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A REVIEW ON ELAEOCARPUS SPHAERICUS (RUDRAKSHA)

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shikha Jain*, Kirti Jatwa, Vikas Jain, Avnish Sharma, S.C. Mahajan
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies,
Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India.
*jain.shikhapharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The demand of herbal products is now increasing tremendously in whole across the World especially in India. Elaeocarpus sphaericus (rudraksha), belonging to the family Elaeocarpeaceae is popular in indigenous system of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. Traditionally rudraksha is used for the treatment of various diseases like stress, anxiety, depression, palpitation, nerve pain, and epilepsy, and migraine, lack of concentration, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and liver diseases. Phytochemical study of rudraksha reveals that it contains indolizidine type of Alkaloids. Aqueous extract of leaves contains glycosides also. It also contains minerals, vitamins, steroids,flavanoids. Ethanolic extract of leaves contains gallic acid, ellagic acid & quercetin. This plant has also been proved to be a very good centre for researches for scientists. In the field of research, rudraksha has been found to possess various biological activities like anti-hypertensive, anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity. In view of its wide pharmacological and biological activities, it seems to behaving a great therapeutic potential. The present review aims to present current knowledge of major phyto-constituents, clinical studies with major emphasis on traditional and pharmacological activities.



HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE: AN UPDATE

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About Author:
Amandeep Kaur
Department of Pharmacology, G.H.G Khalsa College of Pharmacy
Gurusar Sadhar, Ludhiana, Punjab, INDIA
amananny2011@gmail.com

Abstract
Huntington's disease is a complex degenerative disorder that affects the central nervous system. Huntington's disease is an autosomal-dominant, progressive neurodegenerative disorder typically presents during mid-life with a distinct phenotype, including chorea and dystonia, incoordination, cognitive decline, and behavioral abnormalities. HD is caused by an expanded CAG repeat in the gene that encodes the protein huntingtin on chromosome 4; this results in progressive atrophy of the striatum as well as cortical and other extra striatal structures. Since 1993, genetic testing has been available to confirm diagnosis in affected adults and for pre-symptomatic testing in at-risk individuals. The review aims majorly on these areas namely: History, etiology, symptoms, pathophysiology, treatment and other aspects of Huntington’s disease.


CEREBRAL AGING AND NEUROLOGICAL DISORDERS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Alok Khunteta1,2, Vikas Pareek2*
1Registrar, Rajasthan Pharmacy Council,
2 Department of Pharmaceutics,
Lal Bahadur Shastri College of Pharmacy,
Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan
* Vikaspareek@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
Age-related cognitive decline is a well-known phenomenon, called by various means such as age-associated memory impairment and age associated cognitive impairment. Since cerebral aging is idiopathic, so due to lack of pure reasons it’s diagnosis is typical and also it’s not being recognized at early ages by person too.  As per the reports by 2050, it is anticipated that Americans aged 65 or older will number nearly 89 million people, or more than double the number of older adults in the United States in 2010, these stats are complementary to global scenario. The review is to collectively cast Cerebral aging with reasons and solutions. The detail of theories regarding cerebral aging and its related deficits is provided. Pharmacological action of both Allopathic and Ayurvedic medicines are illustrated. The role of yoga and pranayam being a quencher of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) thus reducing cerebral aging is also provided further in review.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING FILMS OF RIZATRIPTAN BENZOATE

ABOUT AUTHORS:
*P. Bhatt, M. Patel
Department of Pharma. Technology,
L.J. Institute of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India
bhatt_pari@ymail.com

