Articles

ADVANCES & CONSIDERATIONS IN PHARMACOTHERAPY OF ATTENTION-DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Noorul Hasan*, Mohd. Mujahid, Badruddeen, Nesar Ahmad, Shahla Parveen, Shaikh Zohrameena, Zafar Khan
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University, Lucknow, U.P. (India)
*noorulkhan999@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral condition primarily affecting children but regularly persisting into adolescence and adulthood. The symptoms must present in multiple settings ie home, school, work, be inappropriate for developmental level and interfere with the individual’s level of functioning, social development, learning processes, and quality of life. There are three presentations of ADHD i.e. inattentive, hyperactive and combined. There is a substantial pharmacopoeia available for safe and effective treatment of ADHD. CNS stimulants like methylphenidate, amphetamine are recommended as first-line medication therapy for children. It includes various class of drugs like centrally acting sympathomimetic, anti-psychotic, anti-depressant (SSRI), alph2 agonist and some newer agent like atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD. ADHD remains the only highly prevalent, nondegenerative neuropsychiatric disorder for which effective medications remediate the principal cognitive disturbances in concert with clinical efficacy. Therefore, deeper insight into the neural mechanisms of cognitive remediation may serve to advance treatment development not only in ADHD, but across a wide range of neuropsychiatric disorders in which cognitive dysfunction is a cardinal feature and a strong predictor of clinical outcome. All effective medications for ADHD act on one or both of the major catecholamine neurotransmitter systems in the brain. These 2 systems, which arise from subcortical nuclei and use of norepinephrine (NE) or dopamine (DA) as transmitters exert strong modulatory effects on widely distributed cortical–subcortical neural circuits, with important effects on cognition, mood and behavior in both health and illness


PREPARATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM TRANSDERMAL PATCHES

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ABOUT AUHTOR
SUSMITA DAS*
Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, 
Jadavpur University,
West Bengal, India

*sdas53662@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to develop transdermal matrix patches with a fixed ratios of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ethylcellulose (EC), containing the drug diclofenac sodium and to perform the physicochemical, in vitro relese pattern evaluation of the prepared patches. The prospective objective was the demonstration that the system provides the delivery of drug at a controlled rate across intact skin to achieve a therapeutically effective drug level for a longer period of time from transdermal patches.
Methods: In this study, matrix-type transdermal patches containing diclofenac sodium were prepared using different ratio of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and ethylcellulose (EC) by solvent evaporation technique. The drug matrix film of PVP and EC was casted on a polyvinylalcohol backing membrane. All the prepared formulations were subjected to physical studies (moisture content, moisture uptake, and flatness), and in-vitro release kinetics and permeation studies were performed across cadaver skin using a modified diffusion cell.
Results and conclusion: Variations in drug release profiles among the formulations studied were observed. From the formulated patches FA 1, containing PVP/EC in ratio of 1:3 shows sustained release action with 38% release after 24 h and 10 µg of drug permeation accross 1 cm2 of patch area. Hence, it can be reasonably concluded that diclofenac sodium can be formulated into the transdermal matrix type patches to sustain its release characteristics for manufacturing transdermal patches of diclofenac sodium


EVALUATION OF APHRODISIAC ACTIVITY OF TAMILNADIA ULIGNOSA (RETZ.) BARK

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Neerugatti Dorababu, Battu Ganga Rao, Devarakonda Ramadevi

A.U. College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University,
Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh (A.P), India
*ramapathi.addepalli@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The study was aimed at investigate the effect of methanolic extract of Tamilnadia ulignosa (Retz.) (Rubiaceae) on general mating behaviour, libido, and adverse effects on sexually normal male albino rats.  Methanolic extract was administered orally at the dose of 100, 200, and 400 mg / kg, to different groups of male rats (n = 8) once a day for 14 days . All the doses resulted in significant increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency and anogenital sniffing when compared to normal. The methanolic extract of Tamilnadia ulignosa (Retz.) bark at higher concentration (400 mg/kg body weight) showed significant aphrodisiac activity on male Wister albino rats as evidenced by an increase in number of mounts and mating performance. Thus, in experimental rats, the results of the present study suggest that the methanolic extracts of Tamilnadia ulignosa (Retz.) exert significant aphrodisiac activity


COMPARATIVE DIURETIC STUDY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS IN IDIVIDUAL AND COMBINATION FORM

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Babar Vishal Bharat.*

Dattakala College of Pharmacy (D. Pharmacy),
Pune,Maharashtra, India
*vishalbabar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In the present study, the hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis Linn. (Parijatha) and Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Kokila) and combination of these extracts were compared for their diuretic activity using Lipschitz test. Standard drug used was furosemide (100mg/kg body weight) in 0.9% sodium chloride solution. All the extracts significantly increased urine elimination and Na+, K+, and Cl- excretion as compared to normal saline treated groups. The combination of hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis and Hygrophila spinosa in 1:1 ratio showed better diuretic activity. Comparatively the hydroalcoholic extracts of Nycatanthes arbortristis showed more significant activity than Hygrophila spinosa extracts. The result revealed that Nycatanthes arbortristis is having better diuretic activity than Hygrophila spinosa which supports the traditional use of the plant.


