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Department of pharmacology
Teegala Ram Reddy College of Pharmacy
Hyderabad (AP), 500097.
Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is an infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu strictois the main cause of Lyme disease in North America, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii cause most European cases. The disease is named after the towns of Lyme and Old Lyme, Connecticut, US, where a number of cases were identified in 1975. Although it was known that Lyme disease was a tick-borne disease as far back as 1978, the cause of the disease remained a mystery until 1981, when B. burgdorferi was identified by Willy Burgdorfer.
Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Borrelia is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks belonging to a few species of the genus Ixodes ("hard ticks"). Early symptoms may include fever, headache, fatigue, depression, and a characteristic circular skin rash called erythema migrans (EM). Left untreated, later symptoms may involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system. In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated by antibiotics, especially if the illness is treated early. Delayed or inadequate treatment can lead to more serious symptoms, which can be disabling and difficult to treat.
Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Andropause is an age-related decline of testosterone in men that is gaining recognition as the world population becomes more aged. The diagnosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms supported with laboratory confirmation of low serum testosterone levels. The benefit of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for andropause has been well documented, but it requires careful monitoring.
*Govind shukla1, Ms.Shivani prashar2, Ms. M.sarika3, Dr. Sunil Yadav4
1M.Pharm(Ph.D), Product Manager
2Sr. Product Executive, Shrey Nutraceuticals Pvt. Ltd. NewDelhi
3Product Analyst, Lactonova India Hyderabad
4Medical officer-in–charge, BPHC Bamore JHANSI U.P.
Nutrition before and during pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life. Prenatal nutrition addresses nutrient recommendations before and during pregnancy. Birth weight of the newborn at delivery reflects the sufficiency and the quality of maternal nutrient for the fetus during pregnancy. Prenatal nutrition has a strong influence on birth weight and further development of the infant.The present paper reviews the role of prenatal nutrition in pregnancy.
Khandelwal Pankaj, Chirag Sudani*, Parmar Jatin, Prashant Sanghavi, Shifalee Magazine
Mahatma Gandhi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
This review paper highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control and regulatory aspects of Phytopharmaceuticals. The growing use of Phytopharmaceuticals (drug and other products derived from plants) by the public is forcing moves to evaluate the health claims of these agents and to develop standards of quality and manufacture. At present there is almost no policy worth its name to regulate the procurement and sale of medicinal plants in developing countries. Finally, the trend in the domestication, production and biotechnological studies and genetic improvement of medicinal plants, instead of the use of plants harvested in the wild, will offer great advantages, since it will be possible to obtain uniform and high quality raw materials which are fundamental to the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs.It is clear that the herbal industry needs to follow strict guidelines and that regulations are needed. This paper presents the element of methods of different aspects on efficacy, safety, quality control and standardization of herbal drugs and formulation. It is followed by international guidelines of WHO for manufacture quality control and evaluation of botanicals. Herbal drugs regulations in India is discussed in detail, followed by an overview of regulatory status of herbal medicine in USA, China, Australia, Brazil, Canada and Germany.
G. Sowjanya*, P. Ramaa Bharathi, Dr.A.M.S.Sudhakar Babu
A.M.Reddy memorial college of pharmacy,
Film coating technology is now a days very important in the field of pharmacy particularly in formulation development. In the last 25 years tablet coating has undergone several fundamental changes. Many modifications were advocated to improve the basic process and film coating chosen in place of sugar coating. Film coating is the process whereby a tablet, capsule, or pellet is surrounded by a thin layer of polymeric material. Tablet film coating is performed by two types, one is aqueous film coating (generally water is used as a solvent) and non aqueous film coating (generally organic solvent are used). Film coating formulations usually contain Polymer, Plasticizer, Colourants / Opacifiers, Solvent / Vehicle. Many film coating materials have functional properties which enable the creation of sustained or delayed (enteric) release dosage forms. Coating solution composition may affect the quality of final coated tablets. Optimization of composition of film coating solution is also required. This article discusses tablet coating process, film coating, process parameters, film coating advantages and applications, components of film coating, evaluation of film coated tablets, film defects etc.
NOVEL RP-HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF LOSARTAN POTASSIUM AND AMLODIPINE DRUGS IN PURE AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
1Kumari Jyothsna*, 2N.Chandana
1,2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance,
Nimra College of Pharmacy, Jupudi, Vijayawada, A.P, India
A fast, robust and accurate RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Losartan potassium and Amlodipine in tablets. The mobile phase was mixture of aqueous Tri ethyl amine with pH 2.0 and Acetonitrile(70:30), effluent flow rate monitored at 1.0 ml/min. the stationary phase was C18 column, 3µm(4.6×250mm). The solutions of standard and the sample were prepared in methanol. The retention times was found to be 2.916min and 5.214min for Losartan potassium and Amlodipine respectively at 246nm. Calibration graphs constructed at their wavelengths of determination were linear in the concentration range of 50-150µg/ml. The percentage assay for Losartan potassium and Amlodipine were found to be 101% and 100%respectively. The method was validated and it was found to be accurate, precise, linear and reproducible as per ICH guidelines.
