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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF GASTRORETENTIVE HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE FLOATING MICROSPHERES: STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Y. Veda Pravallika* , K.Rajyalakshmi
Bapatla college of pharmacy,
Bapatla, Andhra Pradesh
yadlapallivedapravallika@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The main objective of this work is to formulate gastroretentive floating microspheres of hydrochlorothiazide and to study the effect of formulation variables like drug to polymer ratio and concentration of polymer dispersion. The hydrochlorothiazide floating microspheres were formulated by using orifice-ionic gelation technique. These microspheres were formulated by using sodium alginate as sustained release polymer, sodium bicarbonate as gas generating agent and calcium chloride as a cross linking agent. The rheological properties of the polymer dispersion were studied. The microspheres were formulated by different drug to polymer ratio’s at various concentrations of sodium alginate dispersion. Thus formulated microspheres were evaluated for floating behaviour, drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, micromeritic properties, particle size, swelling index, invitro drug release studies and release kinetics. The better formulation was subjected for stability studies and SEM analysis. The effect of formulation variables on the entrapment efficiency and release rate constant was studied by statistical analysis. The hydrochlorothiazide microspheres formulated with 1:3 drug to polymer ratio and 3.5% sodium alginate dispersion concentration was selected as optimized formulation based on the results.


ANTIBACTERIAL, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF TRICHOSANTHES CUCUMERINA LEAVES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Israt Jahan Bulbul*, Khadiza-tul-Kubra, Mohita Chowdhury Shimu
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
*israt_jahanb872@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
The main aim of this study was to find out the antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of T. cucumerina (Cucurbitaceae). Disc diffusion technique was used for in vitro anbacterial screening against gram positive, gram negative human pathogenic bacteria. Here kanamycin disc (30 mg/disc) was used as standard. The chloroform and the n-hexane extract of T. cucumerina showed moderate antibacterial activity with the average zone of inhibition 7-13 mm and 7-9 mm respectively. The brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was used to determine the cytotoxic activity and vincristine sulphate was used as positive control. Among the extractives the chloroform soluble fraction demonstrated the highest cytotoxic activity with LC50 17.09 µg/ml which indicates the compounds present in the chloroform extract are promisingly cytotoxic. Antioxidant activity test of the crude extracts were assessed by means of DPPH free radical scavenging method where ascorbic acid was used as standard. The ethyl acetate fraction of T. cucumerinashowed strongest antioxidant activity with IC50 value of 52.18 µg/ml.Incase of phenolic content, the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of T. cucumerina revealed 18.79, 31.33 and 29.04 mg of GAE / gm of extractives, respectively.


DIAGNOSIS OF GRANULAR CELL TUMOUR OF THE UPPER LIP USING POLYMER HRP DETECTION SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
1Neeraj Kumar Lohani*, 2Prakash Singh Nainwal
1Institute of Biomedical Education & Research, Mangalayatan University, Aligarh- Uttar Pradesh, India,
2Govt. medical College Haldwani, Nainital Uttrakhand, India
*neerajlohani06@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Oral granular cell tumour is a rare soft tissue tumour ofcan develop on any skin or mucosal surface. Granular cell tumors can affect all parts of the body; however, the head and neck areas are affected 45% to 65% of the time. Of the head and neck cases 70% of lesions are located intraorally (tongue, oral mucosa, hard palate). The next most common location that lesions are found in the head and neck area is the larynx(10%).[1] In patients 30% of cases have been reported to occur in the lip, but this presentation in adults is extremely rare. The present study is concerned a case of oral granular cell tumour in a 60 year-old female, located in the upper lip. Histopathological examination revealed granular cells which stained positively for S-100 protein; a finding supportive of a neural origin. A history of trauma was elicited in this case, and the lesion was treated with surgical excision.


EVLUATION OF EFFECTS OF COMMIPHORA WIGHTII IN DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE (DHEA) INDUCED POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS) IN RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kavitha.A*, Narendra Babu.A, Sathish Kumar M, Veena Kiran.S

Department of pharmacology
Chalapathi institute of pharmaceutical sciences,
Lam, Guntur-522034, Andhra Pradesh
andugulakavitha@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Background:

Hyperandrogenism and insulin resistance are the main manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which appears to be caused by exposure to androgenized models have developed and investigated to study the etiology of polycystic ovary syndrome.
Objective:

To evaluate the modulatory effects of Commiphora wightii (C.wightii) resins in response to hyperandrogenism in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Method:

