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BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND TRADITIONAL USES OF RUDRAVANTI (CRESSA CRETICA): A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Nishant Verma 1*, K.K. Jha1, Rajesh Sharma1, Sudhir Chaudhary2, Ajai Kr. Singh3, Arvind Kumar 4
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, T. M. College of Pharmacy, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, MIET, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Gandhi College of Pharmacy, Karnal, Haryana, India
4Department of Quality Assurance, Onco Therapies Limited (A Mylan Company), Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

* nishantvermamiet@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Since long, the ayurvedic period, the herbal drugs were the sole source of medication for majority of population pertaining to the holistic approaches consisting of easier method of uses and better results. Despite vast continuous developments in the drug therapy, herbal sources are still of great importance and nearly 60% of the world’s population continuously using such drugs. These are not only used for primary healthcare in rural areas in developing countries, but also in developed countries as well where modern medicines are predominantly available. In spite of industrious and versatile unbroken advancements in ayurvedic medicines of the present therapeutic arena, still a huge number of herbal origins leading to a vast variety of flora remains unexplored that could be utilized in the treatments for several afflictions i.e. diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, inflammation, cirrhosis of lever, cancers etc. Hence the satisfactory and safer solution to these problems of the public health care requires tremendous attention of the researchers to explore out medicinally efficacious plants and isolate potent molecules from them. Evaluation of such molecules could generate broader spectrum of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters with least toxicity. Cressa cretica (Linn) belonging to family Convolvulaceae. It is commonly known as Rudravanti. Traditionally root and leaves of Cressa cretica are commonly used as expectorant and antibilious agent. It is a holophytic dwarf shrub used in folklore medicine. This article gives the updated information on its properties.


DNA MICROSATELLITES: A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Shikha Jain*, Ranjana Joshi, Kirti Jatwa, Avnish Sharma, S.C. Mahajan
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Mahakal Institite of Pharmaceutical Studies,
Behind Air strip, Datana, Dewas Road, Ujjain, M.P.
jain.shikhapharma@gmail.com

Abstract
Microsatellites consist of tandemly repeated sequence, no more than 6 bases long. They are scattered throughout most eukaryotic genomes. The major characteristic that makes microsatellites as useful and powerful genetic tool is the extensive length polymorphism that first of all reflects allelic variation in the number of the tandemly arranged perfect repeats. Microsatellite are generally considered as the most powerful genetic marker.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species. Genetic marker that reveal polymorphisms at the DNA level are called molecular marker.
Molecular markers are called as DNA markers, which should be thought of as signs along the DNA trail that pinpoint the location of desirable genetic traits or indicate specific genetic differences.They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause can now be utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis . These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application.


A REVIEW OF NATEGLINIDE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mistry Ripal*, Haresh T. Mulani
Department of Pharmaceutics
Indubhai Patel College of Pharmacy and Research Centre,
Dharmaj, Gujarat
*rx.ripalmistry@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. The success of oral hypoglycemic drug therapy is usually based on are storation of normal blood glucose levels. Traditionally, the term oral hypoglycemic was used interchangeably with sulfonylureas, but more recently the development of several new drugs has broadened this designation to include all oral medications for diabetes. Nateglinide, a D-phenylalanine derivative, is a novel insulinotropic drug which has recently been launched as a therapeutic agent for Type II diabetes. Clinical studies have shown that nateglinide induces a rapid onset of insulin release synergistic with meal administration which effectively restores the early phase of insulin secretion. Since the loss of early insulin secretion is thought to play an important role in the development of glucose in tolerance the ability of nateglinide to promote early insulin release is potentially of considerable therapeutic benefit.


ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PADIGALINGA CHENDURAM AGAINST ENTERIC PATHOGENS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
V.C. Jiji Mol*, S.Vasanth, P. Shanmugapriya, R.Madhavan, S.Murugesan, V.Manjari, M. Murugesan
Department of  Nanjunool,
National institute of Siddha,
Chennai, Tamil Nadu
drjijivijay@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Siddha system of Medicine is a traditional system of Medicine with a pharmacopeia  base  of natural resources –herbs, minerals, metallic salts and animal products. Herbo -mineral compounds offer advantages over  plant drugs by  virtue of their long shelf life, lower dosage, easy storability, and sustained availability as it contain minerals and metals as integral part of the formulations. Siddha system emphasizes aetiology and management of various diseases affecting mankind. Kirahaninoi (chronic diarrhoea) caused by kirumi (microbes) is one among them. Padigalinga chenduram, a herbo-mineral Siddha medicine is mentioned in our Siddha literature is indicated for  Seetha bedhi(mucus diarrhoea), Raththa bedhi (dysentric diarrhoea), Kazhichal suram(fever accompanying diarrhoea) specifically. Kirahani is characterized by acute diarrhoea, gripping abdominal pain and uncomfortable desire to empty the bowel, accompanied by dehydration, weight loss and rise in temperature. In this study, Padigalinga  Chenduram was investigated for antibacterial potential against enteric pathogens like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi by Agar well diffusion method. The study implies  that the herbo mineral compound may be useful as an alternative in the treatment of enteric pathogens. Further research in my topic of interest will  be the detection of the compounds responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAIN RELEASE TABLETS OF RAMIPRIL

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
B.Venkateswara Reddy*, K.Navaneetha
Department of Pharmaceutics, St. Pauls College of Pharmacy,
Turkayamjal, Hayathnagar, R.R. Dist., Andhra Pradesh.
*basu.pharmacist@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Objective:
Sustained release tablets of ramipril were prepared in order to increase the half life (3 hours) of the drug and to reduce the adverse events associated with ramipril, a drug used in treatment of hypertension.
Methods:
The tablets were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for various parameters. HPMC K15, HPMC E15 and HPMC K4 were used as sustain release polymers.
Results:
IR spectroscopic studies indicating that the drug is compatible with all the excipients and there was no drug-polymer interaction. The results of preformulation studies indicate that the powder blend has good flow properties. Tablets prepared by direct compression method are evaluated for thickness, hardness test, friability test, uniformity of weight, drug content estimation. All the formulation were found to be good appearance without showing any chipping, capping and sticking defects and all parameters were also passed the test.
Conclusion:
When comparing all formulation, F1containing HPMC K15 showed a sustained release of 98.7% at end of 16th hour. Percentage drug release obtained from sustained release tablets of ramipril were subjected for kinetic treatment for kinetic treatment to know the release order and was found that F1 formulation follow zero order release and follow the mechanism of both diffusion and erosion.


CYCLODEXTRINS AND THEIR PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Abdulrhman. A. Akasha,  Malak Ali Elwahedi,  Areej Mohmoud Eldeeb
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy,
Tripoli University, Libya.
*akashaabdu@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT
Cyclodextrins are formed by the action of cyclodextrin-trans-glycosidase enzyme (CTG) on the medium containing starch. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides containing at least six D-(+)- glucopyranose units attached by α (1-4) glucoside bonds. The three natural cyclodextrins, α , β and γ differ in their ring size and solubility.
One of the striking feature of cyclodextrins is their ability to form inclusion complexes with a variety of compounds, by entrapping their molecules (guest) inside the cyclodextrin cavity, which act as a host. Cyclodextrin complexing agent are often used, in pharmaceutical formulation of oral products, to increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble or unstable drug. The simplified review presents the evaluation of cyclodextrins drug complexes in pharmaceutical formulation. The preparation of sodium valproate phenytoin sodium/ β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in a trial to stabilize the drug against moisture absorption and forming non-hygroscopic powders which are suitable for tablets by direct compression was reviewed. The preparation of phenytoin sodium / β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in a trial to stabilize the drug against moisture absorption and mask its bitter taste was reviewed.
The preparation of piroxicam/ β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes is a exhibited higher dissolution rates and absorption efficiency values, than the corresponding un-complexes drug.
Cyclodextrins as complexing agents are often used in pharmaceutical formulation of oral products to increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble or unstable drugs.


AMPHIPHILIC JANUS LIKE PARTICLES FOR BIOMEDICAL APPLICATION

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
*1Patitapabana Parida, 1Bibhukalyan P Nayak, 2Subash Chandra Mishra
1Department of Biotechnology and Medical Engineering,
2Department of Metallurgy & Materials Engineering
National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Odisha, India
*paridap@nitrkl.ac.in

ABSTRACT
Nano structure possesses high surface area that the functional groups can be able to expose their reactive capacity due to high surface energy. So as to consider their size of the amphiphilic nanoparticle dual-surface structure containing body called as janus particle introduced since about twenty years in industry with purpose of drug delivery and diagnostic purpose in the field of paramedical areas. Janus bodies can carry both lipophilic and hydrophilic groups on its surface. Nano-sized morphology could play multiple roles in cancer treatment including diagnosis, biomedical imaging, tissue engineering and drug delivery.


