About Authors:
Anamika singh*1, Neha Singh2
1M.Pharm (Department of Pharmacology)
2M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaceutics)
Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology.

Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number of novel implant-, microparticulate-, and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems incorporating the principal anti-tuberculosis agents have been fabricated that either target the site of tuberculosis infection or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient outcomes. These developments in drug delivery represent attractive options with significant merit, however, there is a requisite to manufacture an oral system, which directly addresses issues of unacceptable rifampicin bioavailability in fixed-dose combinations. This is fostered by the need to deliver medications to patients more efficiently and with fewer side effects, especially in developing countries. The fabrication of a polymeric once-daily oral multiparticulate fixed-dose combination of the principal anti-tuberculosis drugs, which attains segregated delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid for improved rifampicin bioavailability, could be a step in the right direction in addressing issues of treatment failure due to patient non-compliance.


Khushbu Singh
Department of pharmaceutical chemistry
Noida Institute Of Engineering & Technology, Noida

The antioxidative activity of a total of 92 phenolic extracts from edible and nonedible plant materials (berries, fruits, vegetables, herbs, cereals, tree materials, plant sprouts, and seeds) was examined by autoxidation of methyl linoleate. The content of total phenolics in the extracts was determined spectrometrically according to the Folin-Ciocalteu procedure and calculated as gallic acid equivalents (GAE). Among edible plant materials, remarkable high antioxidant activity and high total phenolic content (GAE > 20 mg/g) were found in berries, especially aronia and crowberry. Apple extracts (two varieties) showed also strong antioxidant activity even though the total phenolic contents were low (GAE < 12.1 mg/g). Among nonedible plant materials, high activities were found in tree materials, especially in willow bark, spruce needles, pine bark and cork, and birch phloem, and in some medicinal plants including heather, bog-rosemary, willow herb, and meadowsweet. In addition, potato peel and beetroot peel extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. To utilize these significant sources of natural antioxidants, further characterization of the phenolic composition is needed.


Vishwa Deepak Kumar*, Abhishek Sharma, Rajneesh Mishra, Kanchan Sharma
B.Pharmacy, 2nd year
Department of Pharmacy, IEC group of institutions,
Greater Noida (U.P) INDIA, Pin- 201301

For the past few decades, there has been a considerable research interest in the area of drug delivery using particulate delivery systems as carriers for small and large molecules. Particulate systems like nanoparticles have been used as a physical approach to alter and improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of various types of drug molecules. They have been used in vivo to protect the drug entity in the systemic circulation; various polymers have been used in the formulation of nanoparticles for drug delivery research to increase therapeutic benefit, while minimizing side effects. Here, we review various aspects of nanoparticle formulation, characterization, effect of their characteristics and their applications in delivery of drug molecules and therapeutic genes. Nanoparticles are the preparations having size in nanometers.


Neha Singh
M.Pharm ( department of pharmaceutics)
Noida institute of engineering and technology.

Swine flu has been creating a terror effects all round the globe and has been declared epidemic in most part of the world. Swine flu refers to swine influenza or the viral infection caused by any of the several types of swine influenza virus. Only people who used to have direct contact with pigs were observed to get swine flu in the past. But, H1N1 virus is a new swine flu virus and it contains the genetic material of swine, bird and human influenza virus. H1N1 is an Influenza A virus. Swine flu can produce a number of symptoms in both adults and children. In India day by day the graph of infected person has been climbed up so, it is important to take into consideration about this disease as it may prove deadly one. The intensity of this disorder can be lowered by diagnosing and taking proper treatments.


About Authros:
Khushbu Singh*1, Chandana Majee2
1 M.Pharm ( department of pharmaceutics)
2 Assistant Professor, department of pharmaceutical chemistry.
Noida institute of engineering and technology, noida

Dendrimers are highly branched and monodisperse macromolecules that display an exact and large number of functional groups distributed with unprecedented control on the dendritic framework. Based on their globular structure, compared to linear polymers of the same molecular weight, dendrimers are foreseen to deliver extraordinary features for applications in areas such as cancer therapy, biosensors for diagnostics and light harvesting scaffolds. Of the large number of reports on dendrimer synthesis only a few have reached commercial availability. This limitation can be traced back to challenges in the synthetic paths including a large number of reaction steps required to obtain dendritic structures with desired features. Along with an increased number of reaction steps come not only increased waste of chemical and valuable starting materials but also an increased probability to introduce structural defects in the dendritic framework.Dendrimer chemistry is one of the most fascinating and rapidly expanding areas of modern chemistry. Nanoparticle drug-delivery systems are the popular ones as are able to increase the selectivity and stability of therapeutic agents. However reticuloendothelial system (RES) uptake, drug leakage, immunogenicity, hemolytic toxicity, cytotoxicity, hydrophobicity restrict the use of these nanostructures. These shortcomings are overcome by surface engineering the dendrimer such as Polyester dendrimer, Citric acid dendrimer, Arginine dendrimer, Glycodendrimers, PEGylated dendrimers, etc. The bioactive agents can be easily encapsulated into the interior of the dendrimers or chemically attached i.e. conjugated or physically adsorbed onto the dendrimer surface, serving the desired properties of the carrier to the specific needs of the active material and its therapeutic applications


Vishwa Deepak kumar
Departement of Pharmacy,
IEC group of institution,
Greater Noida (U.P), Pin- 201301

Pharmacovigilance is an important and integral part of clinical research. Pharmacovigilance is “defined as the pharmacological science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long term and short term adverse effects of medicines. This addresses what exactly is Pharmacovigilance?  What do we know of its benefits and risks, challenges and the future hold for pharmacovigilance in Indian medicine. Here the main focus on the aims and role of Pharmacovigilance in medicines regulation and their Partners. This article describes and discusses the National programme of pharmacovigilance and centre in India. There role in collecting the reports ADRs of medicines. Further effectiveness and risk assessments of therapies are been discussed. The important role played by health care professional, pharmaceutical industries, media, and programmes carried by WHO. Finally the conclusion describes the major challenges and achievements for the future pharmacovigilance programmeand toxicity is not socritical if botanicals are used in traditional forms (Harborne., 1998).