Articles

BIONANOPARTICLES: A GREEN NANOCHEMICAL APPROACH

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Rahul Kumar*, Ved Prakash Singh, Damini Maurya, Anand Kumar Pandey
Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Engineering and Technology
Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India
vnsanand_9@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
Nanoparticle, a core of bio-nanoparticle, which is used for polymers including natural and synthetic polymer and form different types of, liposomal and polymer nanoparticle. The designing, synthesis and manipulation of structures which is smaller than 100 nm, is termed as Nanotechnology. Nanoparticles are developed as a colloidal structure, synthesized by semi-synthetic and synthetic polymers. The emerging area of nanotechnology and Nano-sciencesare the application of nanoparticles, ranges in 1 to 100 nanometre (nm). The synthesis of silver nanoparticles for their potential application, it was originate to be eco-friendly and reliable, because of their exclusive properties. Mostly synthesis of AgNPs, by physical and chemical methods are too expensive, toxic, hazardous chemicals for various biological risks.The main objective of this study preferably lies thatgreen synthesis of AgNPs by several plants and its metabolites, extracts can be much safer to handle and easily available. The synthesis of AgNPs  are using several plants extract such as Oryza sativa, Zea mays, Basella alba, Helianthusannuls, Camellia sinensis ( green tea), Azadirachta indica (neem) ,Ssebania drummondii (leguminous shrub)sp. The AgNPs get attached in the cell wall of microorganism and can disturb the cellular respiration, permeability of the cell wall. Sometimes it can penetrate inside the cell wall which can interact protein, DNA, sulphur and phosphorus and causing cellular injury inside cell. It confers the antimicrobial activity. The AgNPs shows less antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria in comparison to gram negative bacteria because gram negative contain β-barrel proteins (i.e. Porins) and thinner peptidoglycan. The distinguishing property of silver nanoparticles it can be have higher surface area to volume ratio. When surface area increases the catalytic activity and surface energy of AgNPs corresponding to increase and biological effectiveness also increases. 

It identified that amalgamation of silver nanoparticle biochemical process is very fast process as compare to using microorganism (even several hours to few days). The NPs monodispersity, size are significant part in the valuation of NPs amalgamation. Therefore, operative regulator of monodispersity and NPs size are essentially examined. On numerous readings silver nanoparticle synthesis by microbes can be decompose later withassured dated of time. Thus the constancyof nanoparticle producebiological approachesmerits supplementary learning.


A REVIEW: ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF HERBAL DRUGS

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Dwiti Modak
Ayurvedic Pharmacy, Lovely School of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India
dwiti.modak@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from increased hepatic glucose production, diminished insulin secretion and impaired insulin action. Though diabetes is a global problem so the present study aims to open new avenue to explore the antidiabetic activity of various medicinal plants on a firm scientific footing and different market formulation which add value as novel antidiabetic drug.


A SIMPLE SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF CEFTRIAXONE SODIUM IN BULK AND STERILE FORMULATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
M. Jambulingam*, S. Ananda Thangathurai, D. Kamalakannan, S. Punitha, Rincy T.R, S. Santhi, G. Surya, M. Vasanthi., S. Josephine Subarla.
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy,
Elayampalayam-637205, TN, India
*jambulingam48@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
A simple spectrometric method has been developed for the estimation of the ceftriaxone sodium in powder for injection dosage form by derivatization with p-dimethyl amino benzaldehyde. The measurement of absorbance and derivatized ceftriaxone sodium at 490.4nm. The both methods obeys Beer’s and Lambert’s law in the range of 5-25µg/ml with the correlation co-efficient of r²0.998. The colour reaction was highly stable and didn’t show any changes in absorbance up to 48hrs. The % RSD associated with all the validation parameter was less than 2, showing the accuracy of the method developed. The compliance of acceptance criteria of Q2 (R1), (R2) international conference on harmonization (2005 guidelines).


