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ANTIBIOTIC POISONING AND FOOD POISONING THROUGH CHICKEN

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Suman Pattanayak
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
Vijaya Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences for Women,
Enikepadu, Vijayawada, AP, India
suman6982@gmail.com

Chicken is one of the most popular foods. There can’t be many people who do not enjoy chicken curry, chicken pakoda, roast chicken, stew or barbecued chicken on a Sunday. This includes children as well as adults who both enjoy the taste and versatility of chicken. Since the 1940s, antibiotics have played a critical role in protecting the public’s health, and are responsible for saving millions of human lives. About 90% of antibiotics produced in the world are given to farm animals. The use of low doses of antibiotics by the modern food animal industry is responsible for drug-resistant bacteria emerging on farms which reach the general population through human or animal carriers, and through the food consumers eat. The chicken is one of the worst offenders when it comes to food poisoning. Many of us have either experienced this first hand or know someone who has suffered from this nasty illness.


A REVIEW ARTICLE: PRONIOSOMES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shweta Vashist*, Jyoti Kaushik, Batra K. Sunil
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Hindu College of Pharmacy, Sonipat
shwetavashist55@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Skin is the main target of topical and transdermal preparations. Major aim of transdermal drug delivery sytem is to cross the stratum corneum. Now-a-days we better know vesicles have importance in cellular communication. Niosomal carrier are systems containing soft vesicles, composed of non –ionic surfactant and an alternative to liposomes. They can entrap both hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals but these types of vesicles include the superior physical stability problems such as aggregation, fusion, and leakage of encapsulated drug. Proniosomes are provesicular approach which overcomes the limitations of vesicular system (Niosomes). Provesicular approach has been proposed to enhance the stability of vesicles. Proniosomes is a compact semi-solid liquid crystalline product of non- ionic surfactant  easily formed on dissolving the surfactant in minimal amount of acceptable solvent and the least amount of aqueous phase. Proniosomes can be converted into niosomes in –situ by absorbing water from the skin.


DIFFERENCE SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF CIPROFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND IN ITS FORMULATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kharat Rekha1*, Jadhav Santosh1, Pawar Seemarani2, Tamboli Ashpak2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade,
Sangola, Solapur, Maharashtra, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical chemistry, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade,
Sangola, Solapur, Maharashtra, India
*kharatrs26@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
A simple, precise and accurate difference spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in bulk drug form by difference spectrophotometric method. Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride has exhibited maximum absorbance at about 272nm and 278nm in acidic and basic solution respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2-10 µg/ml in both the cases. The regression of coefficient was found to be r2=0.9982. The LOD and LOQ value were found to be 0.5140ppm and 0.5577ppm respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride in bulk drug. As per ICH guidelines the result of the analysis were validated statistically and were found to be satisfactory.


BREAKTHROUGHS IN EPIGENETICS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shashi Shekhar Anand, Navgeet, Balraj Singh Gill*
Centre for Biosciences,
School of Basic and Applied Sciences,
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, India
gillsinghbalraj@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The word ‘epigenetic’ was first coined by Conrad Waddington in 1946. It deals with functionally relevant modifications to the genome that do not include a change in the nucleotide sequence. Till date observation has focused on the functions of genome sequences and how their regulation occurs. The emerging epigenetic changes and the interactions between cis-acting elements with protein factors  plays a central role in gene regulation as well as give insight to various diseases. To evaluate the crosstalk of DNA and protein by taking account of the whole genome, one new evolving technique which is called as ChIP-chip, works on the principle of combining chromatin immunoprecipitation with microarray. ChIP-chip has been recently used in basic biological studies and may be improved further and can be useful for other to aspects, like human diseases. Now a days large amount of discoveries by ChIP-chip and other high-throughput techniques like this   may be connected with evolving bioinformatics to add to our knowledge of life and diseases.


