A REVIEW ON: AEGLE MARMELOS

About Authors:
Kishan Singh *, Krishn Kumar Agrawal
Institute of Pharmaceutical Research GLA University,
Mathura-281403 (U.P.) India.
*kishan.singh575@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Herbal drugs are traditionally used in various parts of the world to cure different diseases. The Ayurvedic and Siddha medical systems are very famous medical practices in Indian traditional medicines. Over the last few ,researcher have aimed at identifying and validation plant derived substance for the treatment of various disease .similarly it has been already proved that various parts of plants such as leaf, fruits seeds etc.provide heath and nutrition promoting compounds traditional used against various disease. Aegle marmelos have been used in ethno medicine to exploit its’ medicinal properties including astringent, antidiarrheal antidysentric, demulcent, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities. The present review aims to complete medicinal values of Aegle marmelos generated through the research activity using modern scientific approaches and innovative scientific tools.


REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1484

INTRODUCTION
History

Bael or Bengal quince is a deciduous sacred tree, associated with Gods having useful medicinal properties, especially as a cooling agent. This tree is popular in ‘Shiva’ and ‘Vishnu’ temples and it can be grown in every house. Its leaves are trifoliate symbolizing the ‘Thrimurthies’- Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, with spear shaped leaflets resembling “Thrisoolam” the weapon of Lord Shiva. Many legends, stories and myths are associated with this tree. The leaflets are given to devotees as ‘prasadam’ in Shiva temples and as ‘Tulasi’ in Vishnu temples.

Distribution
Bael tree is native to India and is found growing wild in Sub-Himalayan tracts from Jhelum eastwards to West Bengal, in central and south India.

Documented Species Distribution
Native range: India Exotic range: Bangladesh, Egypt, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand


Local Names
English (bael fruit, Indian bael, holy fruit, golden apple, elephant apple, Bengal quince, Indian quince, stone apple); Burmese (opesheet, ohshit); French (oranger du Malabar, cognassier du Bengale, bel indien); German (Belbaum, Schleimapfelbaum, Baelbaum); Gujarati (bili); Hindi (baelputri, bela, sirphal, siri-phal, kooralam); Indonesian (maja batuh,maja); Javanese (modjo); Khmer (bnau); Lao (Sino-Tibetan) (toum); Malay (bilak,bel, bila,maja pahit); Portuguese (marmelos); Thai (matum, mapin, tum); Vietnamese (trai mam, mbau nau)
Yield
: The average yield is 300-400 fruits per tree. 1
Family:
Rutaceae

Botanical Description
Aegle marmelos is a slow-growing, medium sized tree, up to 12-15 m tall with short trunk, thick, soft, flaking bark, and spreading, sometimes spiny branches, the lower ones drooping. Young suckers bear many stiff, straight spines. A clear, gummy sap, resembling gum Arabic, exudes from wounded branches and hangs down in long strands, becoming gradually solid. It is sweet at first taste and then irritating to the throat. The deciduous, alternate leaves, borne singly or in 2's or 3's, are composed of 3 to 5 oval, pointed, shallowly toothed leaflets, 4-10 cm long, 2-5 cm wide, the terminal one with a long petiole. New foliage is glossy and pinkish-maroon. Mature leaves emit a disagreeable odor when bruised. Fragrant flowers , in clusters of 4 to 7 along the young branch lets, have 4 recurved, fleshy petals, green outside, yellowish inside, and 50 or more Greenish-yellow stamens. The fruits are round, pyriform, oval, or oblong, 5-20 cm in diameter, may have a thin, hard, woody shell or a more or less soft rind, gray-green until the fruit is fully ripe, when it turns yellowish. It is dotted with aromatic, minute oil glands. Inside, there is a hard central core and 8 to 20 faintly defined triangular segments, with thin, dark-orange walls, filled with aromatic, pale orange, pasty, sweet, resinous, more or less astringent, pulp. Embedded in the pulp are 10 to 15 seeds, flattened oblongs, About 1 cm long, bearing woolly hairs and each enclosed in a sac of adhesive, transparent mucilage that solidifies on drying 2

PHARMACOGNOSY OF PLANT

Macroscopic characters
A small to medium-sized aromatic tree, deciduous; stem and branches, light brown to green; strong auxiliary spines present on the branches; the average height of tree, 8.5 meters.3

Leaves
are alternate, pale green, trifoliate; terminal leaflet, 5.7 cm long, 2.8 cm broad, having a long petiole; the two lateral leaflets, almost sessile, 4.1 cm long, 2.2 cm wide, ovate to lanceolate having reticulate pinnate venation; petiole, 3.2 cm long.