MIDDLE EAST RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS: AN EMERGING INFECTION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Suresh Rewar1*, Dashrath Mirdha2, Prahlad Rewar3
1Department of pharmaceutics, Rajasthan University of Health Sciences, Jaipur, Rajasthan,
2Dr. Sarvepali Radhakrishnan Rajasthan Ayurved University, Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India
3Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India
sureshrewar1990@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A severe viral illness caused by a newly discovered coronavirus was first reported in the Middle East in 2012. The virus has since been named the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS-CoV cases have been reported in several countries around the world in travelers from the Middle East., A substantial number of Indians live and work in Gulf countries. People from India also travel to Saudi Arabia as Pilgrims to Hajj. The illness has a high mortality rate. Limited human-to-human transmission has occurred including transmission to health care workers. The source of the virus remains unclear, but camels are a possible source. Since April 2012 and as of 20 February 2015, 1042 cases (including 419 deaths) of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have been reported by local health authorities worldwide. Laboratory confirmation of MERS-CoV infections to date has largely been by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) of lower respiratory tract specimens. Neither a vaccine nor effective therapy against the virus is available. Treatment consists of limited to supportive care, including mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure and/or hemodialysis in the setting of renal failure. Therapeutic modalities based on monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have shown clinical success in the treatment of many diseases.


MEDICAL USES OF RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mohammad Akbar Dar, Mubashir Hussain Masoodi*, Saeema Farooq
Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Faculty of Applied Sciences, University of Kashmir, Srinagar, J&K, India
akbardr297@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A radiopharmaceutical is a preparation intended for in-vivo use that contains a radionuclide in the form of a simple salt or a complex.  It may exist as a solid, liquid, gas or a pseudo gas. The chemical and physical identity and a form of a radiopharmaceutical are very important because in each case, once administered the radiopharmaceutical is intended to target certain tissues, binding sites, biochemical pathways. A radiopharmaceutical can be used for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes depending on its specific physicochemical and radiation properties. The characteristic of radioactive decay is what makes radioisotopes useful in their medical applications; however, different applications will take advantage of radioactive emissions in different ways. Radioactive materials are regularly used to treat medical conditions, diagnosis pathology, visualize and measure physiological functions, and localize structures and pathways. This review describes both the therapeutic as well as diagnostic uses of radiopharmaceuticals.


NANOPARTICLE (NP) AS A TARGETING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM TO BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (BBB): A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHROS:
Bikash Debnath*, Md. JashimUddin, Debasish Maiti
State Biotech Hub, Department of Human Physiology,
Tripura University, Suryamaninagar.
*bikashrips2014@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Central nervous system (CNS) drug development will be biology driven. Due to absence of functional platform for CNS drug targeting since, the large molecules pharmaceuticals cannot be delivered to brain. About 1.5 billion people worldwide are suffering from various type of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Overcome to this problem modern pharmaceutical technology manufacturing the nonaparticles. Properly use of nonamedicines (nanoparticles) is one of the ways to control the CNS disorder in all over world. Nanoparticles are particles between 1 to 100 nm in size. Using nanotechnology it is possible to deliver the drug to the specific site of the tissue across the Blood -Brain Barrier (BBB).Various types of nanoparticle are available for treatment of CNS disorders. These are lipid based nanoparticles, solid lipid nanoparticles, polymer-based nanoparticles etc.


ESTIMATION OF ONDANSETRON HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND FORMULATION BY SECOND ORDER DERIVATIVE AREA UNDER CURVE UV-SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jadhav Santosh1*, Kharat Rekha1, Ansari Afaque2, Tamboli Ashpak3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade, Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutic’s, D. S. T. S Mandal’s College Of Pharmacy Solapur, Maharashtra India.
3Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade,
Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.
*jadhavsan88@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Simple, fast and reliable spectrophotometric methods were developed for determination of Ondansetron Hydrochloride in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The solutions of standard and the sample were prepared in Distilled Water. The quantitative determination of the drug was carried out using the second order Derivative Area under Curve method values measured at 248-254nm. Calibration graphs constructed at their wavelengths of determination were linear in the concentration range of Ondansetron Hydrochloride using 2-10μg/ml (r²=0.9986) for second order Derivative Area under Curve spectrophotometric method. All the proposed methods have been extensively validated as per ICH guidelines. There was no significant difference between the performance of the proposed methods regarding the mean values and standard deviations. The developed methods were successfully applied to estimate the amount of Ondansetron Hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations.


