Articles

PHARMACOLOGY OF COMBINED RANOLAZINE AND AMIODARONE HYDROHLORIDE THERAPY TO TREAT ATRIAL FIBRILLATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Patel  Vishakha D*, Raj Hasumati A, Gheewala Nirav K
Department of Quality Assurance,
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat
Department of Quality Assurance,
vishuk7293@gmail.com, drharaj@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined Amiodarone Hydrochloride and Ranolazine therapy specially in Atrial Fibrillation. Amiodarone Hydrochloride is Anti Arrhythmic agent. Ranolazine is a Anti Anginal agent. The Antianginal agent was used in Ischaemia. Amiodarone Hydrochloride is Antiarrhythmic agent and use in Arrhythmia and Atrial fibrillation. If Amiodarone Hydrochloride is administered in large quantities, the condition of patient becomes worse by occurrence of adverse effect of Thyroid toxicity due to presence of Iodine moiety in Amiodarone. The use of Ranolazine in combination with Amiodarone Hydrochloride has been proved to provide beneficial effect in Atrial Fibrillation. The combination therapy has fewer adverse effects. The mechanism of Amiodarone Hydrochloride and Ranolazine is quite different. Amiodarone Hydrochloride inhibit potassium channel and inactivated-state blocker of cardiac sodium channel while Ranolazine inhibit late inward sodium current (INa) in cardiac cell and activated-state blocker of cardiac sodium channel. The combination of both have decrease dose dependent side effect of Amiodarone Hydrochloride. Both the drugs were approved by US government and has been used in Atrial Fibrillation in US.The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological information of combined therapy of Amiodarone Hydrochloride and Ranolazine to researcher in development of combined dosage form of this.


A REVIEW ON: PHYSICOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF AYURVEDIC MINERAL DRUG TANKAN BHASMA

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Shaikh S.M., Doijad R.C., Shete A.S., Sankpal P.S.
Shree Santkrupa College of Pharmacy,
Ghogaon, Karad Maharashtra 415111 (India)
*sabirmshaikh17@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Tankan bhasma which has been used since very long time in Ayurveda. Tankan bhasma purification is done by the mand agni. Evaluation of physic-chemical property of Tankan bhasma. We are studing toxicological study of Tankan (Borax). Toxicological study on eyes, skin, inhalation, ingesion, carcinogenicity, reproductive or developmental, target organs, also signs and symptoms of exposure. We are studied on the first aid treatment if hazards due to contacts with eyes, Ingestion, and skin. Various uses of Tankan (Borax) bhasma we are studying. Also we are studying the analytical evaluations. Such as Tankan (Borax) bhasma evaluation containing moisture content, organic contain, Nishchandratva, Nishchandratva, Varitaratvam, Rekhapurnatvam, Unama test, Nirchandrata, Amla pariksha, Avami, Anjana Sannibha, X-ray diffraction i.e XRD study, also the Scanning Electron Microscope that is SEM, this all methods we are using for the evaluation of Tankan (Borax) bhasm.


ZERO ORDER AND FIRST ORDER DERIVATIVE SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MOXIFLOXACIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND KETOROLAC TROMETHAMINE IN SIMULATED TEAR FLUID

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shashank Nayak N*1, U Srinivasa2, Shwetha S Kamath K3, Shabaraya AR4
1Dept of Pharmaceutics, Pacific university, Udaipur, Rajasthan
2Dept.of Pharmacognosy, Srinivas college of pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka
3Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Srinivas college of pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka
4Principal, Srinivas College of Pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka
shashanknayak87@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In this current work simultaneous estimation of Moxifloxacin HCL and Ketorolac tromethamine in simulated tear fluid was performed by using UV spectroscopy. The zero order derivative spectroscopy revealed that Moxifloxacin HCL had a λ max of 288 nm in Simulated tear fluid (STF) and Ketotorolac tromethamine had λ max of 322nm respectively. The linearity was found in the range of 2-10 µg/ml for Moxifloxacin HCL and 2-14µg/ml for ketorolac tromethamine.  The R2 value was found to be 0.998 and slope y=0.089 for Moxifloxacin HCL and R2 =0.998 and slope y=0.051 for Ketorolac tromethamine. The zero order spectrum was deravatized to first order derivative spectra for both the above mentioned drug. The first order derivative spectra of Moxifloxacin HCL and ketorolac tromethamine indicated that it had a zero crossing point (ZCP) at 286 nm and 328 nm. The absorbance of the mixture containing MOXI and KETO was found out at 286 nm and 328 nm which showed linearity and obeyed beers lamberts law.