The animals were divided 18 adult (5-6 months old) wistar rats in to 4 groups the PCOS model was induced by daily administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) 6mg/Kg in sesame oil p.o., up to 15 days and the rescue groups were take daily with metformin and C.wightii resin ethanolic extract 100mg/ kg in addition to DHEA. Serum glucose levels measured and steroid hormone levels were measured by fully automated bidirectionally interfaced chemi luminescent immunoassay. Samples were stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological morphology.
Results:

The obtained results related to DHEA induced PCOS a significant (P<0.05) increase in hormone profile (estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulated hormone) in PCOS rats in adult rats than the rescue groups. Furthermore glucose levels significantly (<0.05) elevated in PCOS rats compared with the other groups. The test treated ovaries had lower number of follicles compared to DHEA control group and similar to that of the control group than the standard.
Conclusion:

Commiphora wightii
resin has a potential role in reducing DHEA induced PCOS by reducing the morphological abnormalities of the ovarian follicles and normal hormone levels in adult rats.


ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF TREWIA NUDIFLORA

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Yesmin Begum
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
yesumyta@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of the study is to verify the traditional uses of different parts of Trewia nudiflora. Leaves, fruits, twigs & seeds of T. nudiflora were extracted with ethanol to evaluate antibacterial, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities.  Antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of different parts of T. nudiflora was revealed by disc diffusion method using kanamycin as standard. The leaf extract showed very good activity against Shigella dysenteriae with 37.5 mm zone of inhibition and moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeroginosa with 16.5 mm. The fruit extract also showed very good activity against Shigella boydii with 22.5 mm zone of inhibition. The twig extract also showed very good activity with 20mm zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeroginosa andthe seed extract showed moderate antibacterial activity. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by using DPPH spectrophotometrically and ascorbic acid was used as standard. Among all the parts, the twig extract showed highest antioxidant activity having an IC50 value of 35.51µg/ml. The leaf, twig  and fruit extracts showed significant cytotoxicity with LC50 value of 9.17 µg/ml, 10 µg/ml and 10.53 µg/ml, respectively evaluated by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using vincristine sulfate as standard.


A REVIEW AND APPLICATION OF CRYOPROTECTANT: THE SCIENCE OF CRYONICS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Ankit J. Joshi
Department of Pharmaceutics & Pharmaceutical Technology,
S. K. Patel College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Ganpat University, Ganpat vidyanagar, Kherva, Mehsana-Gozaria Highway, Gujarat.
Joshiankit2824@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The preservation of cells, tissues and organs by cryopreservation is promising technology now days and Low temperature technology has progressed in the field of tissue engineering, food preservation, fertility preservation, making disease resistant breeds since the early years to occupy a central role in this technology. Cryopreservation is important technology in every field like in organ cryopreservation, food cryopreservation, human cryopreservation, seeds cryopreservation, protein cryopreservation and pharmaceuticals. Cryobiologists will be required to collaborate with new physical and molecular sciences to meet this challenge. How cryoprotectants work is a mystery to most people. In fact, how they work was even a mystery to science until just a few decades ago. This article will explain in basic terms how cryoprotectants protect cells from damage caused by ice crystals, and with some of the advances.


GABAPENTIN: A NEW BROAD SPECTRUM ANTIEPILEPTIC DRUG

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Firake Bhushan M.1, Pandagale Sagar J.2, Firke Sandip D.3, Palshikar Gautam S.4
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy and Research, Hadapsar, Pune
2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy and Research, Hadapsar, Pune
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, SES’s R. C. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur
4Department of Pharmacognosy, JSPM’s Jayawantrao Sawant College of Pharmacy and Research, Hadapsar, Pune
bmf.jscopr@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Epilepsy is one of the most serious disorders of the brain, affecting about 50 million people worldwide. Epilepsy leads to multiple interacting medical, psychological, economic and social consequences. Successful seizure control is very important in decreasing the psychosocial and economic costs of epilepsy. Yet, most therapies didn’t completely improve patients for numerous reasons. The most effective antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) include phenytoin, carbamazepine, valproic acid, phenobarbital, and primidone. Of the older AEDs, carbamazepine and valproic acid together bring a threat of hepatic toxicity and have been associated with fetal anomalies. Carbamazepine and phenytoin aggravate hypersensitivity reactions in a significant number of patients, and phenytoin is associated with chronic adverse events (AEs). Phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, and primidone are hepatic enzyme inducers. Valproic acid, on the contrary, is a powerful hepatic inhibitor.