Leaflets
Are ovate or ovate-lanceolate, margins crenate, apex acuminate, glabrous and densely minutely glandular-punctuate on both surfaces; lateral leaflets to 7 cm long and 4.2 cm wide, petiolules 0-3mm long.4

Flowers
Greenish white, sweetly scented, bisexual, actinomorpbic, ebracteate. hypogynous, stalked; stalk, 8 mm long; diameter of a fully open flower, 1.8 cal; flowers, borne in lateral panicles of about 10 flowers, arising from the leaf axil; calyx, gamosepalous, five-lobed, pubescent, light green, very small in comparison with petals; corolla polypetalous, with 5 petals, imbricate, leathery, pale yellow from above and green from beneath, length 4 mm; androecium, polyandrous, numerous, basifixed, 4 mm long, dehiscing longitudinally; gynoecium, light green, 7 mm long, having capitate stigma and terminal style.5

Stamens
Numerous; another elongate, apiculate; filaments free or fascicled, inserted round an inconspicuous disk. Ovary ovoid, cells 10-20; style terminal, short, deciduous; stigma capitate; ovules numerous, 2-seriate.

Fruits
yellowish green, with small dots on the outer surface, oblong to globose, 5.3 cm to 7 2 cm in diameter; weight, 77.2 g; volume, 73.7 ml; pulp, yellow and mucilaginous, the pulp of dried fruits retains its yellow, and also remains intact; rind woody, 4 to 5 mm thick.

Seeds
numerous, embedded in the pulp, oblong, compressed, white, having cotton-like hairs on their outer surface. seeds numerous, oblong, compressed, embedded in sacs covered with thick, orange coloured sweet pulp root bark is 3 to 5 cm thick covered, with creamy yellowish surface. It has a firm leathery texture, a sweet taste and fracture is fibrous. Stream bark is extremely gray and internally cream in colour. The outer surface is rough warty due to a number of lenticels, ridges and furrows. It is 4-8 mm thick, film in texture and occurs as flat or channeled pieces6. The fracture is tough and gritty in outer region and fibrous in the inner.5The taste is sweet and there is no characteristic odour5.

Chemical constituents
Various chemical constituents were found in bael like alkaloids, coumarins, steroids, polysaccharides, tannins, carotenoids etc.

Alkaloids
Agelin, aegelenine, marmeline, dictamine, fragrine, O-methylhalfordinine, O-isopentanylhalford iniol, N-4-methoxy styryl cinnamide.

Coumarins
Marmelosin, marmesin, imperatorin, marmin, alloimperatorin, methylether, xanthotoxol, scoparone, scopoletin, umbelliferone, psoralen and marmelide.

Polysaccharides
Galactose, arabinose, uronic acid and L-rhamnose was obtained on hydrolysis.

Tannin
Tannin was also present in leaves and fruit as skimmianine. Carotenoids were also reported, which import pale colour to fruit

Seed oil
Composed of palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid. The fruit pulp contains 60.7 per cent moisture. The pulp contains 0.46 per cent acidity, 8.36 per cent total sugars, 6.21 per cent reducing sugars, 2.04 per cent non-reducing sugars and 0.21 per cent tannins. The pectin content is 2.52 per cent, which is quite high. The fruit pulp, however, is not a good source of vitamin C which is only 920 mg per 100 g of pulp4. This fruit is a very good source of protein which is 5.12 per cent of the edible portion. The total mineral content of the edible portion, as represented by ash, is 2.663 per cent. The percentage content of some of the minerals, viz. phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron is 0.137, 0.746, 0.188, 0.127 and 0.007 respectively.6, 7, 8

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