About Author:
Tarika Priya
SLC's college of pharmacy. JNTUH

1. Abstract
The aim of study was to screen the antibacterial and antifungal activities of methanol and ethanol extracts of fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum). Crude extracts of the seeds with methanol and ethanol were screened for antibacterial activities against two gram positive pathogenic bacteria – Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and against two gram negative pathogenic bacteria – E.coli, klebsiella. The antibacterial activity was performed using cup-plate method. The extracts were prepared using soxhlet extraction method. Methanol extract showed activity against E.coli and Klebsiella were as ethanol extract showed activity against Staphylococcus and Bacillus spp.,

The anti fungal activity was also screened against Aspergillus niger. Both the extracts showed good activity against the fungi.
The results obtained in the present study suggest that the extracts revealed a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antibacterial herbal formulations.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1364

Natural products have been a major source of new drugs. Plants are used medicinally in different countries and are a source of many potent and powerful drugs. Medicinal plants are used by 80% of the world population as the only available medicines especially in developing countries.  Current research on natural molecules and products primarily focuses on plants since they can be sourced more easily and be selected based on their ethno-medicinal uses.

A wide range of medicinal plants parts is used to extract as raw drugs and they possess varied medicinal properties. While some of these raw drugs are collected in smaller quantities by the local communities and folk healers for local use, many other raw drugs are collected in larger quantities and traded in the market as the raw materials for many herbal industries. Plants used for traditional medicine contain a wide range of substances that can be used to treat chronic as well as infectious diseases. Clinical microbiologists have great interest in screening of medicinal plants for new therapeutics. The active principles of many drugs found in plants are secondary metabolites. The antimicrobial activities of plant extracts may reside in a variety of different components, including aldehyde and phenolic compounds. The development of drug resistance in human pathogens against commonly used antibiotics has necessitated a search for new antimicrobial substances from other sources including plants  Screening of medicinal plants for antimicrobial activities is important for finding potential new compounds for therapeutic uses.

Spices and herbs have been used for thousands of centuries by many cultures and scientific experiments have documented the antimicrobial properties of spices. Fenugreek is   commonly used spice in Bangladesh.

Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) is an annual herb that belongs to the family Leguminosae widely grown in Pakistan, India, Egypt, and Middle Eastern countries. Due to its strong flavor and aroma fenugreek in one of such plants whose leaves and seeds are widely consumed in Indo-Pak subcontinent as well as in other oriental countries as a spice in food preparations, and as an ingredient in traditional medicine. It is rich source of calcium, iron, carotene and other vitamins.

Fenugreek seeds have been found to contain protein, vitamin C, niacin, potassium, and diosgenin (which is a compound that has properties similar to estrogen). Other active constituents in fenugreek are alkaloids, lysine and L-tryptophan, as well as steroidal saponins (diosgenin, yamogenin, tigogenin, and neotigogenin).

The fenugreek seeds are rich in dietary fiber, that it can lower blood sugar levels in diabetes.Fenugreek seed is widely used as a galactagogue that is often used to increase milk supply in lactating women and to cure breast cancer. Fenugreek seed is useful for tuberculosis, diabetes, atherosclerosis, constipation, high cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia and externally it is used as a poultice for abscesses, boils, carbuncles, etc.

The seeds of fenugreek herb possess toxic oils, and other bioactive constituents of the fenugreek seed include volatile oils and alkaloids in it have been shown to be toxic to bacteria parasites and fungi. Recent pharmacological investigation of the seed extract of this plant showed anticancer properties.

Based on the studies carried out in fenugreek, worldwide report shows that the seeds of this plant possess strong antibacterial activity. The potential for developing antibacterial into medicine appears rewarding from both the perspective of drug development and the perspective of phytomedicine.

Fenugreek contains steroidal saponins, occurring mainly as furostanol 3,26-diglycosides such as trigofoenosides A-G [2-10]. On hydrolysis the saponins yield 0.6-1.7% of spirostanol, sapogenins consisting mainly (about 95%) of diosgenin and its 25β-epimer yamogenin in a 3:2 ratio, together with tigogenin and others. Steroidal saponin peptide esters such as fenugreekine are also present.

Mucilage polysaccharide, consisting mainly of galactomannan (25-45%) with a backbone of β-(1→4) linked manose residues, branches of α-(1→6) galactosyl residues and a small portions of xylose.

Other constituents include: trigonelline (=coffearine, the N-methyl betaine of nicotinic acid) protein (rich in tryptophan and lysine), free amino acids, principally 4-hydroxyisoleucine, saponin hydrolyzing enzymes, proteinase inhibitors which act on human trypsin and chymotrypsin, scopoletin and other coumarins, flavone glycosides, sterols (cholesterol, β-sitosterol), lecithin and choline.

A small amount (<0.01%) of volatile oilis present, in which alkanes, terpenes, oxygenated and aromatic compounds have been identified. The dominant and characteristic aroma compound in fenugreek is 3-hydroxy-4-5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone (sotalone) of which 3-25mg/kg is present in the seeds.



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