AN OVERVIEW ON DYSLEXIA: DEVELOPMENTAL READING DISORDER

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About Author:
Snigdha Mishra
Department of Pharmacology, Sunder Deep Pharmacy College,
NH-24 Dasna, Sunder Deep Nagar Ghaziabad,
U.P., India-201001
snigdha2112@gmail.com

Abstract
Dyslexia is a neurological condition manifesting in children, who typically are average in intelligence, struggling academically. This tends to be confounding for parents who, based on their child's aptitude and general abilities in regard to problem solving, and should be able to read without too much difficulty but, nonetheless, they tend to struggle. Unfortunately, sometimes these children are labeled as "lazy" when, in fact, they tend to be working more diligently than other children to "keep up." Here we are having a brief about cause, symptoms, classification, positive aspects and management strategy to cope up with the children bearing this disorder.

REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1936

Introduction
Dyslexia is the most recognized of brain-based type of learning disability reading disorders. It is characterized by difficulty with learning to read fluently and with accurate comprehension despite normal intelligence.1, 2 These individuals typically read at levels significantly lower than expected despite having normal intelligence. Although the disorder varies from person to person, common characteristics among people with dyslexia is difficulty with phonological processing (the manipulation of sounds), spelling, and/or rapid visual-verbal responding. In individuals with adult onset of dyslexia, it usually occurs as a result of brain injury or in the context of dementia; this contrasts with individuals with dyslexia who simply were never identified as children or adolescents.  Dyslexia can be inherited in some families, and recent studies have identified a number of genes that may predispose an individual to developing dyslexia.

Dyslexia was identified by Oswald Berkhan in1881.3But the term Dyslexia was coined in 1887 by Rudolf Berlin, who was an Ophthalmologist in Stuttgart.4 Dyslexia, is a neurological condition manifesting in children, who typically are average in intelligence, struggling academically. This tends to be confounding for parents who, based on their child's aptitude and general abilities in regard to problem solving, should be able to read without too much difficulty but, nonetheless, they tend to struggle. Unfortunately, sometimes these children are labeled as "lazy" when, in fact, they tend to be working more diligently than other children to "keep up." Students who are evaluated by the School Psychologist may demonstrate a "discrepancy" between ability and achievement in that, typically they are, as described above, average or near-average in intelligence but performing well below grade level. However, often the ‘discrepancy’ is not significant enough to meet criteria for special education until at least third grade. These children may struggle with spelling in regard to "phonic" spelling errors (spelling words the way they sound) as well as difficulties with visual tracking. They tend to write letters and number backwards and have confusion over left/right differentiation. Spelling errors are also a common manifestation and they may demonstrate "jumbled" spellings in which all of the correct letters are present but in the wrong order. Children with dyslexia tend to rely on visual memory but, unfortunately, struggle in that regard relative to spelling and reading capacity.

Classification of Dyslexia
There are three proposed cognitive subtypes of dyslexia (auditory, visual and attentional), although individual cases of dyslexia are better explained by specific underlying neuropsychological deficits and co-occurring learning disabilities e.g.attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, math disability, etc.5-8

Castles and Coltheart describe phonological and surface types of developmental dyslexia by analogy to classical subtypes ofalexia (acquired dyslexia) which are classified according to the rate of errors in reading non-words.9,10 However, the distinction between surface and phonological dyslexia has not replaced the old empirical terminology of dysphonetic versus dyseidetic types of dyslexia.11 The dysphonetic/dyseidetic distinction refers to two different mechanisms; one that relates to a speech discrimination deficit, and another that relates to a visual perception impairment.

Sign and symptoms

  • Delays in speech12
  • Letter reversal or mirror writing(soiled/solid, left/felt)13, 14
  • Being easily distracted by background noise15
  • Difficulty identifying or generating rhyming words, or counting syllables in words (phonological awareness),16
  • A difficulty segmenting words into individual sounds, or blending sounds to make words17
  • Commonly very poor spelling (Orthographic coding)18
  • Trouble with summarizing a story, memorizing, reading aloud, and learning a foreign language19
  • A common misconception about dyslexia is that dyslexic readers write words backwards or move letters around when reading – this only occurs in a very small population of dyslexic readers20
  • Avoids reading aloud
  • Trouble with word problems
  • Difficulty with handwriting
  • Awkward, fist-like, or tight pencil grip
  • Slow or poor recall of facts
  • Difficulty making friends
  • Delay in learning tasks such as tying shoes & telling time
  • Inattentiveness; distractibility
  • Inability to follow directions
  • Left-right confusion
  • Difficulty learning the alphabet, times tables, words of songs or rhymes
  • Poor playground skills
  • Difficulty learning to read
  • Mixing the order of letters or numbers while reading or writing


Why Dyslexia is gift?
Dyslexia people are highly creative, intuitive and excel at three dimensional problem solving and hands on learning. Their visual and holistic learning style means that they learn best through the creative processes, with methods that focus on mastery of meanings of words and symbols. The true gift of dyslexia is the gift of mastery. When they use learning methods that fit their thinking style, they can excel in academics and read and write efficiently. Children with dyslexia may struggle with reading but, by the same token, they have numerous strengths including being quite creative, physically athletic, and empathetic, given their plight. They may excel in various vocations including in the creative arts, personnel service, customer advice, as well as sports management and training.

Some famous Dyslexic’s personalities

Albert Einstein(Genius) was a German theoretical physicist, author and one of the most influential scientists.

Steve Jobs was the best known cofounder and the CEO of Apple, a computer and telecommunication company.

Alexander Flaudy became the youngest undergraduate at Cambridge in over 200years at the age of 15yrs.

Tom Cruise is an American actor who has many leading roles in popular films throughout the two decades.

Leonardo Da Vinci an Italian inventor is truly one of the original Renaissance man.

Thomas Edison a great scientist who invented light bulb.


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