The newer agents have fewer drug interactions and slight, if at all, effect on the CYP450 enzyme system and other metabolic pathways. One of these new agents was gabapentin (GBP). GBP, the new antiepileptic drug (AED) has a broad spectrum of anti-seizure effects, less adverse effects and less drug interaction. GBP has since achieved international acknowledgment, not for its antiepileptic properties, but also its effectiveness in the managing of acute and chronic pain syndromes, especially neuropathic pain. It is prescribed as an add-on medication for the treatment of patients aged >12 years with partial and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures and for children aged 3 to 12 years with partial seizures. It has been used for monotherapy in adults in 38 countries. Gabapentin is regarded as safe and tolerable with a promising pharmacokinetic profile and an extensive therapeutic index.

The present article reviews the available information that dealing with the long-standing efficiency and safety of gabapentin in the treatment of patients with epilepsy.


DATA INTEGRITY NON-COMPLIANCES – THE GOOD, BAD AND UGLY

ABOUT AUTHORS
Krishnendu Singha
Manager – Quality Assurance
[The author is a Quality Assurance professional of a leading MNC]
Krish_singha2007@yahoo.co.in

DI issues – a cause or effect
“It is only the laboratory where such issues were noted, otherwise, we were good at everything”- heard almost after every USFDA inspection once a 483 or warning letter has been issued. It’s been always the laboratories accused of objectionable GMP findings specifically related to data integrity issues.

The question that remains unanswered is why would someone from one department of a big organization be so unethical, so unprofessional that they tend to cause such damages to their own organization who they receive salaries from? In fact, they had to work hard to earn this job! Neither are the lab professionals happy to have damaged organizational reputations. We perhaps may need to rethink whether we are blaming the corners for holding dust of a big room. It might turn out that we start realizing integrity issues are actually the consequence of an organizational deficiency and a reflection of an operational integrity; it has less to do with data and more to do with integrity. Data integrity non-compliance therefore is not the cause but a real effect.


STUDY OF EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF ZINGIBER OFFICINALE ON PHARMACOKINETIC PROFILE OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE ON STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED TYPE II DM RAT MODEL

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Swati R. Dhande, Aruhana R. Patil*, Lilasrao J. Kadam
Bharati Vidyapeeth's College of Pharmacy,
Belapur, Navi Mumbai
*arpatil1991@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic endocrine disorder. It is one of the most rapidly growing diseases worldwide. Various pharmacotherapies have been practiced in the cure and management of DM. The existing conventional therapies aims at reducing hyperglycemia and achieving better glycemic control over the time, but fail to combat the other risk factors associated with the disease. The newer approaches are targeting to combat the risk factors and reduce the progression of disease. The newer approaches includes regenerational therapies, use of herbal and natural supplements, use of antioxidants and use combinations of conventional therapies with above mentioned therapies. Though these combinations have been found to be promising in the management of DM, the risk of pharmacological interactions cannot be overlooked. The present study was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic interaction between DPP-IV inhibitor sitagliptin and a nutraceutical Z. officinale. STZ (Streptozotocin) and HFD (High Fat Diet) induced Type II DM rat model was used and the possible interaction was determined. The evaluation was done on validated HPTLC bioanalytical method. The present combination of sitagliptin and ginger did not affect the pharmacokinetic profile of sitagliptin.


REVIEW: TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN THE TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Sezal1*, Vaibhav Walia2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences MDU Rohtak, Haryana
2Division Pharmacology, G.V.M. College of Pharmacy, Sonepat, Haryana
rk1891987@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Depression is a complex psychiatric disorder characterized by depressed mood, anhedonia, loss of energy and low self esteem. Nitric oxide (NO) is the smallest biologically active molecules which plays an important role in the intracellular signaling. NO negatively controls the levels of 5-HT. Inhibition of NO synthases (NOS) which are responsible for the production of NO; may exert antidepressants like action. Thus, NO is involved in the pathogenesis of depression and the agents which suppress the NO production exerts antidepressants like effect. Tinospora cordifolia commonly named as “Guduchi” belonging to family Menispermaceae; has been reported of its strong free radical scavenging properties against superoxide anion (O2-), hydroxyl radicals (OH), NO, and peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-). Thus the aim of the present manuscript is to demonstrate the role of NO in depression and how Tinospora cordifolia exerts beneficial effects in the patients of depression.