You are hereA REVIEW ON: AEGLE MARMELOS

A REVIEW ON: AEGLE MARMELOS


Plant parts used

Leaves
Leaves are applied to inflamed parts and are very efficacious in the form of poultice to unhealthy ulcers. Young leaves are eaten and said to cause sterility or even abortion. Juice of fresh leaves has a laxative action and also employed in asthmatic complaints, opthalmia and other eye affections. Decoction of leaves is used as a febrifuge and expectorant. Medicated oil prepared from leaves gives relief from recurrent cold and respiratory infections. The juice extracted from leaves is mixed with equal quantity of sesame oil and heated thoroughly, a few seeds of black pepper and half a teaspoonful of black cumin are added to the hot oil, and then it is removed from the fire and stored for use when necessary. A teaspoonful of this oil should be massaged onto the scalp before a head bath. Its regular use builds up resistance against cold and cough. Leaves are also use in Abscess, backache, abdominal disorders, vomiting, cut and wounds, dropsy, beriberi, weakness of heart, cholera, diarrhea, cardio tonic, blood sugar, injuries caused by animals, nervous disorders, hair tonic, acute bronchitis, child birth (George et al., 2003). Veterinary medicine for wound, killing worms, fodder for sheep, goat and cattle, stimulation of respiration contraction of denervosed nictitating membrane in anaesthetized cats (Gaur, 1999).

Root (bark)
Root bark is used in intermittent fever and as fish poison, as a remedy for palpitation of heat and melancholia. Juice of the bark with a little cumin in milk is valued as remedy for poverty of seminal fluid. The alcoholic extract of roots having hypoglycemic activity (Ohashi et al., 1995). It is also used in dog bite, gastric troubles, heart disorders, intermittent fevers, antiamoebic, hypoglycemic, rheumatism (Veerappan et al., 2000).

Flower
Distillation of flowers yielded a drug used as tonic for stomach and intestine, anti-dysenteric, antidiabetic, diaphorectic and as local anesthetics (Rahman and Ahmad, 1986). It is also used in epilepsy and as expectorant.

Fruit
Fruit is eaten during convalescence after diarrhea. It is valid for its mild astringency and as remedy for dysentery. The traditional healers of southern Chhattisgarh use dry powder of fruit with mustard oil for the treatment of burn cases. One part of powder and two part of mustard oil are mixed and is applied externally (Parmar and Kaushal, 1982). Fruits are also used in diarrhea, gastric troubles, constipation, laxative, tonic, digestive, stomachic, dysentery, brain and heart tonic, ulcer, antiviral, intestinal parasites, gonorrhea, epilepsy (Veerappan et al,2000), toys, edible, jam, preserve (Kaushik and dhiman, 1999).

Ripe fruit
The ripe fruit promotes digestion and is helpful in treating inflammation of rectum. The ripe fruit extract showed antiviral activity against ranikhet disease virus (Mazumdar, 1995). Pulp of ripe fruit is sweet, cooling, aromatic and nutritive when taken fresh. Fruit pulp marmalade is used as prevention during cholera epidemics, also given to prevent the growth of piles, useful in patients suffering from chronic dysenteric condition characterized by alternate diarrhea and constipation relieves flatulent colic from a condition of chronic gastrointestinal eatarrh. Fress juice is bitter and pungent fruit extract lower the blood sugar (Vyas et al., 1979).

Unripe fruit
Fine powder of unripe fruit showed significant effect on intestinal parasites and also effective against Entamoeba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides (Trivedi et al, 1978). Unripe fruit is used as an astringent in dysentery, stomachache in diarrhea, tonic, digeetive, demulcent, described as cardiacal, restorative, given in piles, Decoction of unripe fruit is astringent, useful in diarrhea and chronic dysentery.

Seed
Seed oil exhibits antibacterial activity against different strains of vibrios and inhibits the growth of Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (Banerji and Kumar, 1949). Essential oil exhibits antifungal activity against fungi Physalospora tucumanesis, Eeratocystis paradoxa, Selerotium ralfsii, Curvularia lunata, Helminthosporium sacchari, Fusarium monthforme and cephalosporium sacchari (Jain, 1977).

