A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW ON TUMARI (TREWIA NUDIFLORA LINN.)

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About Authors:
N. Balakrishnan*, Mayank Srivastava, Pallavi Tiwari
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Technocrats Institute of Technology-Pharmacy,
Bhopal-462021(MP), India.
*pharmacobala@gmail.com

Abstract
Medicinal plants have main and cheap source of unique phytoconstituents, they are used extensively in the development of new drugs against various diseases and disorders. The 80% of world population especially in the developing countries relies on the traditional system of medicine for primary choice to treat diseases. Trewia nudiflora Linnbelongs to the family Euphorbiaceae and is one of the important medicinal plant in Indian systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha,etc. It is used as stomachic and alterative in flatulence, gout, rheumatism and malignancy especially leukemia and hepato- biliary affections etc.  The decoction of shoots and leaves of Trewia nudiflora is used to treat excessive bile and sputum. The leaves are applied on wounds to heal them with good efficiency. It contains a pyridine alkaloid, N-methyl-5-carboxamide-2-pyridone. Hence,an attempt has been made in this review paper to explore various phytochemical and pharmacological studies carried out on this plant.


Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1565

INTRODUCTION
The many pharmaceutical companies continue to invest enormous resources in identifying new drugs/or agents that could be used to various diseases and disorders with minimum side-effects. Hence, several plants have been selected based on the traditional systems of medicine and to explore their uses in scientific manner1. In the last few decades, the field of herbal medicines is getting popularized in both developed and developing countries2, because of cheap, natural origin, higher safety margin and lesser or no side effects.3Trewia nudiflora is a plant genus of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) and it is a small sized tree grows upto 5 metres in height.4 Leaves simple, Cordate, acuminate, both surface pubescent and long petiolate. Flowers arise from axilla or from terminal spikes. Fruits hard, greenish yellow pods, which is staple food of Indian Rhinoceros.5 Itcontains a pyridine alkaloid, N-methyl-5-carboxamide-2-pyridone, nudiflorine. Bark yields taraxerone and betasitosterol. Seeds contain an alkaloid ricinidine and also contain a maytansinoid compound, trewiasine. Therefore, the present review is to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemical and pharmacological activities of the plant.6

PLANT REVIEW

GENERAL INFORMATION
Trewia nudiflora
is a deciduous tree, branchless wood and leaves opposite, ovate 11-20 cm by 7-12 cm, long pointed, hairy beneath when young, glabrous later, stalks 2-7.5 cm long. Male and female flowers on separate trees, males yellow in long lax drooping inflorescences, females green, solitary or 2-3 together in the leaf Axis. Fruits fleshy, depressed globose, grayish green, 3.5 cm by 3 cm.5

DISTRIBUTION
The plant genus of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae) comprising two species, viz. Trewia nudiflora & Trewia Polycarpa. It is found from the Himalaya to Hainan Island. These species have hard large fruits. One of the species of Trewia is Trewia nudiflora, which is tall arbor and distributes in the tropical districts of India, Malaysia and China. 4


VERNACULAR NAMES
Sanskrit:
Shriparni, Tumri, Pindaara

English : False white teak, Gutel

Hindi: Gori Gambhara

Malyalam: Nevkumizhu5

TAXONOMY CLASSIFICATION
Kingdom       :
Plantae
Division        :
Angiosperma
Class             :
Eudicots
Unranked    :
Rosids
Order           :
Malpighiales
Family         :
Euphorbiaceae
Subfamily   :
  Acalyphoideae
Tribe           :
Acalypheae
Subtribe    :
Rottlerinae
Genus        :
Trewia
Species      :
Trewia nudiflora 5

ETHNOMEDICAL INFORMATION
Trewia nudiflora
is found in various parts of India. Root contains resinous matter and fat. Decoction of root is used as stomachic and alterative in flatulence, gout , rheumatism7  and malignancy especially leukemia and hepato- biliary affections etc A decoction of shoots and leaves of Trewia nudiflora is used as traditional medicine To relieve swelling and to treat flatulence , excessive bile and sputum. The leaves are applied on wounds to heal them with good efficiency.8-9

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
Plant contains a pyridine alkaloid, N-methyl-5-carboxamide-2-pyridone. Leaves contain analkaloid, nudiflorine. Bark yields taraxerone and betasitosterol. Seeds contain an alkaloid ricinidine. The seeds also contain a maytansinoid compound, trewiasine .6 It exhibited significantcytotoxic activity against various human cell lines in vitro. 10