ACTIVITIES OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF MANGIFERA INDICA ON PARASITAEMIA LEVEL AND BLOOD PROFILE OF PLASMODIUM BERGHEI - INFECTED ALBINO MICE

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ABOUT AUTHORS
*Olayode, Ahmed A1; Saka, Olusola S1; Ajayi, Olusoji C2; Agbaje, Mojeed A1
1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Faculty of Basic Medical Science
2Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
olayodeahmed01@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to assess the effect of Mangifera indica on the percentage parasitaemia and some blood parameters of Plasmodium – infected Albino mice. Forty-two male albino mice, weighing between 20 and 25 g, were used for this research. The mice were randomly assigned into six groupsA, B, C, D, E and F of seven mice each. Group A was the negative control, group B was positive control. Mice in groups C, D and E were orally administered with Mangifera indica extract (50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg body weight) respectively for 5 days starting from the 4th day of inoculation while mice in group F were orally administered with Artesunate for 5 days (3 mg/kg b.w on the first day and 1.5 mg/kg b.w for the next 4 days) starting from the 4th day of inoculation. Blood smears were taken every 2 days to check the parasitaemia level for 14-day post-treatment withdrawal period. The extract has a dose dependent reducing effect on the level of parasitaemia. It also showed that the increase in the rate of reticulocytosis and consequent increase in the number of red blood cells in a dose dependent manner.


BIO-MARKERS AND BIO-SENSORS: UNRAVELLING THE MAJOR MECHANISTIC INTERVENTIONS IN CANCER PROGNOSIS

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Rajesh Tiwari
Junior Technical Assistant
Pharmaceutical Science and Natural Products
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda
rajesh.tiwari851@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Biosensors are a tool that combines the biochemical element with a transducer that generates an indication for the identification of disease. Numbers of biosensors are used in different medical application. Biomarker and Biosensors play an important role for early stage exposure of cancer. It is a cost-effective, increased assay speed, resiliency, the ability for multi-target analysis method. Genomic and proteomic molecular tools are also used for the exposure of tumors. These methods produce a molecular mark that provides a new opening for utilizing biosensors and biomarkers. As with many disease conditions, it is not easy to find exact and responsive markers that are associated with only one marker. Different numbers of molecular signatures are used for the diagnosis of cancer, such as proteins, peptides, overexpression gene and gene mutation. This review provides a general idea of the biosensors and biomarkers technology that is currently developed and researched for cancer markers and diagnosis.


A REVIEW ON ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR RANOLAZINE DETERMINATION IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Patel Vishakha. D.*, Raj Hasumati, Gheewala Nirav
Department of Quality Assurance,
Shree Dhanvantary Pharmacy College, Kim, Surat
vishuk7293@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Ranolazine is a piperazine derivative is a new anti-ischemic drug for the treatment of angina.

Ranolazine is to inhibit late INa thus preventing sodium overload of the cell. As a consequence, ranolazine prevents reverse mode sodium–calcium exchange and thus diastolic accumulation of calcium possibly resulting in improved diastolic tone and improved coronary blood flow.

This review article represent the various analytical methods which has been reported for estimation of Ranolazine in synthetic mixture. The spectrophotometric techniques like fluorescent assay and area under curve spectroscopy; Chromatogrraphic methods like HPLC, HPTLC and RP HPLC, GC, LC-MS, LC-MS/MS were reported.


EFFECTS OF GARLIC EXTRACTS ON THE MYOCARDIUM OF LEFT VENTRICLE OF THE HEART OF HIGH SALT FED ADULT WISTAR RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Saka, O. S; Olayode, A. A; Adelodun, S. T
Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology,
Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.
olusolasaka1@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This study was designed to evaluate the effects of garlic extracts on the morphology of myocardium of left ventricle of the heart and also determine the body weight and relative weight of the organs on high salt fed adult Wistar rats. Twenty-five healthy female Wistar rats weighing 130-180 g were randomly assigned into 5 groups of 5 rats each (Groups A, B, C, D and E). Rats in group A was fed with standard laboratory pellets, while groups B, C, D and E were fed on the high-salt diet for five weeks. Thereafter, daily administration of 50 mg kg-1, 100 mg kg-1 and 150 mg kg-1 of the garlic extract were giving orally to groups C, D and E respectively for 3 weeks. The rats were sacrificed under ketamine anesthesia (5mg/kg i.m). The left ventricle of the heart was excised, processed routinely in paraffin wax and stained with routine special stained. Result showed significant decreased (p<0.05) in weight of all high salt fed groups when (F=46.90, p<0.05) compared with control. Whereas, treatment with garlic extract help in weight management in high salt fed+garlic extract treated groups and also no significant difference (p<0.05) in the relative heart weight when (F=1.773, p<0.05) compared the control with other groups. Histological results revealed morphological alterations in the left ventricle in high salt fed group. In conclusion, Garlic extract has ameliorative property at the level of 100 mg kg-1 or 150 mg kg-1 of the extract on high salt fed induced cardiac injury.


