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TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY THROUGH CARRIERS: TRANSFERSOMES

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Nirlep kaur
Institute of pharmaceutical sciences,
Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana, India
Nirlep10@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Delivery of drug through Transdermal route represents a most convenient and novel approach. Transfersomes were found to be more effective as they render controlled release of drug due to depot formation in skin and were more effective in transdermal delivery. Transfersomes are applied to the skin and permeate through the stratum corneum lipid lamellar regions as a result of the hydration and osmotic force in the skin. Transfersomes have been widely used as a novel carrier for transdermal drug delivery. The Transfersomes can be evaluated by in vitro for vesicle shape and size, entrapment efficiency, degree of deformability, number of vesicles per cubic mm. Transfersomes enhances the penetration of most of the low as well as high molecular weight drugs. When tested in artificial systems transfersomes can pass through even tiny pores (100 nm) which are 1500 times smaller. The use of transfersomes carrier results in delivery of high concentration of active agents through the skin, regulated by system composition and their physical characteristics. Thus, this novel technique has got a great potential for overcoming current problems faced by the conventional techniques.


A REVIEW ON MEDICINAL PLANTS AFFECTING AMNESIA ON SCOPOLAMINE INDUCED MODEL

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Yash Prashar*, N.S Gill, Sahil Kakkar
Rayat Institute of Pharmacy; Railmajra,
District SBS Nagar, Punjab, India
yashprashar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Scopolamine a cholinergic antagonist may cause amnesia in human and animal models. Amnesia induced by Scopolamine has been widely used to understand the biochemical and behavioral changes in rodents. This model can be used to describe the therapeutic targets of memory impairment. In this model the Scopolamine decreases the central cholinergic neuronal activity, block muscarinic receptor and induces oxidative stress. Cholinesterase inhibitors (Donepezil, tacrine, galantamine, and rivastigmine are widely used in the treatment of amnesia. These inhibitors showed non-significant effects. Therefore, herbal medicine can be the sources for the treatment of memory loss due to their Antiacethylcholine esterase and antioxidant activities. In this paper introducing the medicinal plants and their components affecting amnesia on the scopolamine induced model are discussed.


RP-HPLC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF NITAOXANIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
R.Meera1*, N.Swathylakshmi2, M.Sundarapandian2, P.Raja Soundara Pandian1, Madhavanmallayasamy1
1Researcher, Radianz Health Care Pvt Ltd, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India
2Department of pharmaceutical Chemistry, K.M.College of pharmacy, Uthangudi, Madurai, India
meeraharsa23@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objective
: A simple and precise RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the determination of Nitaoxanide in pharmaceutical dosage forms.
Materials and Methods
: Chromatography was carried out using waters RP –C18 150×4.6 mm, 3.5 µ, pH 6.8, buffer: acetonitrile (50:50) as the mobile phase at a flow rate 1.2 ml/min. The analyze was monitored using PDA detector at 254 nm. The proposed method was found to have linearity in the concentration range of 25-150µg/ml with correlation co efficient of r2 =0.9999.
Results:
The developed method has been statistically validated and found simple and accurate. The mean recoveries obtained for Nitaoxanide were in the range 100.06-101.9%.
Conclusion:
Due to its simplicity, rapidness, high precision and accuracy of the proposed method it may be used for determining Nitaoxanide in bulk and dosage forms.


FINASTERIDE IN THE TREATMENT OF FEMALE ANDROGENIC ALOPECIA

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Priyanka T*, Giri raja sekhar D, Lekhanth A, Revanth.A
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Annamacharya College of Pharmacy
Rajampet, Andhra Pradesh, India
giriraj.pharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hair loss in women is twice more distressing in women when compared to men. The most common cause of hair loss in women is Female Androgenic Alopecia (FAGA) which shows Ludwig, Christmas tree, Hamilton pattern. Androgenic alopecia is due to the increased activity of 5α-reductase in the hair follicles which results in the gradual transformation of large, terminal follicles to small, miniaturized follicles. Finasteride is a 5α-reductase II enzyme which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydro testosterone and is effectively used in the management of the male pattern androgenic alopecia with a dose of 1mg/day but this article mainly reviews the use of Finasteride in the female androgenic alopecia. Studies so far reported increased scalp hair counts, hair density, hair regrowth both by the patient assessment and photographs by the blinded expert panel. Relevant literatures were chosen to determine the efficacy of Finasteride in the treatment of female Androgenic Alopecia.


SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF NITAOXANIDE IN BULK DRUG AND ITS PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
R.Meera1*, N.Swathylakshmi2, M.Sundarapandian2, P.Raja Soundara Pandian1, Madhavanmallayasamy1
1Researcher, Radianz Health Care Pvt Ltd, Madurai, Tamilnadu, India
2Department of pharmaceutical chemistry, K.M.College of pharmacy, Uthangudi, Madurai, India
meeraharsa23@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Objectives
:
A simple spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of Nitaoxanide in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Two visible spectrophotometric methods have been described for the assay of Nitaoxanide bulk form or dosage forms.
Methods:
Method A is based on the formation of Schiff’s base and it was condensed with 4 hydroxybenzaldehyde. Method B is based on diazotization and coupling method with phluroglucinol. The methods are done in UV Visible spectrophotometric method having maximum absorbance at 460 nm.
Results:
Regression analysis of Beers law plots showed good concentration range of 10-50µg/ml for method A and B and gives reproducible results.
Conclusion
: Due to its simplicity of the method it may be used for determining Nitaoxanide in bulk and dosage forms.


