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Arvind Negi1*, Balraj Singh Gill2
1Centre for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda- 151001
2Centre for Biosciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001
Stereochemistry of clinical agents play a key role in their success to become drugs. Tautomerism is a structural isomerism, playing a key role in the orientation of organic compounds and also found significant in distinctive base pairing in nucleic acids. Keto-enol form usually occurs and found prominently among different types of tautomers. The enol form ionizes in the physiological solution into enolate and alter the biological activity. So, how this enolate form brings modification in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a drug is very important and quite interesting to know. As this form is ionic in nature so it increases the interaction with the concerning receptors, enzymes, ion channels or functional proteins. In this review we cover and compile success, role and the significance of the enolate form of clinical agents which succeed to become drugs!
Prathima Patil*1, Tahseen Sameena1, S.P.Sethy, K.Shailaja1, P.Mishra2
1Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Sushrut Institute of Pharmacy
Taddanpally (V), Pulkal (M), Medak-502293.
2Department Of Pharmacology, Malla Reddy College Of Pharmacy
Maisimaguda, Dhulapalli, Secundrabad-14
Though patents are effective tools for promoting innovation and protecting intellectual property in the pharmaceutical sciences, there has been a growing concern that the current scenario of patient and patent is not vivid in developing countries like India. A lot of complications arise when a pharmaceutical firm applies for patent for their product in developing countries. Innovation in global health care needs patent protection as a safeguard, so patent is a must requires item for health care industries. We can say Patent as a fuel for innovation simultaneously it can burn the pocket of economically backward patients in developing countries. But this thing should not happen as both patent and patient needs each other. A friendly relationship should exist between them. In this context we have discussed about various aspect of patent and patient related issue and also about sensible solution for the issue.
M.Pharm 1st Sem.
Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Aging is the accumulation of changes in person overtime. Aging in humans refers to a multidimensional process of physical, physiological and social changes.
Recent studies have revealed that certain medicinal herbs are effective in the intervention or prevention of aging and also in the eradication of age associated disorders. Herbs used in anti-aging programmes have medicinal properties which stimulate the vital organs in the body and restore their normal function. Many of them possess antioxidant properties.
Ginseng derived from the Chinese term, belongs to the genus Panax, of the family Araliaceaeby the presence of ginsenoside.
Recent studies explain the exotic role of Panax ginseng’s ginsenoside in promoting neurological health support and also state its beneficial effects in anti-aging and nerve related problems.
Centre for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001
Activation of immune response is developed in respect to some xenobiotic sensitization, which is supposed to prevent and protect the body from sufferings induced by these xenobiotic. But unfortunately sometime body behaves in a paradoxical manner which misguides the immune system and ultimately turned into a bizarre situation of immune function. One of such response is anaphylactic shock, which is quite fatal if untreated. This review brings insights into the molecular physiology of anaphylactic shock and how some people elicit allergic response to certain substances but not the other. This major catastrophe of the body holds an error of immune system whereas this commentary based review disclosed the synchronization of the unfortunate lessons of the immune system, which makes it a cruel to cause DEATH!
Ramesh Babu Pedada1*, Eukondalu Vanka1, Dr.A.M.S.Sudhakar Babu1, Prasanna kumar Desu1, P.Ramaa Bharathi1, P.Venkateawara.rao2
1Department of Pharmaceutics, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
A.M.Reddy Memorial College of pharmacy, Narasaraopet, Guntur (Dt), Andhra Pradesh, India.
Enhancement of solubility, dissolution rate and bioavailability of drug is a very challenging task in drug development, nearly 40% of the new chemical entities currently being discovered are poorly water soluble drugs. Aqueous solubility of any therapeutically active substance is a key property as it governs dissolution, absorption and thus the in vivo efficacy. Orally administered drugs completely absorb only when they show fair solubility in gastric medium and such drugs shows good bioavailability. The solubility and dissolution properties of drugs play an important role in the process of formulation development. Problem of solubility is a major challenge for formulation scientist which can be solved by different technological approaches during the pharmaceutical product development work. The present review deals in detail about the solubilisation by surfactants, cosolvents, complexation for the improvement of solubility of poorly water soluble drugs.
Surya Prakash Singh*
Vaagdevi College of Pharmacy,
Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Warangal,
pin:506001, Warangal, A.P, India
Nanotechnology, a multi disciplinary science has received considerable attention in the recent times in the discovery of new chemical entities, diagnosis and treatment of several ailments. It has created a remarkable impact on healthcare sector as an offshoot called nanomedicine. Many newer drugs show promising invitro effect but lack invivo effect due to decreased bioavailability. Nanomedicine has developed many drug delivering systems like nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, nanosuspensions, nanosponges etc., to overcome the problems of bioavailability out of which nanosponge is an advanced drug delivery system which offers diverse advantages than the other available systems. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the methods of development, evaluation techniques and possible areas of applications and future of nanosponge drug delivery systems.