A STUDY ON DRUG UTILIZATION PATTERN AND EFFECTIVENESS OF ORAL HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS IN DIABETES MELLITUS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Alti Aparna1*, Seema Pushpa Latha1, Gopalgari Lakshmi Nagarjun1, Galammagari Nagaraju1, C. Gopinath1, P. Murali Madhav2
1Annamacharya College of Pharmacy, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh.
2Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Science, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh.
aparna.althi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is on alarming rise in India. Drug utilization studies help to identify the adherence to standard guidelines and extent of drug use and to evaluate the rational drug usage.
Aims and objectives: To determine the drug utilization pattern and effectiveness of oral hypoglycemic agents among diabetes mellitus patients.
Materials and methods: It is a prospective observational study carried out for a period of six months at RIMS kadapa, and two others diabetic centers. The diabetic patients who visited the medicine outpatient department were included. After obtaining approval from institutional ethical committee, a structured data collection form was used to collect demographic data, complete prescription details and other relevant information required for the study. The drug utilization pattern was determined. The drugs were categorized by Anatomical therapeutic classification (ATC) and DDD/1000 inhabitants/day was calculated by using WHO guidelines. Among all oral hypoglycemic agents the most effective drug/combination in this region was identified.
RESULTS:  716 prescriptions were assessed out of which,401(56.0%) were females and 315(43.9%) were males, most of the patients were in the age group of 40-60 for males 175(55%) and females 205(51.1%). Hypertension was the most common co-morbid seen. The average number of drugs per prescription was 4.26 and anti-diabetics per prescription was 1.79. DDD/1000 inhabitants/day for metformin (A10BA02) was 10.5, glimiperide (A10BB12) was 9.3, glibenclamide (A10BB01) was 7.91, pioglitazone (A10BG03) was 7.25. Out of 716 patients 311(45.25%) patients were on Monotherapy, and 405 (56.5%) were on Combination therapy.A total of 200 newly diagnosed patients of diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study out of which only 128 members were followed up successfully. The combinations of Metformin +Sulfonyl Ureas + Others showed a good control of fasting blood sugar when compared with only Metformin, only Sulfonyl Ureas or Metformin +Sulfonyl Ureas, Sulfonyl Ureas + Others.
Conclusion: Metformin was the most utilized drug followed by glimiperide. Combination therapy was most frequent when compared to monotherapy in which metformin+glimiperide was commonly prescribed one. so by understanding  the current prescribing patterns attempts can be made to improve rational prescribing. The combination of Metformin+Sulfonyl Ureas+Others is more effective combination.


DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LAMOTRIGINE AND CLOZAPINE IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE BY ABSORPTION CORRECTION METHOD

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Priyanka P. Atodariya*, Hasumati A. Raj, Vineet C. Jain
*Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy Collage, Kim,
Surat, Gujarat, India
*atodariya.priyanka@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
The simple spectroscopic method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of Lamotrigine and Clozapine in synthetic mixture. Absorbance Correction Method involves the measurement of absorption at two wavelengths 307 nm (lmaxfor Lamotrigine) and 360 nm (lmax for Clozapine). The method was found linear between the range of 1-5 µg/ml for Lamotrigine and 6-30 µg/ml for Clozapine for method. The accuracy and precision was determined and validated statistically. Both the method showed good reproducibility and recovery with %RSD less than 1. The method was found to be rapid, specific, precise and accurate and can be successfully applied for the routine analysis for Lamotrigine and Clozapine in bulk and combined dosage form.


ANTICONVULSANT EFFECT OF LEAF AND BARK OF ERYTHRINA VARIEGATA LINN AND BUTEA MONOSPERMA (LAM) TAUB IN DIFFERENT EXPERIMENTAL CONVULSION MODEL IN RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Prakash T. Sangale*1, Dhananjay B. Deshmukh2, Rajesh Bhambere3
1Department of Quality Assurance Techniques,
2Department of Pharmacology,
VJSM’S Vishal Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research,
Ale, Junnar, Pune
*prakashsangale091@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder characterized by the occurrence of epileptic seizures, with or without characteristic body movements (convulsion)affecting about 50 million people worldwide. Synthetic drugs for the treatment of epilepsy are associated with severe side effects and addiction liabilities upon long term uses. Thus, researchers around the globe are searching for natural resources.Erythrinavariegata and Butea monosperma is a traditional medicinal plant used to treat a seizure.The present studies reveal that the anticonvulsant activity by Erythrina variegate & Butea monosperma of bark & leaf PTZ and MES induced convulsions in wistar rats using Erythrina variegata & Butea monosperma of bark & leaf ethanolic extracts extracted successively. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied in depth.