CLAIMS AND REPORTS

PHARMACOLOGICAL/BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY
Rajlakshimi et al., 2012 :
reported anti-ulcerogenic effect fromthe ethanolic extract of the leaves of Trewia nudiflora against Indomethacin induced gastric ulcer. Indomethacin is a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, which reduces endogeneous prostaglandin biosynthesis and disrupts the mucosal barrier as well as mucosal blood flow in animals . The ethanolic extract of Trewia nudiflora showed significant anti-ulcer effect against ulcers induced by Indomethacin in a dose dependent manner. The results obtained showed that the mean ulcer index was significantly reduced in the Ethanol extracts from the leaves of Trewia nudiflora treated groups, compared to their respective controls. Trewia nudiflora extracts may stimulate the secretion of prostaglandins or possess prostaglandins like substances. While, they reported anti-ulcerogenic effect of the ethanolic extract of Trewia nudiflora against ulcers induced by cold resistant stress in a dose dependent manner. Gasric ulceration produced by stress is probably mediated by the presence of acid, increase in gastric motility, mast cell degranulation, decreased gastric mucosal blood flow, decreased prostaglandin synthesis and augmented excretion of glycoprotein in the mucus.   In gastric ulcer induced by Cold-Restraint Stress, ethanolic extract of Trewia nudiflora showed again significant activity. 11

Praveen and Girija., 2012: studied the cerebroprotective effect of ethanol extract of leaves of Trewia nudiflora against the global model of ischemia in rats. In the present study, the animals were pre treated with ethanol extract of leaves of Trewia nudiflora for a period of 1week (200 and 400 mg/kg) p.o and showed significant (P<0.01) improvement in the behavior pattern, and spatial learning, which was confirmed in trial sessions in water maze test when compared with the negative control group.12

Guo-Hong et al., 2004: studied the antimicrobial bioassay against Mycobacterium tuberculosisand showed significant activity.13

Powell et al., 1982: reported that the ethanolic extract of this plant possessed activity against crown gall tumors on potato discs, KB cell Culture, and P388 leukemia in mice. 10

PHYTOCHEMISTRY
Shilpi et al
., 2010:  isolated two new cardenolides, trewianin and trewioside along with scopoletin and indole-3-carboxylic acid from the stem bark of Trewia nudiflora and structures were established by 1D- and 2D NMR spectroscopy, HR-MS analysis and by comparison with literature data.9

Powell et al., 1982:isolated a novel group of maytansinoid compound from the seed tissue of   Trewia nudiflora.10

Conclusion
For thousands of years there have been plants in India used for medicinal purpose, while many studies have attempted to prove scientifically on these medicinal plants. Trewia nudiflora is one of the important medicinal plants among these. Hence, further studies required to find many more pharmacological activities of this plant.

Acknowledgement
We would like to thanks Chairman, TIT Group of Institutions, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India and Director, Technocrats Institute of Technology – Pharmacy, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India, for their kind inspiration to publish this review article.

References
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3. Ayyanara M, Ignacimuthu S, Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats in India, Journal of  Ethnopharmacol, 2011;134:851-864.
4. Madhava chetty K, “Trewia nudiflora” Flowering Plants of Chittoor District, AndhraPradesh, India, 2008.
5. Jackson JK, Manual of afforestation in Nepal, Forest research and Survey center, Kathmandu. 1994.
6. Jamil A Shilpi, Alexander I Gray, Veronique Seidel, New cardenolides from the stem bark of Trewia nudiflora, Fitoterpia, 2010; Vol .81: 536-539
7. Rathore Brijesh, Mahdi Abbas Ali , Paul Bhola Nath, Saxena Prabhu Narayan and Das Siddharth Kumar, Indian herbal medicines; possible potent therapeutic agents for rheumatoid arthritis, Journal of clinical biochemistry and nutrition,2007;Vol.41[1]: 12-17.
8. Nadkarni KM and Nadkarni AK, Indian Materia Medica, Popular Prakashan Ltd Bombay, 2002; Vol.1:1228.
9. Rastogi Ram, Mehrotra BN,  Sinha Shradha, Pant Pushpa, &  Sheth Renu, Compendium of Indian Medicinal Plants,  CDRI Lucknow & National Institute of Science Communication New Delhi (India),2004;Vol 1: 419.
10. Powell Richard G, Peoria, Smith Cecil R, Jr.,Dunlap , Chemotherapeutically active maytansinoids from Trewia nudiflora, United states patent , 1982;Vol .19[11]: 1-10.
11. Rajalakshimi V,  Chaithanya Kumar S, Rajeswary P,  Madhuri A, Chandrasekhar U, Anti-Ulcerogenic activities of Trewia nudiflora in different experimental models, International Journal of Phytopharmacy Research, 2012; Vol.3 [2] :68-71.
12. Praveen Kumar  K , Girija Sastry V, Protective effect of Trewia nudiflora  against Ischemic Stroke in Experimental Rats, International Journal of Pharmacotherapy,2012; Vol. 2 [1] : 7-12.
13. Guo-Hong LI,  Pei Ji ZHAO, Yue-Mao SHEN, Ke-Qin ZHANG, Anti-Bacterial Activities of  Neo-lignans Isolated from the  Seed Endothelium of Trewia nudiflora, Acta Botanica Sinica,2004;Vol.46[9]:1122-1127.

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