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vi. Hepatoprotective Activity
Hepatoprotective activity of Abutilon indicum on experimental liver damage in rats was studied by Porchezhian and Ansari [19].   They used carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-to induce hepatotoxicities in rats. A. indicum exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity by reducing carbon tetrachloride- and paracetamol-induced change in bio-chemical parameters that was evident by enzymatic examination. The plant extract may interfere with free-radical formation, which may conclude in hepatoprotective action. Acute toxicity studies revealed that the LD50 value is more than the dose of 4 g/kg body wt. They attributed the hepatoprotective activity to the inhibitory effects of drug on cytochrome P450 or/and promotion of its glucuronidation.

vii. Hypoglycemic Activity
Seetharam et al [20]. Studied the hypoglycemic activity of Abutilon indicum leaf extracts in rats. Blood glucose level was measured by using oxidase-peroxidase method. The petrol and CHCl3 extract of A. indicum leaves did not show a significant hypoglycemic activity. On the contrary, the alcoholic extract after oral administration of 400 mg/kg exhibited significant reduction in the blood glucose levels. Similarly, the aqueous extract had shown significant reduction in blood glucose level. The significant hypoglycemic activity was attributed to the presence of flavanoids and glycosides since, flavonoids are known to regenerate the damaged pancreatic β-cells and glycosides stimulate the secretion of insulin in β -cells of pancreas.

viii. Anti-Diarrhoeal Activity
Leaf extracts of Abutilon indicum were evaluated for anti-diarrhoeal activity by gastro-intestinal motility, castor oil-induced diarrhoea and prostaglandin E2- induced enteropooling in rats wherein the methanolic and aqueous extracts showed significant antidiarrhoeal activity in castor oil-induced diarrhoea and prostaglandin E2- induced diarrhoea. These extracts were reported to reduce diarrhoea by inhibiting intestinal peristalsis, gastrointestinal motility and PGE2 induced enteropooling [21].

ix. Anti Asthmatic Activity
This study reported the effectiveness of powder of dried aerial parts of Abutilon indicum in decreasing the severity of commonly observed symptoms of bronchial asthma i.e. dyspnoea, cough, chest tightness and wheezing. It was also found to significantly increase the pulmonary function measured as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 Sec (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in patients having mild to moderate bronchial asthma [26]. In another study, methanolic extract inhibited experimentally induced rat peritoneal mast cell degranulation and edema formation. The significant decrease in carageenan induced rat paw edema at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o. indicated anti inflammatory activity, and this activity was postulated towards the anti-asthmatic effect [22].   

x. Immunomodulatory Activity
Dashputre et al [23].   Studied the immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic and aqueous extract of leaves of Abutilon indicum (200mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) by heamagglutination antibody (HA) titre, delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test and carbon clearance test. Study revealed that extract showed a significant increase in both primary and secondary HA titre. It also showed significantly potentiated DTH reaction and increase in percentage neutophil adhesion test. The results of the study reported that both the extracts were found to have a significant immunostimulatory activity on both the specific and non specific immune mechanisms. This activity was said to be attributed to the presence of flavonoids (quercetin), alkaloids, tannins, saponin glycosides and phenolic compounds.

xi. Anti-Estrogenic Activity
Johri et al [24]. Studied the anti-estrogenic effect of methanolic extracts of Abutilon indicum on uterotropic and uterine peroxidase activities in ovariectomized rats. This extract was found to cause significant suppression of enzyme activity as well as uterotropic response induced by estradiol, whereas in the group, not treated with estradiol, a marginal stimulation in peroxidase activity was observed. These changes in peroxidase activity suggested that Abutilon indicum must be a highly potent estrogen antagonist with an extremely low degree of estrogenicity.

3. Abutilon muticum
Abutilon muticum
basically occurs in plains throughout Pakistan especially more common in Sindh, however it is also observed in India especially in the Vidharbha region of Maharashtra [9]

Locally and Traditional Uses
Leaves of A. muticum is used in bronchitis, catarrhal bilious diarrhoea, gonorrhoea, inflammation of the bladder and fever. The flowers and leaves are used as a local application to boils and ulcer. Seeds are used in treatment of cold, cough and bronchial infection, inflammation of the urinary tract, gonorrhea, diarrhoea, and ulcers. Seeds are also used as diuretic and demulcent. The seeds cakes are used for dairy cattle and fertilizer [25-26]