ABSTRACT:
Rizatriptan benzoateis an anti migraine drug. The therapeutic activity of the drug can most likely be attributed to agonist effects at 5-HT1B/1D receptors. It is well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, but its oral bioavailability is low (45%) due to first-pass metabolism which makes it an ideal candidate for rapid release drug delivery system. Hence, an attempt was made to prepare and evaluate fast dissolving oral films containing Rizatriptan benzoate as a model drug by solvent casting method using hydrophilic polymers. Various formulations were developed with varying concentration of polymers like HPMC, PVA, PVP K30, Xanthan gum, Guar gum. Citric acid was used as a saliva stimulating agent and Propylene glycol as a plasticizer. The prepared oral films were evaluated for their physicochemical and mechanical parameters such as Physical appearance, surface pH, thickness uniformity, disintegration time, drug content uniformity, folding endurance, tensile strength, percentage elongation, in-vitro drug release. In-vitro release rate of Rizatriptan benzoate was studied in simulated saliva fluid (pH 6.8). From prepared formulations, the optimized plasticizer and polymer combination was selected and 32 factorial design was applied. On basis of factorial design, RSM and contour plots were applied. From factorial design batches the batch with lower disintegration time and good mechanical properties is optimized. This optimized batch was studied for its stability for 1 month. PG was optimized as plasticizer. It was observed that no single polymer was able to produce the film with desired quality hence polymer combination was used. The polymer combination of HPMC E 15 & PVA was optimized. On applying factorial design to this combination, batch with polymer ratio of 1:7 (HPMC: PVA) was optimized. The formulation was found stable after 1 month.


A POTENT TARGET FOR CANCER TREATMENT – TUMOR HYPOXIA NECROSIS: AN OVERVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Pankaj Dinkar Patil*, Raju Tayade
Department of Pharmaceutical sciences and technology,
ICT Mumbai, Maharashtra
pankaj.patil46@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Tumor hypoxia is feature of locally advancing solid tumor and also considered as potential therapeutic challenge. It causes solid tumor resistible to the cancer treatment like radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs. The transcription factor HIF-1 is the major player in the regulation of tumor progression into malignant phenotype. We can target this hypoxic conditions using pathophysiological approach for targeted drug delivery for treatment of cancer. This review will focus on various biological aspects of tumor hypoxia necrosis and approaches for targeting hypoxic tumors. This tumor selective treatment will include bioreductive drugs, gene therapy, and recombinant bacteria.


BRAIN AS A SANCTURIAN SITE IN DRUG DELIVERY APPROACHES TO IMPROVE BIOAVAILABILITY IN BRAIN

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Sagar Vishwanath Sonawane*
Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology,
Institute of Chemical Technology,
Matunga, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India.
*sssagarvs@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Brain is the highly protected organ of the body by the sanctuary known as blood brain barrier (BBB). BBB comprises of tight junctions formed by the closed fenestration network of astrocytes, pericytes microglial cells and endothelial cells. Thus it is very difficult for drug molecules to cross BBB. Thus various approaches are discussed to overcome this barrier. Disruption of BBB was conventional invasive approach. The permeability of BBB increases in various diseases. This increased permeability of BBB is made use for drug trafficking. With advances in nanotechnology, various nanocarrier systems including Polymeric nanoparticles, Micelle, Dendrimer, Liposomes, Solid lipid nanoparticles, Nanostuctured lipid carriers, nanogels, etc. emerged as potential delivery systems.
Administration of inhibitors of p-glycoprotein with drug is another approach. Making lipophilic prodrugs of active drug substances can also be done.
Recently PEGylation of nanoparticles can be done to improve its half life in the body, known as the stealth technology. Further various receptor mediated processes are made use of for transport of nanocarrier across BBB. In this method the nanocarrier is attached to the targeting ligand thus making it receptor specific. The newer concept of molecular Trojan horses is also discussed. Finally the advantages of intranasal drug delivery are emphasized.


DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF ILAPRAZOLE AND DOMPERIDONE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
R.A Tamboli, V.C. Chauhan, M.M. Pathan, S.K. Tirgar, D.A. Shah, R.R. Parmar
APMC College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Motipura, Himmatngar, Gujarat
tambolirushabh@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A specific,  accurate,  precise  and  reproducible  RP-HPLC  method  has  been  developed  and subsequently validated for the simultaneous determination of Ilaprazole and Domperidone  in pharmaceutical dosage form. The proposed HPLC method utilizes hypersil (Thermo scientific) C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm id, 5 μm particle size), and mobile phase consisting of methanol:phosphate buffer (40:60) and pH adjusted to 4.0 with 0.1M glacial acetic acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Quantitation was achieved with UV detection at 230 nm based on peak area with linear calibration curves at concentration ranges 5-15 μg/ml for Ilaprazole and 15-45 μg/ml for Domperidone. The retention time of  Ilaprazole and Domperidone were found to be 3.433 min and 5.860 min respectively. The method was validated in terms of accuracy,  precision,  linearity,  limits  of detection,  limits  of  quantitation  and  robustness. This method has been successively applied to marketed formulation and no interference from the formulation excipients was found.


