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Sandeep Kumar Patro*, M.Jhansi, Dr.A.M.S.Sudhakar Babu, Sk.Asief, P.Ramesh Babu
A.M.Reddy memorial college of pharmacy, Narasaraopet.
Study of drug - excipient compatibility is an important process in development stage of dosage forms. Incompatibility between drugs and excipients alter drug stability and bioavailability &there by affect their safety and efficacy. Dosage form is a pharmaceutical drug delivary system, which is a combination of drug(s) and non-drug components called as excipients. Drug is a chemical substance obtained from either natural, synthetic or semi synthetic source, which is used for the treatment, curing, prevention or mitigation of a disease or disorder in human beings or animals Excipients are nondrug components which are serve specific purposes like shape, stability, solubility, elegance, palatability etc. of a dosage form. These are also called as adjuvants, additives or pharmaceutical aids. The evaluation of drug-excipient compatibility is therefore an essential aspect of any preformulation study. To evaluate the drug- excipient compatibility different techniques such as Thermal analysis, Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) study, Infra red spectrophotometric study (IR), Isothermal stress testing (IST), High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),Thin layer chromatography (TLC), Solution calorimetry were adopted.
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences
During the past 80 years, delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS), especially the Fregoli a syndromes, have posed challenges to mental health professionals due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the syndromes and a lack of effective treatment. During the past two decades, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have pointed to the presence of identifiable brain lesions, especially in the right front parietal and adjacent regions, in a considerable proportion of patients with DMS. Prior to the advent of such studies, DMS phenomena were explained predominantly from the psychodynamic point of view. Deficits in working memory due to abnormal brain function are considered to play causative roles in DMS.
N.V. Sateesh Madhav, Abhijeet Ojha, Pallavi Uniyal, Dheeraj Fulara*
DIT Faculty of Pharmacy, Mussoorie Diversion Road, Dehradun 248009,
Nanosuspension drug delivery via the nose to brain is considered to be a promising route. This route is a useful when rapid onset of action is desired with better patient compliance than the other formulations. In terms of permeability, this route is more permeable than the other routes, which in turn is more permeable than the other route. The portion of drug absorbed through this route bypasses the hepatic first-pass metabolic processes giving acceptable bioavailability. Various techniques can be used to formulate nanosuspensions. New nanosupension technologies address many pharmaceutical and patient needs, ranging from enhanced life-cycle management to convenient dosing for paediatric, geriatric, and psychiatric patients. This review highlights the different kind of nanosuspensions dosage forms, prepration methods of nanosuspensions, stablizers and characterization techniques of nanosuspension. factors affecting the sublingual absorption.
PHYTOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE AQUEOUS AND METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SOME HERBAL PLANTS IN JOS, NIGERIA
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, SolomonF. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria.
Phytochemicals are referred to as pharmacologically active substances which are naturally present in plants. However, the effects of various plant preparations in the body when administered, is dependent on the phytochemicals present. Herbal medicine have been said to be the oldest form of medicine and have of recent even gained new momentum due to its advantages.The World Health Organization has recognized that traditional herbal plants may be useful in an integrated health care deliverysystem in several countries. But however to achieve the goal of using both herbal medicine and modern medicine paripassu, there is need for the phytochemical assessment of the plants coupled with pharmacological and toxicological investigations as well. Therefore, the aim of this research is to evaluate the phytochemicals present in the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of some herbal plants in Jos, Nigeria. This study have unveiled the presence of various phytochemcals in the different plant extracts examined. The various phytochemicals present in the extracts includes alkaloids, saponins, tanins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, steroids, cardiac glycosides and anthraquinones. These phytochemicals are known to posses therapeutic and also physiological activity. The test have shown that the plants are useful as they contain phytochemicals capable of producing valuable pharmacological effects. However, further studies aimed at establishing the dosage in which the may produce their pharmacological effects and toxicity should be done. Studies aimed at isolating the phytochemicals and screening their individual effects will also be very useful.
Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa (RDEB) is an inherited blistering skin disorder caused by mutations in the COL7A1 gene-encoding type VII collagen (Col7), the major component of anchoring fibrils at the dermal-epidermal junction. Individuals with RDEB develop painful blisters and mucosal erosions, and currently, there are no effective forms of therapy. Nevertheless, some advances in patient therapy are being made, and cell-based therapies with mesenchymal and hematopoietic cells have shown promise in early clinical trials.
DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF pH SENSITIVE HYDROGEL FOR INTESTINAL DELIVERY OF PREDNISOLONE
Patel Juhi D.*, Dr. A.K.Seth, Sachin P Chauhan, Nirmal Shah, Ankur Javia, Chintan Aundhia
Department of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University,
At & Po Pipariya, Ta- Waghodia, Dist. Vadodra-391760.(Gujarat) India
In the present study pH sensitive hydrogel beads of prednisolone were prepared for intestine delivery system. The cross-linking reinforced chitosan- alginate complex beads were prepared by gelation of anionic sodium alginate, the primary polymer, with opposite charged counter ion to form beads which were further complexed with chitosan as a polyelectrolyte. The pH sensitive hydrogel beads were prepared by the unique ionotropic gelation method by applying 33 full factorial designs. In this present study, influence of various formulation parameters like drug: chitosan ration (1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2), drug: sodium alginate ratio (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) and concentration of calcium chloride (3%, 4%, 5%) were studied. According to factorial design, total 27 batches were prepared and evaluated. The compatibility of drug with polymer was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). All the formulation were subjected to percentage yield, drug entrapment efficiency, drug content, particle size, swelling study (In phosphate buffer pH 1.2 as well as in phosphate buffer pH 7.4), and in vitro drug release study. The data was found in the range of 72.00 ± 0.8 % to 92.00 ± 0.7 %,16.49 ± 0.2 % to 70.00 ± 0.2 %, 4.70 ± 0.4 to 13.30 ± 0.5,102.36 ± 2.27 to 138.48 ± 2.25 μm, , in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 between 109.00 ± 0.9 to 168.00 ± 0.4 and 106.60±0.6 to 136.00±0.3 in phosphate buffer pH 1.2. From the results, B8 formulation was optimized. The prepared beads were enteric coated with 10% Eudragit S 100. The surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed spherical in shape with rough surface. It was reported that there was no swelling in acidic pH but increased in basic pH resulting in increased release of the drug in intestine. Hence it could be concluded that the prepared chitosan-sodium alginate hydrogel beads were satisfactory delivered to the stimulated intestinal fluid, which can be confirmed by further in vivo study.
