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EVALUATION OF THE SYNERGIC ANTIPROLIFERATIVE AND CYTOSTATIC EFFECTS OF ANANAS COMOSUS, CITRALLUS LANATUS AND CITRUS SINENSIS JUICE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Enegide Chinedu1*, Arome David1, Solomon F. Ameh1, Ugochi Ilomuanya2
1Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology), University of Jos, Jos, Nigeria
2Department of Food Science & Technology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka Nigeria
chinex.snow@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Background:
The World Health Organization (WHO) has named cancer as one of the most significant cause of death presently, with about 6 million reported deaths in 1996, 11.4 million deaths in 2004, 7.6 million deaths in 2008 and 8.2 million deaths in 2012. However, present postulations reveal that there might be an escalation of cancer mortality to about 15 million by 2030, if the progression of the ailment is not checked. Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the synergic antiproliferative and cytostatic effects of these fruit (Ananas comosus, Citrullus lanatus and Citrus sinensis) juices. Materials and Method: The study was performed on rapidly proliferating seeds of Sorghum bicolor and the resulting mean radicle lengths (mm) were taken after 24, 48 and 72 hours. Result: The seeds treated with methotrexate showed a significant (P<0.05) inhibition of radicle length growth throughout the experiment, compared with the control seeds radicle. The rate of inhibition after 72 hours was 85.39%. The juice doses of 20 and 40% showed a significant (P<0.05) inhibition of seeds radicle length throughout the 72 hours of study. The inhibition rate was however higher after 72 hours with percentage inhibition of 87.19% at 20% juice concentration and 99.50% at 40% concentration. However, juice concentrations of 60 and 80% gave a cytostatic effect (i.e no radicle growth) throughout the study. Conclusion: The study has shown that A. comosus, C. lanatus and C. sinensis mixed juice has a potential for eliciting antiproliferative and cytostatic effects on rapidly proliferating cells.


ORAL CONTROLLED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM- A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Manisha Gahlyan*, Saroj Jain
Hindu college of pharmacy
Near Panchayat Bhawan, Gohana Road, Sonepat, Haryana
manishagahlyan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Oral route has been the most popular and successfully route for controlled delivery of drugs because of the flexibility in the designing of dosage form than other routes. The immidiate release conventional dosage form lack in the efficiency of controlling the proper plasma drug concentration. This factor as well as factors such as repetitive dosing ++and unpredictable absorption leads to the concept of oral controlled release drug delivery systems. A desirable characteristic of controlled release delivery system is that the duration of drug action should be dictated by the design property of drug molecules. There are different mechanistic aspects for design of oral controlled release drug delivery systems such as matrix, reservoir, osmotic pressure, ion exchange resins, altered density etc. This article contains brief review on currently existing oral controlled system and various formulation approaches for the controlled release system.


MINI-STROKE (TIA): A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
V. Sravanthi*1, Mayure vijay kumar1, Donthineni Kalyan2, G.J.Finny1, C.P.Meher1
1Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, Maheshwara College of Pharmacy
2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Saraswathi College of Pharmaceutical Sciences.
Isnapur chitkul ‘X’ road, Patancheru, Hyderabad-502307
*v.sravanthi27@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
TIA stands for transcient ischemic attack, is a temporary blockage of blood flow in the brain that causes stroke symptoms. A transient ischemic attack is often called a mini-stroke. It is considered a warning sign that a more serious stoke will happen in the future. They may include weakness on one side of the body, dizziness, blurred vision, confusion, and speech problems. A TIA is a medical emergency. Following the below words cover about transient ischemic attacks (TIA), medication, prevention, diagnosing etc.


A REVIEW ON STABILITY GUIDELINES BY ICH AND USFDA GUIDELINES FOR NEW FORMULATION AND DOSAGE FORM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Anilkumar S. Chinchole1*, B.N.Poul2, C.V. Panchal1, D.V. Chavan1
1Department of Quality Assurance, Maharashtra College of Pharmacy, Nilanga, Latur, Maharashtra, India
2Principal of Maharashtra College of Pharmacy, Nilanga
Maharashtra College of Pharmacy, Nilanga, Latur, Maharashtra, India
*anilc14@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Stability guidelines for new drug substance and new pharmaceutical formulations as per ICH and USP for the evaluation and consistency for new drug and pharmaceutical dosage form. The brief understanding of these guidelines can be easily recognized by this article. Stability testing Provide a evidence on how the quality of a drug substance or drug product varies with time under the influence of a variety of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, and light. To establish a re-test period for the drug substance or a shelf life for the drug product and recommended storage conditions. Because physical, chemical or microbiological changes might impact the efficiency and security of the final product. To minimize the Adverse Effects Of Instability In Drug Products Loss of potency of drug such as Change in concentration of active drug, Alteration of bioavailability, Loss of content uniformity, Loss of pharmaceutical elegance and patient acceptability, Formation of toxic degradation products.


BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND TRADITIONAL USES OF RUDRAVANTI (CRESSA CRETICA): A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Nishant Verma 1*, K.K. Jha1, Rajesh Sharma1, Sudhir Chaudhary2, Ajai Kr. Singh3, Arvind Kumar 4
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, T. M. College of Pharmacy, Teerthanker Mahaveer University, Moradabad, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, MIET, Meerut, Uttar Pradesh, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Gandhi College of Pharmacy, Karnal, Haryana, India
4Department of Quality Assurance, Onco Therapies Limited (A Mylan Company), Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

* nishantvermamiet@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Since long, the ayurvedic period, the herbal drugs were the sole source of medication for majority of population pertaining to the holistic approaches consisting of easier method of uses and better results. Despite vast continuous developments in the drug therapy, herbal sources are still of great importance and nearly 60% of the world’s population continuously using such drugs. These are not only used for primary healthcare in rural areas in developing countries, but also in developed countries as well where modern medicines are predominantly available. In spite of industrious and versatile unbroken advancements in ayurvedic medicines of the present therapeutic arena, still a huge number of herbal origins leading to a vast variety of flora remains unexplored that could be utilized in the treatments for several afflictions i.e. diabetes mellitus, hepatitis, inflammation, cirrhosis of lever, cancers etc. Hence the satisfactory and safer solution to these problems of the public health care requires tremendous attention of the researchers to explore out medicinally efficacious plants and isolate potent molecules from them. Evaluation of such molecules could generate broader spectrum of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters with least toxicity. Cressa cretica (Linn) belonging to family Convolvulaceae. It is commonly known as Rudravanti. Traditionally root and leaves of Cressa cretica are commonly used as expectorant and antibilious agent. It is a holophytic dwarf shrub used in folklore medicine. This article gives the updated information on its properties.


DNA MICROSATELLITES: A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Shikha Jain*, Ranjana Joshi, Kirti Jatwa, Avnish Sharma, S.C. Mahajan
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Mahakal Institite of Pharmaceutical Studies,
Behind Air strip, Datana, Dewas Road, Ujjain, M.P.
jain.shikhapharma@gmail.com

Abstract
Microsatellites consist of tandemly repeated sequence, no more than 6 bases long. They are scattered throughout most eukaryotic genomes. The major characteristic that makes microsatellites as useful and powerful genetic tool is the extensive length polymorphism that first of all reflects allelic variation in the number of the tandemly arranged perfect repeats. Microsatellite are generally considered as the most powerful genetic marker.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species. Genetic marker that reveal polymorphisms at the DNA level are called molecular marker.
Molecular markers are called as DNA markers, which should be thought of as signs along the DNA trail that pinpoint the location of desirable genetic traits or indicate specific genetic differences.They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause can now be utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder and Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis . These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application.


A REVIEW OF NATEGLINIDE IN THE MANAGEMENT OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mistry Ripal*, Haresh T. Mulani
Department of Pharmaceutics
Indubhai Patel College of Pharmacy and Research Centre,
Dharmaj, Gujarat
*rx.ripalmistry@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a chronic disease that occurs when the pancreas is no longer able to make insulin, or when the body cannot make good use of the insulin it produces. The chronic hyperglycemia of diabetes is associated with long-term damage, dysfunction, and failure of different organs, especially the eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, and blood vessels. The success of oral hypoglycemic drug therapy is usually based on are storation of normal blood glucose levels. Traditionally, the term oral hypoglycemic was used interchangeably with sulfonylureas, but more recently the development of several new drugs has broadened this designation to include all oral medications for diabetes. Nateglinide, a D-phenylalanine derivative, is a novel insulinotropic drug which has recently been launched as a therapeutic agent for Type II diabetes. Clinical studies have shown that nateglinide induces a rapid onset of insulin release synergistic with meal administration which effectively restores the early phase of insulin secretion. Since the loss of early insulin secretion is thought to play an important role in the development of glucose in tolerance the ability of nateglinide to promote early insulin release is potentially of considerable therapeutic benefit.


ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PADIGALINGA CHENDURAM AGAINST ENTERIC PATHOGENS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
V.C. Jiji Mol*, S.Vasanth, P. Shanmugapriya, R.Madhavan, S.Murugesan, V.Manjari, M. Murugesan
Department of  Nanjunool,
National institute of Siddha,
Chennai, Tamil Nadu
drjijivijay@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Siddha system of Medicine is a traditional system of Medicine with a pharmacopeia  base  of natural resources –herbs, minerals, metallic salts and animal products. Herbo -mineral compounds offer advantages over  plant drugs by  virtue of their long shelf life, lower dosage, easy storability, and sustained availability as it contain minerals and metals as integral part of the formulations. Siddha system emphasizes aetiology and management of various diseases affecting mankind. Kirahaninoi (chronic diarrhoea) caused by kirumi (microbes) is one among them. Padigalinga chenduram, a herbo-mineral Siddha medicine is mentioned in our Siddha literature is indicated for  Seetha bedhi(mucus diarrhoea), Raththa bedhi (dysentric diarrhoea), Kazhichal suram(fever accompanying diarrhoea) specifically. Kirahani is characterized by acute diarrhoea, gripping abdominal pain and uncomfortable desire to empty the bowel, accompanied by dehydration, weight loss and rise in temperature. In this study, Padigalinga  Chenduram was investigated for antibacterial potential against enteric pathogens like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi by Agar well diffusion method. The study implies  that the herbo mineral compound may be useful as an alternative in the treatment of enteric pathogens. Further research in my topic of interest will  be the detection of the compounds responsible for the observed antimicrobial activity.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF SUSTAIN RELEASE TABLETS OF RAMIPRIL

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
B.Venkateswara Reddy*, K.Navaneetha
Department of Pharmaceutics, St. Pauls College of Pharmacy,
Turkayamjal, Hayathnagar, R.R. Dist., Andhra Pradesh.
*basu.pharmacist@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Objective:
Sustained release tablets of ramipril were prepared in order to increase the half life (3 hours) of the drug and to reduce the adverse events associated with ramipril, a drug used in treatment of hypertension.
Methods:
The tablets were prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for various parameters. HPMC K15, HPMC E15 and HPMC K4 were used as sustain release polymers.
Results:
IR spectroscopic studies indicating that the drug is compatible with all the excipients and there was no drug-polymer interaction. The results of preformulation studies indicate that the powder blend has good flow properties. Tablets prepared by direct compression method are evaluated for thickness, hardness test, friability test, uniformity of weight, drug content estimation. All the formulation were found to be good appearance without showing any chipping, capping and sticking defects and all parameters were also passed the test.
Conclusion:
When comparing all formulation, F1containing HPMC K15 showed a sustained release of 98.7% at end of 16th hour. Percentage drug release obtained from sustained release tablets of ramipril were subjected for kinetic treatment for kinetic treatment to know the release order and was found that F1 formulation follow zero order release and follow the mechanism of both diffusion and erosion.


CYCLODEXTRINS AND THEIR PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATIONS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Abdulrhman. A. Akasha,  Malak Ali Elwahedi,  Areej Mohmoud Eldeeb
Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Pharmacy,
Tripoli University, Libya.
*akashaabdu@yahoo.co.uk

ABSTRACT
Cyclodextrins are formed by the action of cyclodextrin-trans-glycosidase enzyme (CTG) on the medium containing starch. Cyclodextrins are cyclic oligosaccharides containing at least six D-(+)- glucopyranose units attached by α (1-4) glucoside bonds. The three natural cyclodextrins, α , β and γ differ in their ring size and solubility.
One of the striking feature of cyclodextrins is their ability to form inclusion complexes with a variety of compounds, by entrapping their molecules (guest) inside the cyclodextrin cavity, which act as a host. Cyclodextrin complexing agent are often used, in pharmaceutical formulation of oral products, to increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble or unstable drug. The simplified review presents the evaluation of cyclodextrins drug complexes in pharmaceutical formulation. The preparation of sodium valproate phenytoin sodium/ β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in a trial to stabilize the drug against moisture absorption and forming non-hygroscopic powders which are suitable for tablets by direct compression was reviewed. The preparation of phenytoin sodium / β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex in a trial to stabilize the drug against moisture absorption and mask its bitter taste was reviewed.
The preparation of piroxicam/ β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes is a exhibited higher dissolution rates and absorption efficiency values, than the corresponding un-complexes drug.
Cyclodextrins as complexing agents are often used in pharmaceutical formulation of oral products to increase the bioavailability of poorly water soluble or unstable drugs.