PHARMACOGNOSTIC AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION ON FRUITS OF GMELINA ARBOREA

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Daya L. Chothani1, N. M. Patel2
1B. K Mody government pharmacy college, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
2Sri B.M. Shah College of Pharmacy, Modasa, Gujarat, India
daya.herb@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of present study was to carry out pharmacognostic and physicochemical evaluation of fruits of Gmelina arborea. Fresh fruits and dried powder of the fruits were studied by morphology, microscopy, qualitative chemical test and florescence analysis of powdered drug. Other physicochemical parameters were also performed as per WHO guide lines. The detailed microscopy revealed the presence of stone cells, vascular strand and pitted parenchyma. Physicochemical parameters and florescence analysis were also studied. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of alkaloids, proteins, saponins, sterols, phenolic compounds and carbohydrates. The result of these studies could be useful for identification and standardization of Gmelina arboreafruits.


DEGRADATION STUDY OF CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE, BROMHEXINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND THEIR COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY SPECTROPHOTOMETRY

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About Authors:
1Avinash M Nagapara*, 2Hasmukh C Nagapara, 1Darshan Madiya, 1Shital Faldu
1Department of Quality Assurance, Smt. R. D. Gardi B. Pharmacy College, Rajkot, Gujarat
2Virani Science College, Rajkot, Gujarat
*avinashnagapara@yahoo.com

Abstract
A stress Degradation study of the combination containing Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride and Bromhexine Hydrochloride was carried out by various reagent like 1 M NaOH, 1M HCl, 6% H2O2 and Neutral water at higher temperature. This combination is widely used for the treatment of various types of respiratory disorders and COPD. The effects of the various stress conditions were observed in terms of decrease in the peak hight, increase in peaks or slightly change or shifting of the wavelengths. It was found that by applying various stress conditions, 4% to 50% drugs were degraded in case of pure drugs as well as the Commercial formulation. Thus spectrophotometry was successfully utilised for primary stability study of the pure drug as well as the degradation study of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride and Bromhexine Hydrochloride.


ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF OLMESARTAN MEDOXOMIL AND CILNIDIPINE IN THEIR COMBINED PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORM BY RP-HPLC METHOD

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About Authors:
Nehal C. Ghelani*, Ketan Dadhania, Shital Faldu
Department of Quality Assurance,
Smt. R. D. Gardi B. Pharmacy College, Rajkot, Gujarat, India
*nehalghelani10@gmail.com

Abstract
RP-HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of Olmesartan Medoxmil and Cilnidipine in pharmaceutical dosage form. The separation was achieved Hypersil C18 (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 mm) columnwith Acetonitritle:Phosphate buffer pH 3.6 (70:30 %v/v). Flow rate was maintained at 1.0 ml/ min and UV detection was carried at 270 nm. Retention time for Olmesartan Medoxomil and Cilnidipine was found to be 4.14 min and 7.79 min respectively. The method has been validated for linearity, accuracy and precision. Linearity for Olmesartan Medoxomil and Cilnidipine were in the range of 40 - 200 µg/ml and 10 - 50 µg/ml respectively. The percentage recoveries obtained for Olmesartan Medoxomil and Cilnidipine were found to be in range of 99.96- 100.23 and 98.99-100.03 respectively. The developed method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Developed method was found to be accurate, precise, selective and rapid for simultaneous estimation of Olmesartan Medoxomil and Cilnidipine  in pharmaceutical dosage form.