Rakesh Kumar Sati
M.Pharm D.I.T Faculty of Pharmacy
Transdermal administration of drugs is an another way of administration that can significantly deliver larger molecules in potent quantities that overcome the problem with the oral administration such as poor bioavailability due to first pass metabolism and sometimes responsible for rapid blood level. Drugs that are given by transdermal route may enhance the potency as well as safety of drugs. One such advance has been the development of transdermal patch delivery systems. Transdermal drug technology specialists are continuing to search for new methods that can effectively and painlessly deliver larger molecules in therapeutic quantities to overcome the difficulties associated with the oral route. Transdermal drug delivery system is the system in which the delivery of the active ingredients of the drug occurs by the means of skin. Skin is an effective medium from which absorption of the drug takes place and enters the circulatory system. Various types of transdermal patches are used to incorporate the active ingredients into the circulatory system via skin. The patches have been proved effective because of its large advantages over other controlled drug delivery systems. New transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) technologies now have been developed that is considered to be helpful in rate controlled delivery of drug that is difficult to administer.
*Rakesh Gupta, Hemant Kumar Sharma, Manvendra Jaiswal, Rajeev Sharma, Narendra Nyola, Dr. Rajesh Yadav
Alwar Pharmacy College, M.I.A. Alwar,
Rajasthan, India 301001
Experimental design is a planned interference in the natural order of events by the researcher. A selected condition or a change (treatment) is introduced. Observations or measurements are planned to illuminate the effect of any change in conditions. Complex designs, usually involving a number of "control groups," offer more information than a simple group design. It involves the Experimental Design and Data Analysis. The various type of experimental design, e.g. Statistical(Randomized Blocks, Latin Square, Factorial Design), Quasi Experimental (Time Series, Multiple Time Series), True Experimental(Pretest-Posttest Control Group, Post-test: Only Control Group, Solomon Four-Group), Pre-experimental (Static Group, One Group Pretest-Posttest, Experimental One-Shot Case Study).Process Models for DOE is common to begin with a process model of the `black box' type (Quadratic model & Linear model).Full factorial designs in two levels, Full factorial designs not recommended for 5 or more factors. Replication provides information on variability, Factor settings in standard order with replication, No randomization and no center points; Randomization provides protection against extraneous factors affecting the results. Contour plot Display 3-d surface on 2-d plot Vertical axis, Horizontal axis, Lines CCD designs start with a factorial or fractional factorial design (with centre points) and add "star" points to estimate curvature; A CCD design with k factors has 2k star points, 3 types of CCD designs, which depend on where the star points are placed Circumscribed (CCC), Inscribed (CCI), Face Cantered (CCF); the value of α is chosen to maintain rotatability.
Pranita T. Gaikwad*, Reshma R.Patil, Mr M.M.Nitalikar, Dr.S.S.Patil, Dr.S.K.Mohite
Rajarambapu college of pharmacy,
The main objective of the present work was to formulate sustained release matrix tablets of Quetiapine fumarate using different polymers viz. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG). Varying ratios of drug and polymer like were selected for the study. After fixing the ratio of drug and polymer for Sustain the release of drug up to desired time, the release rates were modulated by combination of two different rates controlling material and triple mixture of two different rate controlling material. After evaluation of physical properties of tablet, the in vitro release study was performed in 0.1 N HCl pH 1.2 for 2 hrs and in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 up to 24 hrs. The effect of polymer concentration and polymer blend concentration were studied. Dissolution data was analyzed by Higuchi expression. It was observed that matrix tablets contained polymer blend of HPMC and LBG were successfully sustained the release of drug up to 24 hrs. Among all the formulations, formulation P3 which contains 15 % HPMC K4M and % 25 of LBG release the drug which follow Higuchi kinetics via, diffusion and erosion and the release profile of formulation P3 was comparable with the prepared batch products. Stability studies (40±2ºC/75±5%RH) for 3 months indicated that Quetiapine fumarate was stable in the matrix tablets. The DSC and FTIR study revealed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients.
Mr. Salahuddin Mohammed
Associate Professor of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences,
Department of Pharmacy, Mizan Tepi University,
Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.
Secondary messenger system is a part of cellular signaling process in which proteins of different kind are activated through generation of diffusible signaling molecules. The activated proteins then participate in a cellular response.
Second messengers are produced catalytically in response to the extracellular signals (primary messengers) and amplify their response, thus second messengers are a part of signal transduction cascades.