Chemical compounds isolated from plant
Leaf-
Skimmianine, Aeglin, Rutin, Y-sit sterol, β-sitosterol, Flavone, Lupeol, Cineol, Citral, Glycoside, O-isopentenyl , Halfordiol, Marmeline, Citronellal, Cuminaldehyde phenylethyl cinnamamides, Eugenol, Marmesinin

Fruit-Marmelosin, Luvangetin, Aurapten, Psoralen, Marmelide, Tannin

Bark-Fagarine, Marmin.

Seed-Essential oil: D-limonene, A-D-phellandrene, Cineol, Citronellal, Citral, P-cyrnene, Cumin aldehyde.

Photochemical
The dry pulp of fruit contains chiefly mucilagepection like substance. The root, stem and leaves have been shown to contain tannins. Alkaloids, sterols, coumarin and aromatic components have been isolated. Aegelin, marmelosine, marmelin, o-methyl hayordinol, alloimperatorin methyl ester, o-isopentanyl hayordinol and linoleic acid have been identified.

Aegelin, formerly identified as sterol but clarified as a neutral alkaloid, rutacine, y-sitosterol, aegelemine and aegeline were identified from the leaves. Marmin, marmesin, umbelliferine, skimmianine were identified from the bark and roots. A major constituent of the fruit is the mucilage and marmelosin (0.5%) a coumarin, in addition to the minor constituents like reducing sugar essential oils, ascorbic acid and various minerals. A bitter, light-yellow oil contains 15.6% palmitic acid, 8.3% stearic acid, 28.7% linoleic and 7.6% linolenic acid. The seed residue contains 70% protein.Bael is reported to contain a number of coumarins, alkaloids, sterols and essential oils. Roots and fruits contain coumarins such as scoparone, scopoletin, umbelliferone, marmesin and skimmin. Fruits, in addition, contain xanthotoxol, imperatorin and alloimperatorin and alkaloids like aegeline and marmeline identified as N-2- hydroxy-2-[4 - (3’,3’-dimethyl allyloxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide. b- sitosterol and its glycoside are also present in the fruits. Roots and stem barks contain a coumarin - aegelinol. Roots also contain psoralen, xanthotoxin, 6,7- dimethoxy coumarin, tembamide, mermin and skimmianine. Leaves contain the alkaloids - O-(3,3- dimethyl allyl)-halfordinol, N-2-ethoxy-2 (4-methoxy phenyl) ethyl cinnamide, N-2-methoxy-2-(4-3’,3’-dimethyl allyloxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide, N- 2- [4-(3’,3’-dimethyl allyloxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide, N-2-hydroxy-2-[4-(3’,3’- dimethyl allyloxy) phenyl] ethyl cinnamide, N-4-methoxy steryl cinnamide and N-2-hydroxy-2-(4- hydroxy phenyl) ethyl cinnamide. Mermesinin, rutin and b-sitosterol - b-Dglucoside are also present in the leaves.[9]A series of phenylethyl cinnamides, which included new compounds named anhydromarmeline (1), aegelinosides A and B were isolated from Aegle marmelos leaves as alfaglucosidase inhibitors. The structures of new compounds were characterized by spectroscopic data and chemical degradation of compounds isolated, anhydroaegeline (2) revealed the most potent inhibitory effect against alfaglucosidase with IC50 value of 35.8 lM. The present result also supports ethnopharmacological use of A. marmelos as a remedy for diabetes mellitus. [10] A rare alkaloid, shahidine (1), having an unstable oxazoline core has been isolated as a major constituent from the fresh leaves of Aegle marmelos. It is moisture-sensitive, and found to be the parent compound of aegeline and other amides; however, it is stable in dimethyl sulfoxide. Its structure was established by spectroscopic analysis. Biogenetically, oxazolines may be considered as the precursor of hydroxyl amides and oxazoles found in plants. Shahidine  showed activity against a few Gram-positive bacteria.11 From dry leaves of Aegle marmelos, four new alkaloids, N- 2-[4-(3′, 3′-dimethylallyloxy)phenyl] ethyl cinnamide, N-2- hydroxy-2-[4-(3′,3′-dimethylallyloxy)phenyl] ethyl cinnamide, N-4-methoxystyryl cinnamide and N-2- hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl) ethyl cinnamide were isolated and characterized. Also isolated were aegeline and a purple compound whose structure has not yet been established.12 From the unripe fruits of Aegle marmelos, a new alkaloid named marmeline was isolated and identified as N-2-hydroxy-2-[4-(3′,3′- dimethylallyloxy)phenyl] ethyl cinnamide. Aegline, imperatorin, alloimperatorin and xanthotoxol were also present.