COMPARATIVE STUDY ON PROPHYLACTIC USE OF AMOXICILLIN AND CLAVULANIC ACID IN COMBINATION VS CEFTRIAXONE IN NEUROSURGERY WARD OF A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL WITH ASSESSMENT OF RESISTANCE RATE IN NEUROSURGERY TO ANTIMICROBIALS
Neehar Dixit, Arun Kumar, Prashant mathur, Preeti kothiyal
Department of clinical pharmacy
Division of Pharmaceutics
SGRRITS, Patel Nagar
Antimicrobial agents are among the most commonly prescribed drugs and account for 20% of the hospital pharmacy budget. The present study was designed to observe and compare the prophylactic use of antibiotics (amoxicillin+clavulanic acid vs ceftriaxone) in neurosurgery ward of a tertiary care hospital with assessment of resistance rate in neurosurgery to antimicrobials. Total no of 250 patients were included in the study, in this study inclusion of 232 patients were receiving amoxicillin+clavulanic acid or Ceftriaxone for prophylaxis in neurosugery. The following parameters were included- reduction of fever, reduction of exudates, depression or disappearance of pathogenic bacteria, overall clinical improvement, complications and length of hospitalization stay. Test of significance of two real ratios was applied and the value of Z indicated (Z=36) which is highly significant hence two ratios are not equal. It implied that ceftriaxone was better than amoxicillin+clavulanic acid. Present study conclude that the resistance rate of penicillins is higher than ceftriaxone in neurosurgery ward. Data also shows that ceftriaxone is the better choice of treatment and it reduces the hospitalization stay of patients and lead to less burden on patient.
S.P.Sethy*, Tahseen Sameena, Prathima Patil, K.Shailaja
Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
Sushrut Institute of Pharmacy
Taddanpally (V), Pulkal (M), Medak-502293
The complexity of today’s pharmaceutical market requires more efficient drug development and production. Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) has the opportunity to make pharmaceutical production more effective and with lower risk – even in this vastly complex environment. The product lifecycle management creates and manages a company's product-related intellectual capital starting from an idea to its final retreat. In pharmaceutical industry, it benefits through enhancing the lifespan of patent and pricing strategies. Improved patient compliance, revenue growth, expanded clinical benefits; cost advantages life extension exclusivity and quicker market launch are amongst the main applications of product lifecycle management. Leaders are actively implementing PLM and are reaping the benefits of fewer problems, lower costs, higher yields, employees armed to make good decisions, and audits that make everyone more confident as they access the information they need. The present manuscript focuses on product lifecycle management, problems and the key solutions for a successful product lifecycle management in pharmaceuticals.
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences
Pathak Namita*, Kothiyal Preeti, Dr. Prashant Mathur
Department of Clinical Pharmacy,
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Sciences,
Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, 248001
The prevalence of hypothyroidism is three times higher among women than men. The prevalence in an unselected community population of young, middle aged and elderly individuals is about 1.4 percent and the estimated annual incidence rate is one to two per 1,000 women. Surveys of geriatric populations have yielded estimated prevalence rates for overt hypothyroidism of 0.2 percent to 3 percent. The presentation of symptoms in the elderly may be atypical or absent. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is estimated to be between 4.0–8.5% of the adult US population without known thyroid disease, and the prevalence increases with age. Up to 20% of women over the age of 60 are estimated to have subclinical hypothyroidism. Caucasians are more likely to have subclinical hypothyroidism than non-Caucasians. The risk is highest in those with type I diabetes mellitus, a family history of thyroid disease or head/neck cancers treated with external beam radiation. Other risk factors include previous radioactive iodine treatment or thyroid surgery. Interestingly, about 20% of patients on thyroid medications are both over replaced and under replaced. Because of the high incidence of thyroid disease, The American Thyroid Association recommends measuring thyroid function on all adults beginning at age 35 years and every 5 years thereafter noting that more frequent screening may be appropriate in high risk groups. The treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism has been controversial but more recent data suggest there are increased risks of ischemic heart disease in untreated patients and that a more aggressive approach to treat ment would be appropriate.7 In contrast, subclinical hyperthyroidism has more well understood risks of atrial fibrillation and flutter and so should be more aggressively treated.