PROLOTHERAPY FOR ARTHRITIS- A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Ranjana Joshi*, Shikha Jain, Kirti Jatwa,  Monika Thakur, Anies Shaikh
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies,
Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India
ranjanajoshipharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Prolotherapy is a technique which can be used to treat pain and injuries. Osteoarthritis is a disease acquired from daily wear and tear of joints and also due to injury. Prolotherapy is an injection technique which causes inflammation at the site of injection, new blood vessels form and mature, pain subsides and collagen density and tissue strength are increased. It works by stimulating the body’s own healing mechanism at the site of injection leading to long lasting relief of the injured area. This review focuses on the treatment of osteoarthritis using prolotherapy.


INVESTIGATION OF HYDROGEL THICKENED MICROEMULSION FOR TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION OF MELOXICAM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Tulsi. P. Upadhyay*, Jitendra Patel, Harsh. A. Vyas, Nirali. N. Thakkar, Kruti. C. Patel, Umesh. M. Upadhyay

Department of Pharmaceutics,
Sigma Institute of Pharmacy,
Vadodara, Gujarat, India
*tulsiupadhyay90@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The present study was conducted to investigate the microemulsion based gel of meloxicam in order to bypass gastrointestinal side effects with more patient compliance. Microemulsion existence range was defined by pseudo ternary phase diagram. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were developed for combination of Iso propyl Myristate (oily phase), Tween80:PEG400 (surfactant : cosurfactant) and water (aqueous phase) with Aqueous phase titration method. Various microemulsion formulations were prepared and further evaluated for various parameters like pH, conductance, transmittance, drug release, etc.Optimized formulation of Microemulsion was thickened with gelling agent Carbopol 940 to yield a gel with desirable properties facilitating the topical application. Safety of formulation was evaluated using skin irritancy test. Simple Meloxicam gel and optimized microemulsion gel then subjected to in vitro drug release comparison study. Drug exhibited maximum solubility in Iso propyl Myristate as oily phase among all selected oils and maximum solubility in Tween80 and Polyethylene Glycol 400(PEG400) as surfactant and cosurfactant. The pseudoternary phase diagram has been delineated at surfactant : cosurfactant ratio 2:1. Microemulsion showed -0.5 zeta potential which is desirable for its stability and average particle size was obtained less than 200nm. Microemulsion based gel afford better drug release when compared to simple gel. Present work concluded that microemulsion based gel can be promising formulation for application of Meloxicam with good patient compliance too in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, osteo arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis.


A REVIEW ON ELAEOCARPUS SPHAERICUS (RUDRAKSHA)

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shikha Jain*, Kirti Jatwa, Vikas Jain, Avnish Sharma, S.C. Mahajan
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical Studies,
Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India.
*jain.shikhapharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The demand of herbal products is now increasing tremendously in whole across the World especially in India. Elaeocarpus sphaericus (rudraksha), belonging to the family Elaeocarpeaceae is popular in indigenous system of medicine including Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. Traditionally rudraksha is used for the treatment of various diseases like stress, anxiety, depression, palpitation, nerve pain, and epilepsy, and migraine, lack of concentration, asthma, hypertension, arthritis and liver diseases. Phytochemical study of rudraksha reveals that it contains indolizidine type of Alkaloids. Aqueous extract of leaves contains glycosides also. It also contains minerals, vitamins, steroids,flavanoids. Ethanolic extract of leaves contains gallic acid, ellagic acid & quercetin. This plant has also been proved to be a very good centre for researches for scientists. In the field of research, rudraksha has been found to possess various biological activities like anti-hypertensive, anti-depressant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, analgesic, anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity. In view of its wide pharmacological and biological activities, it seems to behaving a great therapeutic potential. The present review aims to present current knowledge of major phyto-constituents, clinical studies with major emphasis on traditional and pharmacological activities.