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A REVIEW ON ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF RICINUS COMMUNIS LINN.

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About Authors:
KM. Preeti*, Ansu Bala Verma
Department of Pharmacology, Rameshwaram institute of technology and management,
Lucknow- 227202,  India
preeti30sept@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In recent years, Ricinus communis Linn. has become a subject of interest because of its beneficial effects on human health. The present ethnopharmacological review was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic properties of  Ricinus communis by scientific evidences. It belongs to the family Euphobiaceae, which is commonly known as castor. Ricinus communis is found thoughout the hotter parts of India. This plant is extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathic and Allopathic system of medicine as cathartic. Traditionally  this plant is used as laxative, purgative, fertilizer and fungicides etc. whereas the plant possess beneficial effects as antioxidant, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, CNS stimulant, antidiabetic, insecticidal, larvicidal, antinociceptive, antiasthmatic, antiulcer, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, lipolytic, wound healing and central analgesic and many other medicinal properties. The extracts or the isolated compounds of this plant have been found to have potent activity against various ailments. The aim of present article is to explore the pharmacological or medicinal importance of the plant Ricinus communis linn.


FUTURISTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM MICROEMULSIONS : A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shingitha K.P
Department of Pharmacy
Noida Institute Of Engineering And Technology Greater NOIDA, G.B Nagar
shingithanair@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Recently microemulsion have attracted great attention as they help to optimize efficiency of wide range of products and processes. Microemulsion are isotropic, thermodynamically stable multicomponent fluids which is composed of water, oil, surfactant or cosurfactant where the diameter of the droplet of the microemulsion is in the range of 100 Å TO 1000 Å. Microemulsion are unique class of optically transparent (translucent) solution which comprises of the colloidal system that are attracting many scientific and technological interest past few decades.This interest is due to their properties like ultra low interfacial tension, large interfacial tension and solubilization capacity of both oil and water soluble drugs.


SURFACTANTS: BASICS AND VERSATILITY IN FOOD INDUSTRIES

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About Authors:
Dr.Rakesh K. Sharma
M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Applied Chemistry Department,
Faculty of Technology & Engineering,
The M. S. University of Baroda,
Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
rksharmamsu@gmail.com

Abstract
Surfactant, as an abbreviation of “surface active agent”, is an organic compound that is amphiphilic comprising both hydrophilic groups(commonly referred to as “polar heads”) and hydrophobic groups(“nonpolar tails”). Based on the electron charges of the polar head parts, surfactants are classified as anionic, cationic, nonionic, zwitterionic. Many other pecular class of compounds also categorized in the types of gemini, cyclodextrin based, polymeric surfactants etc. Due to their some interesting properties such as nontoxicity, higher rate of biodegradability, high foaming capacity and optimal activity at extreme conditions like temperatures, pH and salinity, surfactants have been increasingly attracting the attention of the scientific and industrial community. Biocompatible, biodegradable, and/or nontoxic emulsion-based formulations of surfactants have great potential for applications in the food preparation and processing. Basics of surfactants and mainly there way of utility as food emulsifiers in food industries is thoroughly discussed.


BENZIMIDAZOLE DERIVATIVES AND ITS BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vishwanadham Yerragunta*1, 2, Pratima patil2, S. Srujana2, Roopa Devi2, R.Gayathri1, Srujana1, Aary Divya2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sitha Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vishnu Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Narsapur, Medak, Andhra Pradesh.
vishwanadham.y@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Benzimidazole is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. This bicyclic compound consists of the fusion of benzene and imidazole. Heterocyclic compounds are occupied prominent place among various class of aromatic organic compounds. Benzimidazole are having a variety of therapeutic uses including antitumor, antifungal, antiparasitic, analgesics, antiviral, antihistamine, as well as use in cardiovascular disease, neurology, endocrinology, and ophthalmology.


