Skip to main content

AN UPDATED PHARMACEUTICAL CRUDE DRUG PROFILE

Pharma courses

 

pharma courses

 

Pharmacognostical Crude drug Profile:

Name of drugs

Biological sources

Family

Use

Agar

Gelidium amansii, gracilaria

Gelidaceae

Emulsifying agent

Bulk laxative

Guar gum

Cyamopsis tetragonolobus

Leguminosae

Protective colloids

Disintegrating agent

Acacia {gum acacia}

Acacia Arabica

Leguminosae

Demulcent

Suspending agent

Tragacanth

Astragalus gummifer

Leguminosae

Thickening

Emulsifying agent

Bees wax

Apis mellifeca

Apidae

Ointment, plasters, polishes, candles.

Castor oil

Ricinus communis

Euphorbiaceae

Cathartic, lubricant

Cocoa butter

Theobroma cocao

sterculiaceae

Suppositories & ointments, creams

Cod liver oil

Gadus morrhua

gadidae

Rickets, nutritive

Linseed oil(flax seed)

Linum usitatissimum

Linaceae

Demulcent, drying oil, scabies, cresol with soap

Shark liver oil

Hypoprion brevirostris

 

Antixeropthalmic factor, burn, sun burn ointment

Rice bran oil

Oryza sativa

graminae

Antioxidant vegetable ghee

Lard

Abdomen of the hog sus scrofa

suidae

Ointment base

Honey(madhu)

Apis mellifera, Apis dorsata

Apidae   order- hymenoptera

Demulcent, antiseptic, sweetening agent.

Isapgol

Plantago ovata

Plantaginaceae

Pharmaceutical aid, laxative

pectin

Citrus limonis,   

C. aurantium

Rutaceae

Adsorbent, thickening agent

Starch

Zea mays, oryza sativa

Graminae

Disintegrating agent, demulcent

Volatile Oil:

Name of drugs

Biological sources

Family

Use

Mentha oil (peppermint oil)

Mentha piperita

Labiatae

Carminative, flavouring agent

Coriander

(Dhania)

Coriandrum sativum

Umbelliferae

Aromatic, gripping action

Cinnamon
(Dalchini)

Cinnamomum zeylanicumnees

Lauraceae

Carminative, stomachic, mild Astringent

Cassia

C.  cassia

Lauraceae

Carminative, stimulant, spices

Lemon peel

Citrus limonis

Rutaceae

Perfuming flavour

Orange peel

Citrus aurantium

Rutaceae

flavouring

Lemon grass

Cymbopogon flexuousus, C.citrate

Graminae

As source of citral

Citronella

Cymbopogon nardus

Graminae

Mosquito repellent cream

Caraway

(Ajwan)

Carum carvi

Umbelliferae

Flavouring carminative

Clove

(Laung)

Eugenia caryophyllus

Myrtaceae

Dental analgesic

Spearmint

Mentha spicata

Labiatae

Flavor-toothpaste

Mouth wash

Fennel

(sauf)

Foeniculum vulgare

Umbelliferae

Expectorant, flavouring, carminative

Nutmeg

Myristica fragrans

Myristicacea

Aromatic stimulant, rheumatism

Cardamom

Elettaria cardamomum

Zingiberaceae

Compound tincture, flavouring.

Dill

Anethum graveolens

Umbelliferae

Dill & gripe water, flavor.

Eucalyptus

E.globulus

Myrtaceae

Counter-irritant, antiseptic, nasal drops expectorant

Chenopodium

C.ambrosioidesvar.anthelminticum

chenopodiaceae

Anthelmintic, Round worms (Ascaris), expels hook worm

Valerian

Valeriana wallichi

valerianaceae

Antispasmodics, tranquillizing

Musk

Musk dearMoschus

 moschiferus

Cervidae

Stimulant In t/t

Hysteria, perfume.

Gaultheria oil

(wintergreen )

Gaultheria procumbens

Ericaceae

Counterirritant rheumatism

Sandalwood

Santalum album

Santalaceae

Dysurea, perfume

Palmarosa

Cymbopogon martini stapf

Graminae

Insect repellent

Perfumery, skin disease, cosmetics

Resin

Name of drug

Biological source

Family

Use

Ginger

Zingiber officinale

zingiberaceae

Aromatic, flavor, carminative

capsicum

Capsicum annum

Solanaceae

Stomachic, counter-irritant in rheumatism

Turmeric

Curcuma longa

zingiberaceae

Anti-inflammatory

Asafoetida

Ferula foetida

Umbelliferae

Carminative, nervine stimulant.

Jalap

Ipomoea purga

convolvulaceae

Powerful cathartic

Benzoin (Sumatra & siam)

Styrax benzoin, S.tonkinesis

Styraceae

Expectorant, antiseptic carminative

Podophyllum

P.hexandrum, P.emodi

Berberidaceae

Purgative, veneral worts

Tolu balsam

Myroxylon balsamum

Leguminosae

Expectorant, flavouring

Antiseptic.

Peru balsam

Myroxylon balsamumvar. pereirae

Leguminosae

Scabies, wounds, ulcers, bedsores, flavouring agent

Myrrh

Commiphora molmol

Burseraceae

Stimulant, antiseptic

Cannabis

Cannabis sativa

Cannabinaceae

(moraceae)

Narcotic, sedative, analgesic

Colophony

Pinus species

pinaceae

Stimulant, diuretic

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE

Tannins

Name of drug

Biological source

Family

Use

Gambir(pale catechu)

Uncaria Gambir

Rubiaceae

Astringent ,dyeing, tanning

Black catechu(katha, cutch)

Acacia catechu

Leguminosae

Astringent, cough, cooling, digestive.

