A STUDY ON ANTI-DIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF FRUIT EXTRACTS OF CARICA PAPAYA (CARICACEAE) LINN. IN RATS
S. Mahboob Ahmad, T.S Gouda
V.L. College of pharmacy,
The alcoholic and aqueous extracts of fruit of Carica papaya (Caricaceae)was investigated for anti-diarrhoealactivity in albino Wistar rats. The alcoholic and aqueous extracts was administered by the oral route at a concentration of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg showed the significant dose dependent anti-diarrhoeal activity in Castor oil induced diarrhea and Magnesium sulphate induced diarrhea. Anti-diarrhoeal activity of the tested extracts was comparable with that of the standard drug Loperamide 3 mg/kg. The results lend support to the traditional use of C. papaya in the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases.
Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1372
Diarrhoea is associated with an increased frequency of bowel movements with the production of soft or Watery stools. It may be defined as the passage of more than 300ml of liquid faeces in 24 hours. This results in fluid and electrolytes loss that may lead ultimately to death, particularly in children1. Pain, urgency, perianal discomfort and incontinenence often accompany it. Low-volume, painful, bloody diarrhea is known as dysentery2.
Since stool weight is largely determined by stool, most cases of diarrhoea result from disorders of intestinal water and electrolyte transport. From a mechanisteic perspective, diarrhoea can be caused by an increased osmotic load within the intestine (resulting in retention of water with in the lumen) excessive secretion of electrolytes and water into the intestinal lumen; exudation of protein and fluid from the mucosa, and altered intestinal motility, resulting in rapid transit. In most instances simultaneous effects of multiple processes are, leading to a net increase in stool volume and weight accompanied by changes in percent water content.3
Diarrhoea may be due to a specific disease of the intestine or secondary to a disease outside the intestines. For instance, bacillary dysentery directly affects the gut, while diabetes mellitus causes a neuropathic diarrhoeal episode. Diarrhoea can be divided in to acute or chronic forms. Infectious diarrhea is often acute; diabetic diarrhoea has the pathophysiologic causes that help in the identification of specific treatments4.
Since no reports are available regarding the anti-diarrhoeal activity with fruit extracts of C. papaya, it is aimed to validate the ethnical medicinal uses of the plant for the activity mentioned above.
The present work is planned with the following objectives:
1. To prepare alcoholic and aqueous extracts with fruit ofC. papaya.
2. Phytochemical investigation
3. To assess the acute toxicity of both the extracts in mice as animal model [OECD guidelines (AOT-425)].
4. To assess the anti-diarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous extracts by using different models in rats like;
· Castor oil induced diarrhoea.
· Magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea.
Distribution: Throughout India and found near houses and temples.
The fruit extracts ofC. papayahave been reported to possessstomachic, digestive, carminative, diureticgalactagogue. Useful in bleeding piles, haemoptysis, dysentery and chronic diarrhea.
Materials and methods:
Drugs and chemicals: Castor oilwas obtained from Yogesh Pharmacy, Nanded, India. The solvents and other chemicals was used were of analytical grade.
Plant material and extracts: Fruits of C. papaya fruitsis obtained from fields of Sultanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India; the fruits were cut into small pieces and shade dried at room temperature.
A. Preparation of alcoholic extract:
The fruit powder waspacked in a soxhlet apparatus and extracted with 95% alcohol for 18 h. Appearance of colourless solvent in the siphon tube was taken as the termination of extraction. The extract was then transferred in to the previously weighed empty beaker and evaporated to a thick paste on the water bath, maintained at <50ºc to get alcoholic extract. The extract was finally air dried thoroughly to remove all traces of the solvent and the percentage yield was calculated.
B. Preparation of aqueous extract:
About 100 g of powder was taken in a Round bottom flask (2000 ml) and macerated with 500 ml of distilled water and 10 ml of chloroform (preservative) for 24 h. with occasional shaking for every hour in a closed vessel. Then the marc wasremoved by filtering the extract, and then it was concentrated on a water bath at 50ºc.
The two extracts were examined for their colour and consistency. Their percentage yield was calculated with reference to air dried sample and was stored in air tight containers in a re- frigerator below.
Both the fruit extracts (alcoholic and aqueous) of C. papaya were subjected to the following investigations:
1. Preliminary Phytochemical investigations.
2. Pharmacological activities.
a. Toxicity studies (LD50).
b. Antidiarrhoeal activity.
* Castor oil induced diarrhoea.
* Magnesium sulphate induced diarrhoea.
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