You are hereArticles

Articles


SMOKING-HAZARDOUS TO OUR HEALTH: ‘AN OVERVIEW’

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Babu Lal
Department of Pharmacy,
Tirupati College of Polytechnic & Pharmacy,
Sardulgarh Road, Ratia, Dist. Fatehabad (Haryana), Pin-125051
lab_85@rediffmail.com

Abstract:
The word of smoking, drinking smoke is very famous all over the globe. The practice of Dhumrapana is commonin human beings from the last two thousand year’s to induce consciousness. Soon, the recreational use of tobacco became a part of the elite culture throughout the world and shows remarkable value in large scale productivity (multibillion dollar business)[1]. Botanically, tobacco is achieved from the dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum Linn (var.macrophyll, N. chinensis Fisch), commercially cultivated on small scale tolarge extent in China, United States and India. The tobacco contains pyridine-piperidine type of alkaloids, among which the most prominent is nicotine. Nicotine, well known as natural botanical insecticide weighs 0.6-3.0% of dried leaves which is synthesized in roots and accumulated in the leaves. Smoking was practiced by early priests to diagnose, heal the bizarrepersons and to fend off evil spirits. As time passes, smoking tobacco becomes more than just a ritualistic comportment. However, the pattern has now been endorsed to the growing numbers of ailments, birth defects, and deaths. Worldwide, approximate 4.9 million and alone in United State (US), smoking is the reason for 434,000 deaths per year [2] and every day14,000 peoples diebecause of smoking-related diseases. Today, medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading sources of lung cancer, heart attacks, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), and erectile dysfunctionand can also lead to teratogenic effect. Moreover, active smokers are not the only ones in severe danger but people lives around them, bystander’s or passive smoker affected much more accumulating the health-related effect brought about by the emitted dangerous chemicals (smoke) from a cigar or cigarettes. In fact, 33 percent of the nonsmoker population in the US is exposed with environmental cocktail of tobacco smoke [3].


DRUG THERAPY PROBLEMS: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Languluri Reddenna1*, Sree Nagavalli K2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, S.J.M College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India-577502
*reddennapharmd@gmail.com

Abstract
The improper use of drugs can leads to patient morbidity and even mortality. Drug therapy problems are the clinical territory of the pharmaceutical care practitioner and the resolution of identifying drug therapy problems help patients to achieve their goals of therapy and understand the best possible outcomes from drug therapy. To identify, resolve and prevention of drug therapy problems, the practitioner must understand how patients with drug therapy problems present in the clinical setting. Stating the problem and identifying the cause requires involves clinical judgment by the practitioner. All patient problems involving medications can be categorized into seven types. These include all side effects, toxic reactions, treatment failures, or the need for additive, synergistic, or preventive medications, as well as noncompliance. During 2002, there were 3.3 billion prescriptions dispensed from community pharmacies throughout the United States and over 44,000 hospitalized patients die each year resulting from medical errors. Recent research, on drug-related problems and adverse drug reactions has identified several categories of risk factors that may be used to identify patients who are susceptible to drug related problems and adverse drug reactions. It is essential that practitioners who intend to provide pharmaceutical care understand the descriptions and identification of each type of drug therapy problem as well as their common causes. Continuous referral to the seven categories of drug therapy problems ensures that a consistent, rational, comprehensive, and effective care plan can be established for even the most complicated patient.


MICROSPHERES AS HYDRODYNAMICALLY BALANCE SYSTEM

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Rohit Kumar Ahuja*1, Surendra Singh Saurabh1, Poonam Choudhary1, Aniket Singh Chouhan1, Kamal Singh Rathore2
1 Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology (Pharmacy Wing) Sector-A, Shastrinagar, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342003, IND.
2 BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur (Raj.) 313002, India
rohitahuja1111@gmail.com

Abstract:
To build up an oral drug delivery system, it is essential to optimize both release rate of drug and residence time of system within gastrointestinal tract. In oral path difference in gastric physiology such as gastric pH and motility display variability on gastric residence time (GRT) and drug delivery actions. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT including hydrodynamic balance systems (HBS), swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bioadhesive systems, high-density systems, modified-shape systems and other delayed gastric emptying devices.One such approach is Floating Microspheres (Hollow Microspheres). Floating microspheres are gastro-retentive drug delivery systems based on non-effervescent approach. These microspheres are characteristically free flowing powders made of proteins or synthetic polymers, ideally having a size less than 200 micrometer. Gastro-retentive floating microspheres are low-density systems that have sufficient buoyancy to float over gastric contents and remain in stomach for prolonged period. The drug is released slowly at desired rate resulting in increased gastric retention with reduced fluctuations in plasma drug concentration. Floating microspheres improve patient compliance by decreasing dosing frequency and better therapeutic effect of short half-life drugs can be achieved. Floating microspheres are characterized by their micromeritic properties such as particle size, tapped density, compressibility index, true density and flow properties including angle of repose, scanning electron microscopy, in vitro floatability studies, in vitro drug release studies and stability studies etc.