Medicinal and Pharmacolical Properties
i. Antimicrobial Activity

20 g of the leaves of A. muticum (Malvaceae) were extracted using petroleum ether, chloroform and 80% methanol. The methanolic extracts were partitioned using ethyl acetate and n-butanol. Agar diffusion assay was used to test the extracts against human pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The chloroform extracts of the leaves of A. muticum showed significant activity against Bacillus subtillus. The ethyl acetate fraction showed significant activity against B. subtillus, Escherichia coli, Proteus. vulgaris and Staphylococcus aureus [27]. The seed oil of Abutilon muticum was active against both gram positive as well as gram negative bacteria and thus showed broad spectrum activity (Kashmiri et al, 2009). In another study, methanol and acetone extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and three fungi strains. Antibacterial activity was shown by methanolic extract against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia and Proteus mirabilis as well as all three fungal strains i.e Candida tropicalis, Cryptococcus luteolus and Candida albicans. Study reported that methanolic extracts were more potent than acetone extracts [28]

ii. Antioxidant Activity
The seed oil of A. muticum exhibited significant antioxidant activity assayed by ABTS, FRAP, DPPH and linoleic acid peroxidation method. These methods indicated the presence of both slow and fast reacting components in the seed oil [4]. In another study, the methanolic extract and its subsequent n- butanol soluble fraction revealed significant antioxidant activity. Further phytochemical studies reported the isolation of a new phenolic glucoside named mutiniside and flavonoidal glucoside cephacoside from the n-butanol soluble fraction out of which mutiniside showed significant antioxidant activity and moderate inhibitory activity was observed against the enzyme lipoxygenase [29]

iii. Anti-Diabetic Activity
Gautam at al. Anti-Diabetic Activity of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Abutilone Muticum in IJPTP. This extract was found to significant Anti-Diabetic Activity.[30].

4. Abutilon theophrashti
Abutilon theophrasti
(medic.) is a quantitative short-day herbaceous annual that colonizes highly disturbed habitats such as agricultural fields and waste areas in eastern and central North America. Time to flowering in this species is most rapid under short photoperiods, although A. theophrasti does eventually flower under longer photoperiods. Under glasshouse conditions, plant height, fruit weight, internode length, and shoot weight of Abutilon theophrasti plants were found to increase with increasing photoperiod [31]

Locally and Traditional Uses
It is sweet, cooling, digestive, laxative, expectorant, diuretic, astringent, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anthelmintic, demulcent and aphrodisiac. It is useful in gout, tuberculosis, ulcers, bleeding disorders, and worms. Decoction used in toothache and tender gums. Demulcents of leaves are locally applied to boils and ulcers. Roots are prescribed in fever, chest affection and urethrities. [32]

Medicinal and Pharmacolical Properties
i. Physical Dormancy

Nurse et al [33]. Studied the effect of varying natural photoperiod on the germinability of Abutilon theophrasti seeds and seedling vigour as measured by the initial rate of radicle growth. Seeds of Abutilon theophrasti exhibit physical dormancy. Differences in the growing environment of parent plants may influence the germinability of seeds and vigour of seedlings produced by this species because of variation in resource allocation to seed development. They investigated the germinability of seeds and subsequent seedling vigour for Abutilon theophrasti plants grown in monoculture at a density of 4.2 plants m2 under varying natural photoperiods in central New York State. Treatments were established by transplanting Abutilon theophrasti seedlings on three dates. Seeds produced under the shorter photoperiod (13 h) weighed, on average, 1.5 mg less than seeds produced under the longer photoperiod (15 h). Contrary to expectations, seeds of A. theophrasti that matured under shorter photoperiods had lower germinability (80%) than seeds produced under longer photoperiods (98%). Early radicle growth, a measure of seedling vigour, did not differ between the photoperiod treatments. They have concluded that seed dormancy increased in A. theophrasti individuals maturing under shorter (peak 13 h) versus longer (peak 15 h) photoperiods.

ii. Antimicrobial Activity
Kremer studied the antimicrobial activity of Velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti) Seeds. Seeds were bioassayed on 241 microbial isolates to assess their antimicrobial activity. Seeds placed on agar plates inoculated with test microorganisms released a diffusible substance(s) that inhibited the growth of 117 of 202 (58%) bacteria and all of the fungi tested. Antimicrobial activity of the seeds appeared to be nonselective as the extent of inhibition was not related to type of microorganism or their origin. Hard, water-impermeable seeds had greater inhibitory activity than imbibed (soft) seeds. The intensity of inhibition was affected by prior leaching of seeds with various solvents and by the stage of seed development. Chemical analysis of diffusion zones from agar plates and seed leachates revealed the presence of phenolic compounds. The presence of antimicrobial substances in velvetleaf seeds may contribute to the persistence of viable seeds in soil by inhibiting potential seed-deteriorating microorganisms [34]

iii. Wound Healing Activity
The ethanolic extract of Abutilon theophrasti was studied for wound healing activity-using incision, excision and dead space wound models in albino rats. This extract at a dose of 500-mg/kg showed significant increase in wound contraction rate, skin breaking strength, granuloma strength and dry granuloma weight. Moreover, the decrease in epithelisation period was observed as compared to control and standard. This pro-healing was dedicated to increase in collagenation deposition as well better alignment and maturation [35].   

Plenty of medicinal plants are used from traditional system of medicine for the treatment of varied ailments. Many herbs belonging to the specie Abutilon are documented for their various medicinal benefits. Also, the plants from Abutilon spp. are claimed for other medicinal properties for the treatment of different disorders, but still they are not satisfactorily exploited. Furthermore, phytochemical investigation of the plant extracts is an important tool for the determination of the phytochemicals, responsible for specific pharmacological activity. The various plants of the Abutilon spp., because of their different phytochemicals, possesses different pharmacological activities and hence used for the treatment of associated disorders.

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