A REVIEW ON PREVENTION AND MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC NEUROPATHY

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ABOUT AUHTOR
*A. Bharath kumar, T. Mubeena, Y. Charitha

Annamacharya college of Pharmacy
Rajampet, Andhra pradesh, India
*abharatpharma@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:
Diabetic neuropathy is a debilitating disorder that occurs in of Patients with diabetes. The primary types of diabetic neuropathy are sensorimotor and autonomic. Patients may present with one type of diabetic neuropathy or may develop combinations of neuropathies when its severity was more. Diabetes is metabolic disorder which causes the abnormal elevations of blood glucose levels in the body. The diabetic neuropathy was neurological affecting disorder. Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nerve disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. The symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness and loss of feeling in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy.The diabetes people develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes. Regular monitoring blood sugar levels normal levels and foot care practices we can Prevent the diabetic neuropathy complications in the community.


Evaluation of phytochemicals in some indigenous aromatic medicinal plants of North-East India

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ABOUT AUHTOR
*R SHARMA, S SARMA
Assam Down Town University, Guwahati, Assam, India
*Rupsmita2010@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to estimate flavonoid and phenolic content, and to evaluate invitro antioxidant activity of an aqueous extract of Alpinia nigra and Allium tuberosum.
Methods: The air dried stem of A. nigra and leaves of A. tuberosum was ground to powder and extracted with water and 95% of ethanol. The extract was screened for phytochemicals, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) with its potential antioxidant activities using hydrogen peroxide-scavenging assay.
Results: Phytochemical test shows that extract contains variety of phytochemicals among which there is a high level of total phenol and flavonoids. The total phenolic content (TPC) of A. nigra and A. tuberosum was 0.450±0.0740 and 1.663±0.296; respectively. The total flavonoid content (TFC) of A. nigra and A. tuberosum was 0.322±0.077 and 0.978±0.119, respectively. The plants possessed potent antioxidant activity when compared with the reference compound ascorbic acid (vitamin C).
Conclusions: A. nigra and A. tuberosum may be useful for the preparation of neutraceuticals as potent antioxidant to treat various human diseases and their complications.


Protein-protein surface interactions: Constrains of homologous versus heterogeneous domains

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Nitisha Bhandari*, Akanksha Bhandari
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Science, Patel Nagar,
Dehradun 2Graphic Era University, Dehradun, India
*nitishabhandari89@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Interactions of proteins could be resulted from homodimerisation or heterodimerisation. But these are quite specific and always selective in nature and act onlyon particular set of class of proteins, which provide substantial target behaviour to a drug designer. Here in this paper, provided a commentary based review compiling the short notes information provided on protein proteins interactions, by “Catherine Royer”


SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUG BY SPHERICAL CRYSTALLIZATION TECHNIQUE

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ABOUT AUHTOR
HardikRana*, BhargavVaghasiya, MansiDholakia
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Anand Pharmacy College, Anand, 388 001, Gujarat, India.
*hardikrana1439@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The objective of present study was to enhance the solubility of poorly soluble drug Ibuprofen using spherical crystallization technique.The potential agglomerates were prepared by addition of different concentrationof polymer selected on the basis of Phase solubility study. Spherical agglomerates were prepared using diethyl ether as bridging liquid by neutralizing technique, spherical agglomeration technique, Quasi emulsion solvent diffusion technique. Spherical agglomerates were evaluated for morphology, production yield, drug content, particle size and dissolution behaviour compared with pure drug.The result of phase solubility studies revealed that there is enhancement of solubility by PEG 4000. Rod shaped crystals of pure drug converted to spherical was confirmed by optical microscopy. The dissolution of agglomerates of optimum batch exhibited 88.24% release compare to 47.18% of pure drug within 60 minute. This study demonstrated that spherical crystallization technique can be consider as a suitable alteration of granulation. Ibuprofen spherical agglomerates can be prepared with PEG 4000. It exhibited excellent physicochemical, solubility, dissolution rate in comparison with pure drug. Among other spherical crystallization technique, QESD proved to be excellent techniquefor enhancement of solubility and dissolution.


A REVIEW ON CHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE AND TENELIGLIPTIN HYDROBROMIDE HYDRATE IN COMBINED DOSAGE FORM

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Manish Patil*1, Harsha D Jani1, Suleman S Khoja2, Narmin A Pirani3, Shamim S Khoja3
1Department of Quality Assurance,
Shivam Pharmaceutical Studies and Research Centre, Anand
Gujarat, India.

2Resource person in pharmaceutical quality assurance and Audit Compliance, Vapi
3Registered Pharmacist, Gujarat, India

*manishpatil3194@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
This review article presents the pharmacology of combined Metformin hydrochloride and Teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate is effective on type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Metformin is an antihyperglycemic agent which improves glucose tolerance in patients with type 2 diabetes, lowering both basal and postprandial plasma glucose. Teneligliptin, a third generation Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor exhibits unique “J shaped” structure with “anchor-lock domain” mechanism which provides potent & long duration of action. The addition of teneligliptin once daily to Metformin was effective and generally well tolerated in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. The mechanism of Metformin hydrochloride and teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate is quite different. The main objective of this review article is to provide pharmacological and Analytical information of combination of Metformin hydrochloride and Teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate to researcher in development of combined dosage form.


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