AN INSIGHT TO IN-SITU GEL FORMING STOMACH SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Deepak Kumar*, Palak Kapoor
Shoolini University,
Solan, Himachal Pradesh
deepakkaushik354@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The oral delivery of drugs having narrow absorption window in the gastro-intestinal tract is limited by poor bioavailability with conventional dosage forms due to incomplete drug release and short residence time at the time of absorption. To provide controlled delivery of drugs novel drug delivery systems have been developed. Different systems have been developed to increase the gastric residence time viz. floating system, mucoadhesive, high density, expandable. Among all oral dosage forms, liquid orals are more prone to low bioavailability due to fast transit time from stomach to duodenum. Sustained/Controlled delivery can be achieved by decrease in the transit time of the dosage form. This can be augmented by an approach of liquid in-situ gelling system. These in-situ formulations are the drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but when administered, undergo gelation, in-situ, to form a gel. Formation of gel depends on various factors viz. temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions, ultra-violet irradiation, from which drug releases in a sustained and controlled fashion. Different polymers which can be used for formation of in-situ gel include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly-caprolactone, poly-lactic acid, poly-lactic-co-glycolide. This article presents a detailed review of introduction, approaches to achieve in situ gelling system, polymers used, evaluation parameters, advantages of in situ gelling system.


MANAGEMENT OF ASTHMA: ROLE OF CLINICAL PHARMACIST

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Languluri Reddenna1*, Sree Nagavalli K2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, S.J.M College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India-577502
*reddennapharmd@gmail.com

Abstract
Asthma is one of the common diseases. Asthma was a term used by the ancient Greeks to describe any condition that causes shortness of breath. Early warning signs are breathing changes, sneezing, moodiness, headache, runny/stuffy nose, coughing, chin or throat itches, feeling tired, dark circles under eyes, trouble sleeping. Asthma creates an extensive burden on individuals and families, as it is more often under-diagnosed and under-treated. World Health Organization estimates that 300 million people suffer from asthma, 2, 55, 000 people died of asthma in 2005 and over 80% of Asthma deaths were reported from low and lower-middle income countries. In India, an estimated 57,000 deaths were attributed to asthma in 2004 and it is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in rural India. India had an estimated 15-20 million asthmatics. It was estimated that the number of people with asthma would grow by more than 100 million by 2025.As members of the health care team, pharmacists are in an excellent position to recognize patients who are not under the care of a physician or whose asthma will poorly controlled for a variety of reasons. Particular resources are provided to improve the care of disadvantaged groups with high morbidity, including certain racial groups and those who are poorly educated, live in large cities, or are poor and to address preventable factors, such as air pollution, that trigger exacerbations of Asthma.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PROLONGED RELEASE TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF ATENOLOL FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vijay Sarkar*, Kailash Chand Yadav
Regional College of Pharmacy, Sitapura,
Jaipur, Rajasthan 302022, India
vijaysarkarcipla@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate controlled and prolonged release transdermal drug delivery system of atenolol for effective management of hypertension. The administration of atenolol via transdermal patch facilitates a direct entry of drug molecules into the systemic circulation, avoiding the first-pass metabolism and drug degradation in the harsh gastrointestinal environment, which are often associated with oral administration.To fulfill above objective transdermal patches of atenolol were prepared by solvent evaporation method using combinations of Eudragit RL100, Ethyl cellulose and PVP in different proportions. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, water vapour transmission and tensile strength were evaluated. In-vitro Diffusion Study, skin irritation test and stability studies were also performed. In PVA and Eudragit RL 100 patches the water vapor transmission rate was found to be higher at 75% RH, RT conditions. Therefore at both % RH, RT conditions the PVA and Eudragit RL 100 patches provide the best resistance to water vapor.