VON HIPPEL-LINDAU (VHL) SYNDROME: A CRITICAL INSIGHT

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About Authors:
Tapan Behl*, Ishneet Kaur, Puneet Sudan, Monika Sharma, Dr. Heena Goel
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology,
Doaba Group of Colleges, Kharar, Mohali
tapanbehl31@gmail.com

Abstract:
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is a rare genetic neoplastic disorder, arising from germline mutations in the VHL gene, characterized by the development of visceral cysts, specific benign and malignant tumors in multiple organ systems that have subsequent potential for spiteful change. It is caused by point mutations or deletions in a tumor suppressor gene. A tumor suppressor gene is the one which keeps cells from growing and dividing too rapidly in an uncontrolled way. Mutations in this gene prevent production of the VHL protein or lead to the production of an abnormal version of the protein. An altered or missing VHL protein cannot effectively regulate cell survival and division. As a result, cells grow and divide uncontrollably to form tumors and cysts that are characteristic of Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Although there is great variation in the clinical presentation, those who have a mutated gene are at greatly increased risk of developing spinal hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), retinal hemangioblastoma, cerebellar  hemangioblastoma, pheochromocytoma, pancreatic and renal cysts, endolymphatic  sac tumors, hemangiomas of the adrenals, liver and lungs, and papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis or broad ligament. The age at which the tumors present ranges from early childhood to the seventh decade of life. Early diagnosis, screening of family members and lifelong surveillance of VHL patients is recommended.


BRIEF CONCEPT OF VALIDATION & CALIBRATION

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About Authors:
Nirav.R. Soni
M.Pharm, A-One Pharmacy College,
Anasan, Ahmedabad-382330, India
nirav_sonic@yahoo.com

Abstract:
Validation is a important part of Analytical as well as Bio-Analytical Method. The procedures involved in checking data or programs for correctness, compliance with standards and conformance with the requirement specifications. It  is establishing documented evidence, which provides high degree assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its predetermined specification and quality characteristics. Calibration is totally differ from Validation But it is an integral part of validation.


SMOKING-HAZARDOUS TO OUR HEALTH: ‘AN OVERVIEW’

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About Authors:
Babu Lal
Department of Pharmacy,
Tirupati College of Polytechnic & Pharmacy,
Sardulgarh Road, Ratia, Dist. Fatehabad (Haryana), Pin-125051
lab_85@rediffmail.com

Abstract:
The word of smoking, drinking smoke is very famous all over the globe. The practice of Dhumrapana is commonin human beings from the last two thousand year’s to induce consciousness. Soon, the recreational use of tobacco became a part of the elite culture throughout the world and shows remarkable value in large scale productivity (multibillion dollar business)[1]. Botanically, tobacco is achieved from the dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum Linn (var.macrophyll, N. chinensis Fisch), commercially cultivated on small scale tolarge extent in China, United States and India. The tobacco contains pyridine-piperidine type of alkaloids, among which the most prominent is nicotine. Nicotine, well known as natural botanical insecticide weighs 0.6-3.0% of dried leaves which is synthesized in roots and accumulated in the leaves. Smoking was practiced by early priests to diagnose, heal the bizarrepersons and to fend off evil spirits. As time passes, smoking tobacco becomes more than just a ritualistic comportment. However, the pattern has now been endorsed to the growing numbers of ailments, birth defects, and deaths. Worldwide, approximate 4.9 million and alone in United State (US), smoking is the reason for 434,000 deaths per year [2] and every day14,000 peoples diebecause of smoking-related diseases. Today, medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading sources of lung cancer, heart attacks, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), and erectile dysfunctionand can also lead to teratogenic effect. Moreover, active smokers are not the only ones in severe danger but people lives around them, bystander’s or passive smoker affected much more accumulating the health-related effect brought about by the emitted dangerous chemicals (smoke) from a cigar or cigarettes. In fact, 33 percent of the nonsmoker population in the US is exposed with environmental cocktail of tobacco smoke [3].


