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Sachin B. Khetmalas*, Pramod B. Ghanwat, Rushikesh T. Bande
Govt. college of pharmacy, Amravati,
kathora naka, Amravati(Maharashtra) 444604.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder. It is mainly characterized by hyperglycemia and when the renal threshold for glucose reabsorption is exceeded then glucose splits into the urine (glycosuria), polyuria and thus also leads to polydipsia. Insulin deficiency causes wasting through increased breakdown and reduced synthesis of proteins. In type I diabetes, there is absolute deficiency of insulin, without insulin treatment such patients die due to diabetic ketoacidosis. In type II diabetes patients having insulin resistance in it. Such patients are often obese and usually present in older patients.Various complications develop as a consequence of metabolic disorder, often over many years. Many of these are the result of blood vessels, either large (macrovascular disease) or small (microangiopathy). Microangiopathy is a distinctive feature of diabetes mellitus and particularly affects retina, kidney and peripheral nerves. Diabetes mellitus is common cause of chronic renal failure. It is associated with accumulation of osmotically active metabolites of glucose, produced by the action of aldose reductase.
Md. Yaqub Khan*, Poonam Gupta, Dr. Dipendu Goswami, Bipin Bihari, Vikas Kumar Verma
Saroj Institute of Technology & Management,
Ahimamau P.O. Arjunganj Sultanpur Road,
Purchase and use of OTC drugs without full knowledge is not only a waste of resources for all stakeholders but can be harmful for consumers. Creating awareness of rational drug use is only possible through continued public education with a broad vision of good health and wellbeing of the society. In developed economies, the four As of marketing has been addressed fairly well but in India, the accessibility and awareness is still on a lower side especially for allopathic OTC drugs. In India, the import, manufacture, distribution and sale of drugs and cosmetics are regulated by the Drugs and Cosmetics Act (DCA) and its subordinate legislation, the Drugs and Cosmetics Rules (DCR).
Mahaveer Prasad Kabra*, Sanjay Singh Bhandari, Shakti Singh, Paresh Mohan.
Kota College of Pharmacy, SP-1,
RIICO Industrial Area, Ranpur,
Jhalawar road, Kota, Rajasthan, India – 324009
Surfactant plays an important role in various drug delivery. To formulate the compounds sparingly soluble in water the surfactants are typically employed to increase solubility. Herbal are materials which have a tendency to preferentially get absorbed at the interface between two phases. The low solubility in biological fluids displayed by about 50% of the drugs still remains the main limitation in oral, parenteral and transdermal administration. Among the strategies to overcome these drawbacks surfactant is the most effective alternative. This article review about the herbal surfactants, their types, limitation, structure and mechanism, and evaluation of herbal surfactant.
The use of nanotechnology in medicine and more specifically drug delivery is set to spread rapidly. Currently many substances are under investigation for drug delivery and more specifically for cancer therapy. Interestingly pharmaceutical sciences are using nanoparticles to reduce toxicity and side effects of drugs and up to recently did not realize that carrier systems themselves may impose risks to the patient. The kind of hazards that are introduced by using nanoparticles for drug delivery are beyond that posed by conventional hazards imposed by chemicals in classical delivery matrices. For nanoparticles the knowledge on particle toxicity as obtained in inhalation toxicity shows the way how to investigate the potential hazards of nanoparticles. The toxicology of particulate matter differs from toxicology of substances as the composing chemical(s) may or may not be soluble in biological matrices, thus influencing greatly the potential exposure of various internal organs. This may vary from a rather high local exposure in the lungs and a low or neglectable exposure for other organ systems after inhalation. However, absorbed species may also influence the potential toxicity of the inhaled particles. For nanoparticles the situation is different as their size opens the potential for crossing the various biological barriers within the body. From a positive viewpoint, especially the potential to cross the blood brain barrier may open new ways for drug delivery into the brain. In addition, the nanosize also allows for access into the cell and various cellular compartments including the nucleus. A multitude of substances are currently under investigation for the preparation of nanoparticles for drug delivery, varying from biological substances like albumin, gelatin and phospholipids for liposomes, and more substances of a chemical nature like various polymers and solid metal containing nanoparticles. It is obvious that the potential interaction with tissues and cells, and the potential toxicity, greatly depends on the actual composition of the nanoparticle formulation. This paper provides an overview on some of the currently used systems for drug delivery.
*Anyonyya Mallam, surendar Angothu
Department of Pharmacognosy,
Vathsalya College of Pharmacy, Bhongir,
Nalgonda (Dist), Andhra Pradesh – 508116, India
Infectious diseases are disorders caused by pathogenic microorganisms like bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and multicellular parasites. The important cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries is due to pathogenic microorganisms. Symptoms associated with bacterial infections such as headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, cough, cold and organ failures. The therapeutic use of medicinal plant is becoming popular because of their lesser side effects and low resistance in microorganisms.This article describes the antibacterial properties of Oroxylum indicumVent., Lantana camara, Ruta graveolens, Argyreia argentea, Mallotus philippensis [Lam.] Muell. Arg. Var. philippensis, Mahonia manipurensis Takeda, Polyalthia longifoliavar. angustifolia, Prosopis cineraria (Linn.) druce, Bryonopsis laciniosa, Jatropha curcas.
