A BRIEF REVIEW ON TREATMENT & PREVENTION OF CANCER

Pharma Admission

Pharma courses

pharma admission

pharma courses

 

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Saurabh Kumar Singh*, Aruna Chandra Singh
Department of pharmaceutical Chemistry, Rajiv Academy for pharmacy, Mathura,
N.H. #2 Delhi-Mathura Bye-pass, P.O. Chhatikara,
Mathura-281001.Uttar Pradesh, India
*s_s_khirwar@yahoo.co.in

ABSTRACT
The rate of cancer rise is dramatic, doubling in the last 30 years. Furthermore, of the estimated 560,000 cancer victims who would die in 1997, most of them could have prevented their illness had they paid attention to some simple lifestyle factors.

Although the number of cancer deaths continues to rise each year in the U.S., the per capita cancer mortality rate has just recently started to decline. This celebrated small decline was first announced by the National Cancer Institute in late 1996, but a careful retrospective review of the data indicated that the per capita cancer death rate peaked in 1991 and has ever so slowly declined thereafter. What was the reason for this decline? Not improved cancer treatments, but cancer prevention itself emerges as the cause for this good news. A national commitment to the prevention of cancer, largely replacing reliance on hopes for universal cures.


REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1887

INTRODUCTION

WHAT IS CANCER?
Carcinoma:  Malignant tumor
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancerous cells are also called malignant cells. 

These are some factors which are responsible for cancer:

  • Benzene and other chemicals
  • Drinking excess alcohol
  • Environmental toxins, such as certain poisonous mushrooms and a type of poison that can grow on peanut plants (aflatoxins)
  • Excessive sunlight exposure
  • Genetic problems
  • Obesity
  • Radiation
  • Viruses

However, the cause of many cancers remains unknown.


TYPES OF CANCER

The three most common cancers in men in the United States are:

  • Prostate cancer
  • Lung cancer
  • Colon cancer

The three most common cancers in women in the United States are:

  • Breast cancer
  • Colon cancer
  • Lung cancer

Some cancers are more common in certain parts of the world. For example, in Japan, there are many cases of stomach cancer, but in the United States, this type of cancer is pretty rare. Differences in diet may play a role.

Some other types of cancers include:

  • Brain cancer
  • Cervical cancer
  • Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Kidney cancer
  • Leukemia
  • Liver cancer
  • Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Skin cancer
  • Testicular cancer
  • Thyroid cancer
  • Uterine cancer

SYMPTOMS
Cancer is often curable if detected early enough. Unfortunately, many patients are not mindful of the importance of early detection.

Some cancers may not have any symptoms at all. In certain cancers, such as pancreatic cancer, symptoms often do not start until the disease has reached an advanced stage.    

The following symptoms can occur with most cancers:

  • Chills
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Malaise
  • Night sweats
  • Weight loss

7 WARNING SIGNALS OF CANCER
1. A change in bowel or bladder habits

2. A sore that does not heal

3. Unusual bleeding or discharge

4. Thickening or a lump in the breast or elsewhere

5. Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing

6. Obvious change in a wart or mole

7. Nagging cough or hoarsness

SIGNS AND TESTS
Like symptoms, the signs of cancer vary based on the type and location of the tumor. Common tests include the following:

  • Biopsy of the tumor
  • Blood tests (which look for chemicals such as tumor markers)
  • Bone marrow biopsy (for lymphoma or leukemia)
  • Chest x-ray
  • Complete blood count (CBC
  • CT scan
  • MRI scan

Most cancers are diagnosed by biopsy. Depending on the location of the tumor, the biopsy may be a simple procedure or a serious operation. Most patients with cancer have CT scans to determine the exact location and size of the tumor or tumors.

A cancer diagnosis is difficult to cope with. It is important, however, that you discuss the type, size, and location of the cancer with your doctor when you are diagnosed. You also will want to ask about treatment options, along with their benefits and risks.

It's a good idea to have someone with you at the doctor's office to help you get through the diagnosis. If you have trouble asking questions after hearing about your diagnosis, the person you bring with you can ask them for you.

TREATMENT
Treatment varies based on the type of cancer and its stage. The stage of a cancer refers to how much it has grown and whether the tumor has spread from its original location.

  • If the cancer is confined to one location and has not spread, the most common treatment approach is surgery to cure the cancer. This is often the case with skin cancers, as well as cancers of the lung, breast, and colon.
  • If the tumor has spread to local lymph nodes only, sometimes these can be removed.
  • If surgery cannot remove all of the cancer, the options for treatment include radiation, chemotherapy, or both. Some cancers require a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy.
  • Lymphoma, or cancer of the lymph glands, is rarely treated with surgery. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are most often used to treat lymphoma.

Although treatment for cancer can be difficult, there are many ways to keep up your strength.

If you have radiation treatment, know that:

  • Radiation treatment is painless.
  • Treatment is usually scheduled every weekday.
  • You should allow 30 minutes for each treatment session, although the treatment itself usually takes only a few minutes.
  • You should get plenty of rest and eat a well-balanced diet during the course of your radiation therapy.
  • Skin in the treated area may become sensitive and easily irritated.
  • Side effects of radiation treatment are usually temporary. They vary depending on the area of the body that is being treated.

If you are going through chemotherapy, you should eat right. Chemotherapy causes your immune system to weaken, so you should avoid people with colds or the flu. You should also get plenty of rest, and don't feel as though you have to accomplish tasks all at once.

It will help you to talk with family, friends, or a support group about your feelings. Work with your health care providers throughout your treatment. Helping yourself can make you feel more in control.

Expectations (prognosis)
The outlook depends on the type of cancer. Even among people with one type of cancer, the outcome varies depending on the stage of the tumor when they are diagnosed.

Some cancers can be cured. Other cancers that are not curable can still be treated well. Some patients can live for many years with their cancer. Other tumors are quickly life-threatening.

Complications
One complication is that the cancer may spread. Other complications vary with the type and stage of the tumor. Contact your health care provider if you develop symptoms of cancer.

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


 

Pages

FIND MORE ARTICLES