COMMONLY USED MEDICINAL PLANTS IN TEHSIL PACHHAD, DISTRICT SIRMOUR, HIMACHAL PRADESH

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shubham Sharma*1, Monika Rana2
1Abhilashi College of Pharmacy, Mandi (H.P)
2Abhilashi University, Mandi (H.P)
Shubhamcoolsharma045@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Himachal Pradesh is located in Western Himalaya, is a store house of medicinal plants. Most of the population lives in villages and use various plants for their basic needs such as food, fodder, wood and to treat various diseases.  The present study is carried out in district Sirmour of Himachal Pradesh, regarding the ethno medicinal plants used by the locals in their own traditional health system. This study reveals the status of ethno-medicinal plants and their importance preserved by locals of Distt Sirmour. The paper encompasses the 43 medicinal plants. These plants were collected from different villages of Sirmour Distt and information was collected from locals peoples.


INDIAN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY-A PLETHORA OF SUSTAINABLE GROWTH OPPORTUNITIES FOR PHARMA BUSINESS ASPIRANTS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Rhit Srivastava*, Saurabh Kumar Banerjee
School of pharmaceutical management,
The IIHMR University, Jaipur,
Rajasthan, India
rhitsrivastava@gmail.com

INTRODCUTION
Worldwide the Pharmaceutical industry dynamics is undergoing a significant transformation in terms of cutting edge advancement in the areas of pharmaceutical R&D specially the biotechnology based products, innovative drug delivery technologies, and large scale efficient pharmaceutical manufacturing capacities and so on. According to the list published by FDA for GMP facilities producing generic drug products and APIs for the US market 70% of the APIs and FDFs (Finished dosage Form Facilities) are produced outside US and India counts for 23.7 % of the API and FDF facilities and is by far the largest country exporting to the US. Even China counts for less than a half of the FDF and API facilities exporting to the US, as compared to India[1]


DETERMINATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIFUNGAL AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITIES OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND ETHYL ACETATE EXTRACTS OF MOMORDICA CHARANTIA LEAVES

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Israt Jahan Bulbul
Department of Pharmacy,
Southeast University Banani, Dhaka, Bangladesh
israt_jahanb872@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
A study was conducted to determine the antibacterial and antifungal activitieswith minimum inhibitory concentration and cytotoxic activity of Momordica charantia (Family: Cucurbitaceae) leaves. In our present study, the antimicroial activity of n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of the plant were investigated against a number of pathogenic Gram-positive (Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Sarcina lutea), Gram- negative (Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio mimicus, Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella boydii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria and three funguses (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger and Saccharomyces cerevesiae). Here the zones of inhibitions for the test samples (500 µg /disc) werecompared with that of reference standard (30 µg /disc) in determining antimicrobial activity. All the extracts showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against all the pathogenic bacteria except A. niger. The highest sensitivity for n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractionswas against gram positive bacteria B.cereus. Almost all the gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungus were inhibited by ethyl acetate extract and showed better activity compared to n-hexane and chloroform extracts. All the three fractions were tested as antifungal against C. albicans and S. cerevesiae. They showed moderate activity against C. albicans whereas a very good activity against S. cerevesiae. But A. niger was not sensitive to the experimental extracts.Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) that is the lowest concentration at which the test sample shows its highest activity against microorganisms was tested by serial dilution method. The MIC for n-Hexane and chloroform extracts was against B. cereus (64 µg /ml).  The ethyl acetate extract exhibited antibacterial activity with MIC of 64 µg /ml against S. aureus, S. luteae, S. boydii, S. dysentereae and V. mimicus. The Brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was used to determine the cytotoxic activity and vincristine sulphate was used as positive control. The LC50 values of standard vincristine sulphate, n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extract were 10.18 µg /ml, 24.71 µg /ml, 19.02 µg /ml and 30.38 µg/ml respectively which indicate the presence of bioactive compounds present in the plant extracts are promisingly cytotoxic.


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