A SHORT REVIEW ON- COMMON PLANTS WITH THEIR EXTRAORDINARY BENEFICIAL EFFECT ON THE TREATMENT OF DIABETES MELLITUS
Department of Pharmacology
NSHM Knowledge Campus, Kolkata Group of Institution,
124 B.L. Saha Road, Kolkata –700053, West Bengal, India.
Herbal medicines derived from medicinal plants are used by about 60% of the world’s population. This review focuses on some medicinally rich plants used in the treatment of diabetes worldwide. Diabetes is an important metabolic disorder and at present, approximately 18-20 million people are diabetic in India. Diabetic complications like nephropathy, retinopathy, coronary artery disease, stroke, Peripheral vascular disease etc are affected more rapidly not in mega-city but also urban area in India. Cost of the treatment of these complications are also hiked day by day. Insulin and Oral hypoglycemic agents which are marketed for diabetes are costly than herbal medicine and it is very difficult to bear for urban people. In this paper medicinal plants with proven antidiabetic and related beneficial effects used in treatment of diabetes are discussed. These Plants are Emblica officinalis ,Azadirachta indica, Allium sativum, Annona squamosa, Aegle marmelos, Elephantopus scaber, Musa Paradisiaca, Andrographis Paniculata, Mangifera indica.
A NOVEL RP- HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ATORVASTATIN AND FENOFIBRATE IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS
1Vinjam Swathi* 2Nanda Kishore Agarwal
1M pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Nimra College of Pharmacy, Jupudi, Vijayawada, A.P, India
2Professor and head of the department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Nimra College Of Pharmacy, Jupudi, Ibrahimpatnam, Vijayawada, A.P, India
The present investigation describes about a simple, economic, selective, accurate, precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous estimation of Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate in pure and pharmaceutical dosage forms. Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate were well separated using a Thermohypersil BDS C18column of dimension 100 × 4.6, 5µm and Mobile phase consisting of Methanol: Water (Adjusted with orthophosphoric acid to pH-2) in the ratio of 40:60v/v at the flow rate 1 ml/min and the detection was carried out at 274nm with PDA detector. The Retention time for Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate were found to be 1.438, 2.949 respectively. The developed method was validated for recovery, specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity according to ICH guidelines. The method was successfully applied to Atorvastatin and Fenofibrate combination pharmaceutical dosage form.
Deepti Soni*, Rathore KS1, Nema RK2
*College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Behrampur, Orissa
1BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur, Raj.
2Rishiraj College of Pharmacy, Indore-MP
A prodrug is a pharmacological substance (drug) that is administered in an inactive (or significantly less active) form. Once administered, the prodrug is metabolised in vivo into an active metabolite (Wadhwa LK, 1994). Almost all drugs possess some undesirable physiochemical and biological properties. Their therapeutic efficacy can be improved by minimizing or eliminating the undesirable properties while retaining the desirable ones. This can be achieved through biological, physical or chemical means (Loe A, 1971, Balant LP, E Doelker, et al., 1990, Jha V, 1995).
The biological approach is to alter the route of administration, which may or may not be acceptable to the patient.
The physical approach is to modify the design of the dosage form such as controlled delivery of drugs.
The chemical approach is the best approach in enhancing drug selectivity and minimizing the toxicity.
FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PHYTOSOMES LOADED WITH GENISTIN-SOYBEAN PHOSPHOLIPID COMPLEX DEVELOPED FOR DRUG DELIVERY
Aniket Singh*, Poonam Sain, Rekha Singh Saurabh1, Surendra Singh, Kamal Singh Rathore1
*Department of Pharmaceutics, Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology (Pharmacy Wing), Shastri Nagar, Jodhpur, 342003 (Raj.), INDIA.
1B.N. Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur-Raj.313002 INDIA
Phytosomes of soy-isoflavones (genistin/daidzin) was formulated to provide good bioavailability for treatment of cancer associated with skin and prostate etc. There are many dosage forms like tablet, capsules, liposomes etc. of isoflavones having anticancer activity available in market but still need for a new dosage form which acts effectively with better bioavailable dose. So the present investigation has been taken up to design, prepare and evaluate phytosomes to meet need of bioavailability and local action. Benefits of this phytosomes showed increase in bioavailability, reduction in gastric irritation by passing first pass metabolism and increase onset of action. Phytosomes were prepared using lecithin as phospholipid and ethanol, acetone etc as solvent system. All formulations were subjected to physic-chemical evaluation. Selected were subjected to stability studies, spectroscopic and biological evaluations.