AN INSIGHT ON NUTRACEUTICALS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Niyati Borkar*1, SS Saurabh2, KS Rathore3, Ashlesha Pandit1, KR Khandelwal1
1JSPM’s Rajarshi Shahu College of Pharmacy and Research, Tathwade, Pune, India
2Lachoo Memorial College of Science & Technology, Pharmacy Wing, Jodhpur (Raj.), India
3BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur (Raj.), India
niyatiborkar@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT
The concept of nutraceutical a evidence based medicines was started from a survey held in United Kingdom, Germany and France which concluded that diet is rated more highly by consumers than exercise or hereditary factors for achieving good health. Nutraceutical, a portmanteau of the words “nutrition” and “pharmaceutical”, is a food or food product that reportedly provides health and medical benefits, including the prevention and treatment of disease. Nutraceutical is a term that does not easily fall into the legal category of food and drug and often inhabits a grey area between the two. Nutraceuticals may range from isolated nutrients herbal products, dietary supplements and diets to genetically engineered “designs” foods and processed products such as cereals, soups and beverages and hence also referred to as functional foods. A nutraceutical is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease. Apart from disease prevention, they play an important role in disease management and therapy. Also, the growing consumer awareness regarding health care has led to the tantalizing opportunity for a “nutraceutical” breakthough in the pharmaceutical battleground as an alternative to modern medicine. This revolution will lead us into a new era of medicine and health, in which the food industry will become a research oriented one similar to the pharmaceutical industry. This review article focuses on the definition, history, development, classification, challenges and opportunities, regulations,global market scenario as also the motivation behind the development of nutraceuticals.


ANTIBIOTIC POISONING AND FOOD POISONING THROUGH CHICKEN

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Suman Pattanayak
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women,
Enikepadu, Vijayawada, AP, India
suman6982@gmail.com

Chicken is one of the most popular foods. There can’t be many people who do not enjoy chicken curry, chicken pakoda, roast chicken, stew or barbecued chicken on a Sunday. This includes children as well as adults who both enjoy the taste and versatility of chicken. Since the 1940s, antibiotics have played a critical role in protecting the public’s health, and are responsible for saving millions of human lives. About 90% of antibiotics produced in the world are given to farm animals. The use of low doses of antibiotics by the modern food animal industry is responsible for drug-resistant bacteria emerging on farms which reach the general population through human or animal carriers, and through the food consumers eat. The chicken is one of the worst offenders when it comes to food poisoning. Many of us have either experienced this first hand or know someone who has suffered from this nasty illness.


A REVIEW ARTICLE: PRONIOSOMES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shweta Vashist*, Jyoti Kaushik, Batra K. Sunil
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonipat
shwetavashist55@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Skin is the main target of topical and transdermal preparations. Major aim of transdermal drug delivery sytem is to cross the stratum corneum. Now-a-days we better know vesicles have importance in cellular communication. Niosomal carrier are systems containing soft vesicles, composed of non –ionic surfactant and an alternative to liposomes. They can entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals but these types of vesicles include the superior physical stability problems such as aggregation, fusion, and leakage of encapsulated drug. Proniosomes are provesicular approach which overcomes the limitations of vesicular system (Niosomes). Provesicular approach has been proposed to enhance the stability of vesicles. Proniosomes is a compact semi-solid liquid crystalline product of non- ionic surfactant  easily formed on dissolving the surfactant in minimal amount of acceptable solvent and the least amount of aqueous phase. Proniosomes can be converted into niosomes in –situ by absorbing water from the skin.


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