FORMULATION AND IN VITRO BIOEQUIVALENCE STUDY OF AMOXYCILLIN & POTASSIUM CLAVULANATE FAST DISPERSIBLE TABLET

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Indra Prakash1*, Jugaldas Chudasama2, Pravin Gupta1, Rahul Dev1, Shashi Shekhar1, Mohit kumar2
1Sir Madanlal Institute of Pharmacy, AlampurHauz, Etawah, Uttar Pradesh, India
2Medicef Pharma, Jhar Majri, Baddi, Himachal Pradesh, India
indra.prakash117@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The objective of present study was to develop the formulation of Fast Dispersible tablet of Amoxycillin & Potassium clavulanate and perform the in vitro bioequivalence study with trying to enhance the bioavailability of innovator formulation. Reduction in the dose of Amoxycillin and potassium clavulanate tablet was possible by developing Fast dispersible tablet. Fast dispersible tablets are designed to disintegrate quickly in the mouth or disperse in a spoonful of water to become a suspension. They are also divided into two or four parts for easy dose titration, and taste masked for patient compliance. These tablets are given to the children who have difficulty in swallowing so Total 05 formulations were made with different concentration of Crospovidone & MCC and fixed concentration of Croscarmellose sodium and Polacrilin Potassium by dry granulation method. The formulations were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, disintegrating time, dissolution study. All the formulations shows uniform weight, hardness and friability data indicates good mechanical resistance of the tablet. All the tablets were disintegrated between 25-45Sec. The optimized (FR-5) formulation showed good disintegration time and release profile with maximum drug being released than marketed preparation at all-time intervals.


A REVIEW ON TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY ETHOSOMES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
V. Sujatha*, T. Vishnuvaravidyadhar, M.Parvathi, Suryaprakash Reddy
*Department of Pharmaceutics,
Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research,
RIPERK R Palli Cross, Near S.K University, Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh, India
valmiki.sujatha@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Transdermal drug delivery system is one type of more convenient drug delivery system. Skin acts a barrier for transdermal through drug delivery system. Drug across through stratum corneum by low diffusion process. Drug formulation with elastic vesicle or skin enhances vesicles. Etho sources are the ethanolic phospholipids vesicles and which are having higher rate of penetration through the skin. The purpose of writing this Review on ethosome drug focus on the Ethosomes including their mechanism of penetration. Transdermal drug delivery system was came into existence by more than 30 years ago. Ethosomes are the ethanolic phospholipid vesicles. These are used mainly for transdermal delivery of drugs. Ethosomes have higher penetration rate through the skin as compared to liposomes hence these can be used widely in place of liposomes. Ethosomes enhanced skin permeation, improved drug delivery, increased drug entrapment efficiency etc.


A REVIEW ON ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF LEVOSULPIRIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS AND BIOLOGICAL SAMPLE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Monika A. Rana*, Hasumati A. Raj
Department of Quality Assurance
Shree Dhanvantary College of Pharmacy,
Kim, Gujarat, India
monika92rana@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Levosulpiride is an atypical antipsychotic agent. Levosulpiride is the levo enantiomer of sulpiride. It is a substitute benzamide which is meant to be used for several indications: depression, psychosis, somatoform disorders, emesis anddyspepsia. It blocks the presynaptic dopaminergic D2 receptor. Chemically it is N-[[(2S)-1-Ethylpyrrolidin-2-yl] methyl]-2-methoxy-5 sulfamoylbenzamide. several method such as HPLC in human plasma, area under curve, stability by RP-HPLC is done. The parent drug is given in a dose of 400-1800 mg orally. According to literature survey study of impurity profiling of LIVOSULPIRIDE in presence of intermediate has not been reported.


A REVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINATION OF PRAVASTATIN IN PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS AND BIOLOGICAL FLUIDS

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Grishma Trivedi*, Hasumati Raj
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College,
Kim, Gujarat
*trivedigrishma18@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Pravastatin is an inhibitor of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor which is used as a hypolipidemic agent to reduce cholesterol level. Chemically, 9-Fluoro-11β,17-dihydroxy-16α-methyl-3,20-dioxopregna-1,4-dien-21-yl disodium phosphate. Pravastatin is a drug of choice for the cardiovascular disease. It reduces the coronary and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality in middle aged individual. Elevated plasma concentration of C-reactive protein are associated with protein increased cardiovascular disease, long term therapy with pravastatin an agent that reduces cardiovascular risk, might alter levels of this inflammatory parameter. This review consist of various analytical methods for the determination of pravastatin in various marketed pharmaceutical formulation of biological fluid. Analytical methods consist of various chromatographic methods, spectrophotometer methods and electrical methods reported for determination of pravastatin.


A REVIEW OF ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR DETERMINATION BROMHEXINE HYDROCHLORIDE IN PHARMACEUTICAL AND BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Meera V. Lad1*, Vineet Jain2, Hasumati Raj1
1Department of Quality Assurance,
2Department of Pharmacognosy,
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Gujarat
meeralad235@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Bromhexine HCl (BRH)is a mucolytic agent used in the treatment of respiratory disorders associated with viscid or excessive mucus, chemically named 2-amino-3,5-dibromo-N-cyclohexyl-N-methyl benzenemethanamine hydrochloride. According to IUPAC it is 2,4-dibromo-6-[[cyclohexyl(methyl)amino]methyl] aniline hydrochloride. Because of its physiological importance, the drug has been quantified by exploiting its chemical  and physical properties. Bromhexine is a weak base and its precipitate out at pH value above 6. Bromhexine is a synthetic benzyl amine derivative ofvasicine. The different analytical methods used to quantify the drug as a single active pharmaceutical ingredient include flow injection analysis with ionselectiveelectrodes, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, electrokinetic chromatography, electrochemical oxidation at the glassy carbon electrode, liquid chromatography, liquid gas chromatography, GC with mass detection, and voltammetry. The drug has also been quantified in its combined formulations using HPLC, direct and derivative UV spectrophotometry.