SYNTHESIS AND ANTICANCER ACTIVITY OF FLAVONE DERIVATIVES AGAINST ESTROGEN DEPENDENT CANCERS BY RATIONAL APPROCH

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Vanraj Thakor1*, Jalpa Kher2, Fenil Bhayani1, Bhavini Atodaria1, Malleshappa Noolvi1
1Shree Dhanvantary college of pharmacy, Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India.
2Ashok & Rita Patel institute of Biotechnology, New Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat, India
vanraj7777@gmail.com, jkher3333@gmail.com

Abstract
Aromatase and 17-ßHSD inhibitors are main target of pharmacological interest for the treatment of estrogen dependent cancers. Chalcones, Coumarins, Flavones, Isoflavones have been reported for such inhibition and are used for treatment of brest tumors. So in this topic, Flavone derivatives containing Imidathiadiazole, Thiadiazole, Triazole and benzimidazole hetrocycles synthesised by using simple laboratory reagents like 2-Hydroxy Acetophenone and 4-Hydroxy Benzaldehyde to convert chalcone leads to formation of Flavones by cyclazation using Microwave and followed by attachment of different hetrocycles to form Flavone derivatives and charactrarized by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR spectroscopy and elemantal analysis. These Flavone derivatives found to exhibit moderate to high inhibitory activity against Estrogen dependent cancers.


HERBS & SPICES: TO EMBELLISH THERAPEUTICALLY FOR HEALTHCARE

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Priyanka Singh1, Nidhi Gauba Dhawan2, Raaz K Maheshwari*3
1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Maharishi Dayanand University,
 Rohtak, Haryana, India
2
Amity Institute of Environmental Sciences, Amity University, Noida, UP, India
3
Department of Chemistry, SBRM Govt PG College, Nagaur, Rajasthan, India
*rkmgreenchemacs.jaipur@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Throughout many periods of history, spices have claimed attention for their mystical properties, either through ingesting or inhaling. What mankind has done throughout time to creatively enhance or elevate the perception of his existence is a fascinating subject. Historically spices have enjoyed a rich tradition of use for their flavor-enhancement characteristics and for their medicinal properties. The rising prevalence of chronic diseases world-wide and the corresponding rise in health care costs is propelling interest among researchers and the public for these food related items for multiple health benefits, including a reduction in cancer risk and modification of tumor behavior.  
Since time immemorial, spices have played a vital role in world trade, due to their varied properties and applications. We primarily depend on spices for flavor and fragrance as well as color, preservative and inherent medicinal qualities. Spices are botanically classified as fruits and vegetables. And since they no longer contain the water that makes up a significant part of the fresh produce, spices offer an even higher level of antioxidants. In addition, spices also are rich in phytonutrients, such as carotenoids, flavonoids and other phenolics, all of which possess health-promoting properties. In this article, therapeutic significance of exotic herbs and spices, due to antioxidants and various other phytochemicals occurring in them, is delineated precisely.


A REVIEW ON ANTI-HIV ACTIVITIES OF COMPOUNDS ISOLATED FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT AND ADVANTAGE OF PLANT TISSUE CULTURE IN DEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-HIV MEDICINAL PLANTS

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
1
Amita Pandey,2Dr. Shalini Tripathi
1
Research student of Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (U.P.)
2
Professor of Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (U.P.)
pandey.amita2012@gmail.com

Abstract
The AIDS pandemic is one of the most disastrous health and development issue in our world today. Tissue culturing of medicinal plants is widely used to produce active compounds for herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Natural products provide a large reservoir for screening of anti-HIV agents with novel structure and anti-viral mechanism because of their structural diversity. This work reviews in vitro micro propagation techniques and gives examples of various commercially important medicinal plants. Advantages-To produce many copies in any time of the same plants then which may be used to produce plants with better flowers, odour’s, fruits or any other properties of the plants that is beneficial to the human beings. Conclusion- HIV is the most common untreated word wide disease in now a days and Plant tissue culture is most important technique for growing new plant species in proper aseptic condition which are useful for the cure of HIV. Acknowledgement- I would like to record my gratitude to my esteemed respected guide Dr. (Prof.) ShaliniTripathi, Department of Pharmacy, Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management


PLUERAL EFFUSION-DISEASE OF LUNGS

ABOUT AUTHOR
Akshay Rajgaria
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences.
Rourkela, Orissa
akshaykrish2007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Pleural effusion
is excess fluid that accumulates between the two pleural layers, the fluid-filled space that surrounds the lungs. Excessive amounts of such fluid can impair breathing by limiting the expansion of the lungs during ventilation.