In Pentylene tetrazole (PTZ) an maximal electro shock seizure(MES) models test parameters like latncy, onset of tonic convulsions, clonic convulsions and percent protection were observed in the different test groups. Inconclusion, we showed that the ethanolic extract of Erythrina variegata and Butea monosperma has anticonvulsant effect in the both models, suggesting their possible depressant action in the central nervous system. EEBM and EEEV gave significant protection (P<0.001) against PTZ & MES induce convulsion.


SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF ITOPRIDE HYDROCHLORIDE AND LANSOPRAZOLE IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE USING SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC TECHNIQUE (FIRST ORDER DERIVATIVE METHOD

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Ashif I. Bhim1, Farhana V. Buchiy1, Hasumati A. Raj1, Vineet C. Jain2
1Department of Qaulity Assurane, Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India.
2Department of Pharmacognocy, Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat, Gujarat, India.
bhimiqbal23@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A simple, accurate and precise spectroscopic method was developed for simultaneous estimation of Itopride Hydrochloride and Lansoprazole in synthetic mixture using first order derivative zero-crossing method. Itopride Hydrochlorideshowed zero crossing point at 278.12nmwhile Lansoprazole showed zero crossing point at 244.58nm. The dA/dλ was measured at 244.12 nm for Itopride Hydrochloride and 278.12nmfor Lansoprazole and calibration curves were plotted as dA/dλ versus concentration, respectively. The method was found to be linear (r2>0.999) in the range of 5-25μg/ml for Itopride Hydrochloride at 244.58nm. The linear correlation was obtained (r2>0.996) in the range of 5-25 μg/ml for Lansoprazole at 278.12 nm. The limit of determination was 0.155μg/ml and 0.059μg/ml forItopride Hydrochloride and Lansoprazole, respectively. The limit of quantification was 0.472μg/ml and 0.179μg/ml for Itopride Hydrochloride and Lansoprazolerespectively. The accuracy of these method were evaluated by recovery studies and good recovery result were obtained greater than 99% shows first order derivation zero crossing. The method was successfully applied for simultaneous determination of Itopride Hydrochloride and Lansoprazolein binary mixture.


DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMITRIPTYLINE HYDROCHLORIDE AND METHYLCOBALAMIN IN THEIR TABLET DOSAGE FORM BY UV SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Chetna V. Karchaliya*, Parula B. Patel
Department of Quality Assurance,
S. J. Thakkar Pharmacy College,
Rajkot, Gujarat, India
*sonichetna158@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The simple, accurate and precise Absorption Correction Method has been developed for the simultaneous estimation of Amitriptyline hydrochloride and Methylcobalamin in combined tablet dosage form. The method utilizes distilled water as solvent and λmax of Amitriptyline hydrochloride and Methylcobalamin selected for analysis were found to be 239 nm and 351 nm respectively. The method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The Linearity range lies between 20-60 µg/ml (R2 0.9998) for Amitrityline hydrochloride and 3-9 µg/ml (R2 0.9990) for methylcobalamin. The accuracy and precision were determined and found to comply with ICH guidelines. The method showed good reproducibility and recovery with %RSD in desired range. The proposed method can be applied for routine analysis of both drugs.


FLUORIDE ADULTERATION IN DENTAL PRODUCTS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Nidha Amir*, Mohd Mazhar, Abhinav Sawhney, S.K Rajput
Department of Pharmacology
Amity Institute of Pharmacy, Amity University, NOIDA, Uttar Pradesh-201313, India
nidha.amir05@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Fluorine, the 13th most abundant element of the earth’s crust, represents about 0.3g / kg of earth’s crust. It occurs mainly in the form of chemical compounds such as sodium fluoride or hydrogen fluoride, which are present in minerals fluorospar, fluorapatite, topaz and cryolitect. Fluoride is frequently encountered in minerals and in geochemical deposits and is generally released into subsoil water sources by slow natural degradation of fluorine contained in rocks. Fluoride being a natural element has several effects on health. Fluoride is beneficial to health if the concentration (CF) of the fluoride ion (F-) in drinking water is less than 1.5 mg/L (WHO 1994). A higher concentration causes serious health hazards. The disease caused manifests itself in three forms, namely, dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis. On a large scale, it is used in dental product due to its anti- sensitizing property and abrasive action. Application of fluoride must be controlled and restricted to reduce the side effect induced by it.