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About Authors:
Devendra Kumar1,Pragya Seth2
Department of Pharmaceutical technology,
1Sri Satya Sai collage of Pharmacy Bhopal,
2Lakshmi Narain College of Pharmacy, Bhopal

The present work describes the effect of methanolic extract of Prunus amygdalus (batsch.) on pylorus ligation and Ethanol-induced gastric ulcer models in Wistar rats. The present study provides a strong evidence of antiulcer activity of Prunus amygdalus extract against gastric lesions. The antiulcer activity is recognized by a reduction in acid-secretary parameters like total and free acidity, gastric volume and ulcer score suggesting that acid inhibition accelerates ulcer healing, thereby strengthening of mucosal barrier. In this present study it shows significant protection for Hexosamine in all treated groups in comparison to negative control group. Inthe LPO results it was observed that there was significance level difference in negative control group and all other group that indicates that lipid peroxides enzyme was higher in vehicle treated group. Ulcer score was determined by the counting of spots and severity of damage in stomach part by any moiety such as ethanol. Single drug treatment (200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg of P.A.E.) was effective up to a significant level (P<0.05) in compare to negative control group.Volume of gastric juice indicate the secretions of gastric fluid and it is higher in negative control group and all drug treated group was effective in relation to negative control group in significance level (P <0.05).

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1526

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 4 billion people, 80 percent of the world population, presently use herbal medicine for some aspect of primary health care. Herbal medicine is a major component in all indigenous peoples’ traditional medicine and a common element in Ayurvedic, homeopathic, naturopathic, traditional oriental, and Native American Indian medicine. WHO notes that of 119 plant-derived pharmaceutical medicines, about 74 percent are used in modern medicine in ways that correlated directly with their traditional uses as plant medicines by native cultures? Major pharmaceutical companies are currently conducting extensive research on plant materials gathered from the rain forests and other places for their potential medicinal value.1

Peptic ulcer occurs in the part of the gastrointestinal tract (g.i.t.) which is exposed to gastric acid and pepsin i.e. the stomach and duodenum. The etiology of peptic ulcer is not clearly known. It results probably due to imbalance between the aggressive (acid, pepsin and H. pylori) and the defensive (gastric mucus and bicarbonate secretion, prostaglandins. A variety of psychosomatic humoral and vascular derangements have been implicated and the importance of Helicobacter pylori infection as a contributor to ulcer formation and recurrence has been recognized.

In gastric ulcer, generally acid secretion is normal or low. In duodenal ulcer, high acid secretion in half of the patients but normal in the rest. It does contribute to ulceration as an aggressive factor, reduction of which is the main approach to ulcer treatment. An understanding of the mechanism and control of gastric acid secretion with elucidate the targets of antisecretory drug action.2


Ethanol Induced Mucosal Damage in Rats (Cytoprotective Activity) 3-4

*  Male Wistar rats weighing 250–300 were fasted for 24 hr with free access to water and avoidance of coprophagy.
*  The rats were sacrificed after one hours of ethanol administration.
*  Stomach was dissected out and was open along greater curvature. Then the parameters mentioned below were measured.

Parameters Assessed:

Physical Parameter
a.Ulcer index

Biochemical Parameters
a.Antioxidants – Catalase and Reduced Glutathione
b.Lipid peroxidation – Malondialdehyde (MDA)
c.Determination of Gastric wall Mucus
d. Hexosamine assay
e. GSH determination

Experimental Design
Rats (n = 30) each group contain 6 animals were randomized into following groups:
Group 1- Normal group.

Group 2- Negative control group

Group 3- Treated with standard drug Ranitidine (50mg/kg, p.o.)

Group 4- Treated with Prunus amygdalus extract ( 200 mg/kg (p.o.).

Group 5- Treated with Prunus amygdalus extract (400 mg/kg (p.o.).

Biochemical Parameters:
Preparation of tissue homogenate
*  Stomach was dissected out from the sacrificed animal and rinsed with distilled water. Stomach was then homogenized into ice cold 0.15 M Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) to give 10%w/v homogenate.
*  The homogenate was then centrifuged at 15000 rpm for 15min. at 4°C in cooling centrifuge. Supernatant was used for determination of antioxidant activity.

Lipid peroxidation measurement:
The extent of lipid peroxidation was estimated by measuring the secondary lipid peroxidation product–thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) formed in the lipid peroxidation processes.

*  The glandular portion of the gastric mucosa was homogenized with cold 0.15 M Tris-HCl (pH 7.4) to give a 10% (w/v) homogenate. After 10min, 0.2 ml of tissue homogenate, 0.2 ml of 8.1% sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS), 1.5 ml of 20% acetic acid and 1.5 ml of 8% TBA were added.
*  The volume of the mixture was made up to 4 ml with distilled water and then heated at 95°C on a water bath for 60 min using glass balls as condenser.
*   After incubation the tubes were cooled to room temperature and final volume was made to 5 ml in each tube.
*  5 ml of butanol:pyridine (15:1) mixture was added and the contents were vortexed thoroughly for 2 min. After centrifugation at 3000 rpm for 10 min, the upper organic layer was taken and its OD read at 532 nm against an appropriate blank without the sample.6


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