DRUG THERAPY PROBLEMS: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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About Authors:
Languluri Reddenna1*, Sree Nagavalli K2
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, S.J.M College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India-577502
*reddennapharmd@gmail.com

Abstract
The improper use of drugs can leads to patient morbidity and even mortality. Drug therapy problems are the clinical territory of the pharmaceutical care practitioner and the resolution of identifying drug therapy problems help patients to achieve their goals of therapy and understand the best possible outcomes from drug therapy. To identify, resolve and prevention of drug therapy problems, the practitioner must understand how patients with drug therapy problems present in the clinical setting. Stating the problem and identifying the cause requires involves clinical judgment by the practitioner. All patient problems involving medications can be categorized into seven types. These include all side effects, toxic reactions, treatment failures, or the need for additive, synergistic, or preventive medications, as well as noncompliance. During 2002, there were 3.3 billion prescriptions dispensed from community pharmacies throughout the United States and over 44,000 hospitalized patients die each year resulting from medical errors. Recent research, on drug-related problems and adverse drug reactions has identified several categories of risk factors that may be used to identify patients who are susceptible to drug related problems and adverse drug reactions. It is essential that practitioners who intend to provide pharmaceutical care understand the descriptions and identification of each type of drug therapy problem as well as their common causes. Continuous referral to the seven categories of drug therapy problems ensures that a consistent, rational, comprehensive, and effective care plan can be established for even the most complicated patient.


MICROSPHERES AS HYDRODYNAMICALLY BALANCE SYSTEM

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About Authors:
Rohit Kumar Ahuja*1, Surendra Singh Saurabh1, Poonam Choudhary1, Aniket Singh Chouhan1, Kamal Singh Rathore2
1 Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology (Pharmacy Wing) Sector-A, Shastrinagar, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342003, IND.
2 BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur (Raj.) 313002, India
rohitahuja1111@gmail.com

Abstract:
To build up an oral drug delivery system, it is essential to optimize both release rate of drug and residence time of system within gastrointestinal tract. In oral path difference in gastric physiology such as gastric pH and motility display variability on gastric residence time (GRT) and drug delivery actions. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT including hydrodynamic balance systems (HBS), swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bioadhesive systems, high-density systems, modified-shape systems and other delayed gastric emptying devices.One such approach is Floating Microspheres (Hollow Microspheres). Floating microspheres are gastro-retentive drug delivery systems based on non-effervescent approach. These microspheres are characteristically free flowing powders made of proteins or synthetic polymers, ideally having a size less than 200 micrometer. Gastro-retentive floating microspheres are low-density systems that have sufficient buoyancy to float over gastric contents and remain in stomach for prolonged period. The drug is released slowly at desired rate resulting in increased gastric retention with reduced fluctuations in plasma drug concentration. Floating microspheres improve patient compliance by decreasing dosing frequency and better therapeutic effect of short half-life drugs can be achieved. Floating microspheres are characterized by their micromeritic properties such as particle size, tapped density, compressibility index, true density and flow properties including angle of repose, scanning electron microscopy, in vitro floatability studies, in vitro drug release studies and stability studies etc.


AN INSIGHT TO IN-SITU GEL FORMING STOMACH SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Deepak Kumar*, Palak Kapoor
Shoolini University,
Solan, Himachal Pradesh
deepakkaushik354@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The oral delivery of drugs having narrow absorption window in the gastro-intestinal tract is limited by poor bioavailability with conventional dosage forms due to incomplete drug release and short residence time at the time of absorption. To provide controlled delivery of drugs novel drug delivery systems have been developed. Different systems have been developed to increase the gastric residence time viz. floating system, mucoadhesive, high density, expandable. Among all oral dosage forms, liquid orals are more prone to low bioavailability due to fast transit time from stomach to duodenum. Sustained/Controlled delivery can be achieved by decrease in the transit time of the dosage form. This can be augmented by an approach of liquid in-situ gelling system. These in-situ formulations are the drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but when administered, undergo gelation, in-situ, to form a gel. Formation of gel depends on various factors viz. temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions, ultra-violet irradiation, from which drug releases in a sustained and controlled fashion. Different polymers which can be used for formation of in-situ gel include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly-caprolactone, poly-lactic acid, poly-lactic-co-glycolide. This article presents a detailed review of introduction, approaches to achieve in situ gelling system, polymers used, evaluation parameters, advantages of in situ gelling system.