officinalis) root extracts   Journal of Ethnopharmacology 86 (2003) 75–80  Feb-2003
6)  Nosál’ová.G, J. Mokr ´y, and . Tareq Hassan K.M. Antitussive activity of the fruit extract of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (Euphorbiaceae) Phytomedicine 10: 583–589, 2003
7) James  Perianayagama B., . SharmaaS.K,∗, Aney Josephb,. Christinab A.J.M.(2004). Evaluation of anti-pyretic and analgesic activity of Emblica officinalis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 95 ,. 83–85
8) Chandra R.H, Veresham C, Asres k effect of emblica officinalis in type2 diebetic patient Indian J. of Pharm science Dec 2004.
9) Scartezzini P, . Antognoni F, . Raggi M.A, Sabbioni C,.(2005) . Vitamin C content and antioxidant activity of the fruit and of the Ayurvedic preparation of Emblica officinalis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 104, 113–118.
10)  Suresh Kumara.G, Harish Nayakaa,, Shylaja . Dharmesha.M,(2005)  Salimatha.P.V, Free and bound phenolic antioxidants in amla (Emblica officinalis) and turmeric (Curcuma longa). Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 19,446–452.
11)  Pornpen Pramyothin , Patcharavadee Samosorn ,Somlak Poungshompoob, Chaiyo Chaichantipyuth  The protective effects of Phyllanthus emblica Linn. Extract on ethanol induced rat hepatic injury Journal of Ethnopharmacology 107 361–364 (2006)
12)  Antony B,Marina B,sheeba V., Mukkadam .J, effect of standardized amla extract on Atherosclerosis and Dislipidemia. Aug-2006
13)  Shubhi Mehrotra1, Rohitash Jamwal1, Radhey Shyam2, Dharmendra Kumar Meena2, Kshipra Mishra2, Rajashree Patra1, Ronita De3, Asish Mukhopadhyay3, Ashwani Kumar Srivastava1 and Shoma Paul Nandi1* Anti-Helicobacter pylori and antioxidant properties ofEmblica officinalis pulp extract: A potential source for therapeutic use against gastric ulcer Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(12), pp. 2577-2583  March-2011
14)  Anwar Jamal, Aisha sidiqui,Tajuddin, Jafri M.A A Review on gastric ulcer remedies used in unani system  of medicine  Apr-2006.
15)  Khan K.H Roles of Emblica officinalis in Medicine Botany Research International 2 (4): 218-228 2009.
16)  Renu Solanki*  Some medicinal plants with anti-bacterial activity, International  journal of comprehensive pharmacy. Oct-2010.
17)  Madhuri S., Pandey Govind, Verma Karuna S. Antioxidants, Immunomodulatory, Anticancer activity of Emblica Officinalis International research journal of  pharmacy Aug-2011.
18)  Goyal R.K, Patel S.S A comprehensive review on , phytochemistry, pharmacology and ethnomedicinal uses of Emblica Officinalis.

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