[13]The purified polysaccharide isolated from the cambium layer of a young bael (Aegle marmelos) tree contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, and glucose in the molar ratios of 10.0:9.8:1.4:1.9:1. Methylation analysis and Smith degradation studies established the linkages of the different monosaccharide residues. The anomeric configurations of the various sugar units were determined by oxidation of the acetylated polysaccharide with chromium (VI) trioxide. The oligosaccharides isolated from the polysaccharide by graded hydrolysis were characterized. The structural significance of these results is discussed. [14]The crude carbohydrate material isolated from bael (Aegle marmelos) seeds was resolved into four fractions. The homogeneous fraction contained 38.5% of carbohydrate and 60.6% of protein, and its carbohydrate moiety consisted of glucose, galactose, rhamnose, and arabinose in the molar ratios of 40:3:1:2. The linkages among various monosaccharide residues were established through methylation analysis and Smith-degradation studies. The anomeric configurations of the glycosyl groups and the structure at the glycosyl-amino acid junction were also determined. From the results of these experiments, a partial structure of the glycoprotein has been proposed.15Purified hemicellulose isolated from a young bael (Aegle marmelos) tree with 2.5m sodium hydroxide contained d-xylose and 4-O-methyl-dglucoronic acid in the molar ratio of 7.43:1; traces of glucose, galactose, rhamnose, and arabinose were also present. The linkages between the monosaccharide units were determined by methylation analysis of a hemicellulose fraction (II A) and carboxyl-reduced, hemicellulose II A, and the results were corroborated by those from periodate oxidation and Smith degradation. The anomeric configurations of the d-xylopyranosyl residues were determined by chromium (VI) trioxide oxidation of the acetylated, carboxyl-reduced hemicellulose, and the aldobiouronic acid obtained from graded hydrolysis was characterized. These experiments clearly revealed the structure of this hemicellulose.16The homogeneous, neutral polysaccharide isolated from the crude polysaccharide of the fruit pulp from bael (Aegle marmelos) contains arabinose, galactose, and glucose in the molar ratios of 2:3:14. The linkages among the different monosaccharide residues were established through methylation analysis and Smith-degradation studies of the polysaccharide. The anomeric configurations of the different glycosyl groups were determined by study of the chromium trioxide oxidation of the acetylated polysaccharide. Results of these experiments have been discussed in order to assess the structure of the neutral polysaccharide. 17A new 7- geranyloxycoumarin [7-(2,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-7- methyl-3-octaenyloxy) coumarin] named marmenol (1) has been isolated from the leaves of methanolic extract of Aegle marmelos belonging to the family Rutaceae. In addition to marmenol, several known compounds havealso been obtained for the first time from the same  source. They include: praealtin D, trans-cinnamic acid, valencic acid, 4-methoxy benzoic acid, betulinic acid, N-pcis- and trans-coumaroyltyramine, montanine, and rutaretin. The structures of marmenol and known constituents were established with the help of NMR spectroscopy. However, structure of 1 was further confirmed via 2-D NMR experiments.18Antifungal constituents, 2-isopropenyl-4-methyl-1-oxacyclopenta[ b]anthracene-5,10-dione and (+)-4- (20- hydroxy-30-methylbut-30-enyloxy)-8H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5- h]chromen-8-one in addition to known compounds imperatorin, b-sitosterol, plumbagin, 1-methyl-2-(30- methyl-but-20-enyloxy)-anthraquinone, b-sitosterol glucoside, stigmasterol, vanillin and salicin were isolated during phytochemical investigation on seeds of Aegle marmelos Correa.19

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