IN SILICO DRUG DOCKING OF PHYTO INHIBITORS AGAINST TRIOSEPHOSPHATE ISOMERASE IN PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM
Pramod Shinde, Vijay s. Savakare
Department of Bioinformatics, Guru Nanak Khalsa College,
Matunga, Mumbai-19, India.
Malaria caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum is a major public health concern. The parasite lacks a functional tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), making glycolysis its sole energy source. One such enzyme is triose phosphate isomerase. This catalyses the isomerization of D-Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate to dihydroxy acetone phosphate. An attempt was made to identify the potential phyto inhibitors and inhibit the enzyme as well as to modify their side chain to impure the binding efficiently. Here, two datasets are made such as training set and testing set,in which first, is training set, contain 20 known inhibitors against Triosephosphate Isomerase and second is testing set which contain 7 phyto-inhibitors to be tested. Autodock Vina, a docking tool, is used for molecular docking that utilizes information on conformational variability from ensembles of experimental receptor structure ofTriosephosphate Isomerase. We show that experimentally determined binding orientations and computed energies of known Ligands can be reproduced accurately. It was reported that the presence of phosphate groups in a ligand confers better stable docking.
Scientist-B, Technology Information,
Forecasting and Assessment Council (TIFAC)
New Delhi, India.
The most wonderful creation in the human body is the Brain. Brain is a very complex organ with its major role in the nervous system. The central nervous system (CNS) is made of the brain and the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) is made of nerves. The entire human body is entangled with nerves for specific functions. Sensory nerves gathers information from all parts of the body from brain to face, ears, eyes, nose, and spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the rest of your body and sends the message to the brain. The main parts of the brain are Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Limbic System and Brain stem.
Bhaskar Ingole, Shradha Tiwari*
SSS. Indira College of pharmacy,
Pulsatile drug delivery aims to release drugs on a programmed pattern means at appropriate time and/or at appropriate site of action. Pulsatile Drug Delivery Systems are gaining a lot of interest as they deliver the drug at the right place at the right time and in the right amount, thus providing spatial and temporal delivery and increasing patient compliance These systems are designed according to the circadian rhythm of the body. Pulsatile release of the drugs is used where a constant drug release is not desired.Gastric retentive systems, systems where the drug is released following a programmed lag phase, chronopharmaceutical drug delivery systems matching human circadian rhythms, multiunit or multilayer systems with various combinations of immediate and sustained-release preparation, are all classified under pulsatile drug delivery systems. On the other hand, site-controlled release is usually controlled by factors such as the pH of the target site, the enzymes present in the intestinal tract and the transit time/pressure of various parts of the intestine. In this review, recent patents on pulsatile drug delivery of oral dosage forms are summarized and discussed.
Parmar Krutin D.1*, Pandya Kirtan B.2, Gajjar Alpesh M.3, Zala Shivraj D.3, Kela Amit N.1, Nathani Hitesh S.1
1*C. U. Shah College of Pharmacy and Research, Wadhwan city, Surendranagar, Gujarat, India.
2 Shree Balaji pharmacy college, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.
3Shree V.B. Manvar college of pharmacy, Upleta, Gujarat, India.
Tablet coating is perhaps one of the oldest pharmaceutical processes still in existence. Earlier, Sugar coating was adopted for pharmaceutical as from confectionary industry. But as it was tedious process and required skilled manipulation, film coating was started to be preferred over sugar coating. Development of film coating was mainly based on solutions of different polymers in various organic solvents. All these solvents are toxic in nature. Nobody ever was concerned about the problems like material cost, toxic effects due to coating or pollution etc. In today's competitive business environment, any cost saved will improve the market viability and success of any product. Therefore, left with no other choice but to eliminate the use of organic solvents and to start using water as the solvent system for tablet coating.
The main focus of this review is, to study various aspects of aqueous based film coating.
Master’s In Clinical Biochemistry
University Of Kashmir
There has been increasing public concern that chemicals in the environment are affecting human health by disrupting normal endocrine function. The exposure to these chemicals with steroid-like activity can disrupt normal endocrine function leading to altered reproductive capacity, infertility, endometriosis and breast and uterine cancer. In order to detect and evaluate the safety of such chemicals, several rodent experimental models have been developed. The OECD Enhanced Test Guideline 407 (repeated 28-day oral dose toxicity study) is one of rodent experimental models for detection of endocrine disrupters of these chemicals .