DEADLY BUT CURABLE: A REVIEW ON POTENTIAL TREATMENTS FOR EBOLA HAEMORRHAGIC FEVER

 

PREVENTION AND CONTROL

WILDLIFE-TO-HUMAN TRANSMISSION
·  Reducing the risk of wildlife-to-human transmission from contact with infected fruit bats or monkey/apes and the consumption of their raw meat. Animals should be handled with gloves and other appropriate protective clothing. Animal products (blood and meat) should be thoroughly cooked before consumption.[1]

HUMAN-TO-HUMAN TRANSMISSION
·  Reducing the risk of human-to-human transmission from direct or close contact with people with Ebola symptoms, particularly with their bodily fluids. Gloves and appropriate personal protective equipment should be worn when taking care of ill patients at home. Regular hand washing is required after visiting patients in hospital, as well as after taking care of patients at home.[1]

OUTBREAK CONTAINMENT MEASURES
·  Outbreak containment measures including prompt and safe burial of the dead, identifying people who may have been in contact with someone infected with Ebola, monitoring the health of contacts for 21 days, the importance of separating the healthy from the sick to prevent further spread, the importance of good hygiene and maintaining a clean environment.[1]

PREVENTION IN HEALTHCARE PERSONNEL GUIDANCE
· Prevention in healthcare personnel guidance from the CDC recommends that healthcare personnel who care for patients infected with Ebola virus (ie, physicians, nurses, other clinicians) wear personal protective equipment (PPE) that does not expose any skin recently (2014). This includes a surgical hood that covers the head and neck and a single-use full face shield, in addition to either a N95 respirator or powered air-purifying respirator instead of a mask. [1][3]

CONCLUSION
For controlling outbreaks community engagement is important. Control of outbreak depends on applying a package of interventions that is case management, surveillance and contact tracing, a good laboratory service, safe burials and social mobilisation. A response team is needed with integrated, prepared to execute selected functions, and equipped. An effective way to reduce human transmission raising awareness of risk factors for Ebola infection and protective measures that individuals can take. Effective containment of Ebola fever greatly depends on the isolation of the infected patients, and the careful adherence to barrier nursing techniques and universal precautions for the handling of infectious materials. Survival of infection is dependent on the ability of an individual to mount an effective immune response. The development of an effective Ebola virus vaccine is what future waits.

REFERENCES
1. Ebola virus disease., September 2014: https://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs103/en/
2. Adrian M. C., Adeline M. N., Anthony S., Cam L. W., Heather S.; A Current Review of Ebola Virus: Pathogenesis, Clinical Presentation, and Diagnostic Assessment; Biol Res Nurs; 2003; (4):268
3. Ebola virus disease., October 2014: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/216288-treatment#
4. Pollack., Andrew; Second drug is allowed for treatment of Ebola; The New York Times; 7 August 2014; Retrieved 8 August 2014.
5. Helen Branswell., Nancy Writebol; U.S. missionary, didn't get TKM-Ebola drug., Tekmira says, CBC News; Canadian Press; 3 August 2014.
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7. Kroll., David; How will we know if the Ebola drugs worked?; Forbes; 26 August 2014; Retrieved 1 October 2014.  
8. Nathan Seppa; ZMapp drug fully protects monkey against Ebola; Science News- Society for Science & the Public; 29 August 2014; Retrieved 1 October 2014.  
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10. Blood transfusion named as priority treatment for Ebola; Nature; Retrieved 11 September 2014.  
11. Use of convalescent whole blood or plasma collected from patients recovered from Ebola virus disease Empirical treatment during outbreaks; WHO; Retrieved 4 October
12. Statement on the WHO Consultation on potential Ebola therapies and vaccines; WHO; 5 September 2014; Retrieved 1 October 2014.  
13. Mupapa K., Massamba M., Kibadi K., Kuvula K., Bwaka A., Kipasa M., Colebunders R., Muyembe-Tamfum J.J;Treatment of Ebola hemorrhagic fever with blood transfusions from convalescent patients: International Scientific and Technical Committee; J. Infect. Dis; 1999; 179 Suppl 1: S18–23.
14. Clark DV., Jahrling PB;, Lawler JV: Clinical management of filovirus-infected patients;; Viruses;, 2012; 4 (9) : 1668–86
15. Feldmann H., Geisbert T.W; Ebola haemorrhagic fever; Lancet; 5 March 2011: 849–62.
16. Saphire E.O; An update on the use of antibodies against the filoviruses; Immunotherapy; 2013; 5 (11) : 1221–33.
17. Gulland A; First Ebola treatment is approved by WHO; BMJ 349 ; Sep 08; 7 : 5539–5539.
18. Geisbert T.W., Lee A.C., Robbins M., Geisbert J.B., Honko A.N., Sood V., Johnson J.C., de Jong S., Tavakoli I., Judge A., Hensley L.E., Maclachlan I; Postexposure protection of non-human primates against a lethal Ebola virus challenge with RNA interference: A proof-of-concept study;  The Lancet ; 29 May 2010 ; 375. 9729 : 1896–1905.  
19. Warren TK., Warfield KL., Wells J., Swenson DL., Donner KS., Van Tongeren SA., Garza NL., Dong L., Mourich DV., Crumley S., Nichols DK., Iversen PL., Bavari S; Advanced antisense therapies for postexposure protection againstlethal filovirus infections;  Nature Medicine; September 2010 ; 16(9) : 991–994.

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