Gall (gall tannic acid) or oak tree

Quercus infectoria

Fagaceae

Antidote

Myrobalan (harde)

Terminalia chebula

Combretaceae

Triphala, laxative.

Arjuna bark

Terminalia arjuna

Combretaceae

Cardio tonic, diuretic 

Ashoka bark

Saraca indica

Leguminosae

Uterine tonic, sedative

Amla

Emblica officinalis 

Euphorbiaceae

Inks, hairoil, shampoo rich source of vit.c

Baheda (bahera )

Terminalia belerica

Combretaceae

Purgative, astringent

Saponin glycosides

Name of drug

Biological Source

Chemical constituents

Use

Liquorice (mulethi) Leguminosae

Glycyrrhiza glabra

Var.glandulifera

Var.violacea

Var.typica

Glycyrrhizin-K & Ca salt of glycyrrhizinic acid, liquiritin, isoliquiritin.

Expectorant, demulcent, antispasmodics, flavouring, anti-inflammatory.

Ginseng  (panax) Araliaceae

Panax ginseng

P. japonica

P.notoginseng

P.quinquefolium

Ginsenosides, panaxosides- oleanolic acid, panaxadiol, panaxatriol

Immunomodulatory

Stimulant, sedative, aphrodisiac, demulcent.

Dioscorea (yam) Dioscoreaceae

Dioscorea deltoidae

D.composita

D.flouribunda

D.villosa

 

Diosgenin (a steroidal sapogenin)-smilagenin, epismilagenin, β-isomer yammogenin

Precursor for synthesis of corticosteroids, sex hormones, oral contraceptives.

Senega(syrup, liquid extract, conc. infusion)

Polygalaceae

Polygata senegavar. latifolia torret gray.

Polygala chinensis(Indian) Polygala alba (white)

 

Senegin-senegenin+senegenic acid+presenegenin polygalic acid, polygalitol-sweet taste, methylsalicylate

 

Stimulant expectorant, chronic bronchitis, irritation of gastric mucosa, large doses causes vomiting

Cardio active sterol

Name of drug

Biological Source

Chemical constituents

Use

Digitalis  (foxglove) Scrophulariaceae

Dried leaves of Digitalis purpurea

D.lanata(wooly), D.lutea(straw), D.thapsi(spanish)

 purpurea glycoside A & B, gitaloxin, verdoxin digitoxin, gitoxin

Congestive heart failure (CHF), atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter.

Squill (Indian squill, jangli pyaj)

Liliaceae

Dried slices or bulbs of  Urginea maritima (European)

U.indica kunth(Indian )

Scillaren A & B (proscillaridin A, Scillaridin A) (proscillaridin B, Scillaridin B)

Cardio tonic, expectorant, stimulant, anticancer activity.

Strophanthus Apocynaceae

Dried ripe seeds of Strophanthus kombe oliver,

S.hispidusde candolle, S.emini, S.sarmentosus, S.nicholsoni, S.courmontii

 k-strophanthin, stro -phanthidin, k-strophanthoside, β- cymarin cymarol

Cardiac glycoside (iv- route )-onset of action 5-10 min.

Thevetia (yellow-oleander)Marketed “encordin” Apocynaceae

Dried seeds of T.peruviana merrill

T.neriifoliajuss.

 Triosides (Theventin-thevetin A & B cereberoside, peruvoside,nerrifolin, thevenerin, peruvosidic acid )

Poisonous, abortifacient, purgative, febrifuge.

Anthraquinone glycoside

Name of drug

Biological Source

Chemical constituents

Use

Senna (Indian& Alexandrian)

Leguminosae

(Brontrager’s test)

Dried leaflets of Cassia angustifolia vahl., C.acutifolia delile

Sennosides A,B,C,D

Rhein dianthrone, 6-hydroxy musizin, tinnevelin, aloe emodin, kaempferol

Purgative, griping effect-resin or emodin content, increase in peristalsis-soft& bulky faeces.

Aloe (Curacao, Cape Socotrine, Zangiber )

Liliaceae

(Nitrous acid, Nitric acid, Cupraloin-Klunge’s isobarbaloin,Modified

Anthraquinone test)

Dried juices leaves

Aloe barbadensis, A.perryi Baker, A.ferox miller, A.africana miller, A.spicata

Aloesin-C glucosyl chromone, barbaloin, aloe-emodin anthrone C-10 glucoside, aloe-emodin, isobarbaloin, β -barbaloin

Purgative –colon, counter effect of griping action given with carminative

Aloe gel, compound tincture of benzoin (friar’s balsam),

aloin, aloes powder

Rhubarb (Indian & Chinese) Polygonaceae

(modified brontrager’s test)

Dried rhizomes ofRheum emodi Wall

R.palmatumLinn

R.webbianumRoyle

R.rhaponticum

Rhein, glucorhein, emodin, aloe-emodin, Rhaponticin,physcion

Chrysophanol,Palmidin A, B, C.

Bitter stomachic, diarrhea, purgative.

Cascara

Rhamnaceae

(modified brontrager’s test)

Dried bark of Rhamnus purshiana de candolle R.californica, R.fallax

O & C-glycoside, Cascarosides A,B,C,D

Barbaloin, chrysaloin, chrysophanol, palmidin A,B,C.  Lactone (bitter –taste)

Bitter stomachic, Tonic, Purgative

Others

Name of drug

Biological Source

Chemical constituents

Use

Psoralea (bavchi) Leguminosae

(Yellow fluorescence in uv light in alc.& NaOH solution)

Dried ripe fruits Psoralea corylifolia

Psoralen, isopsoralidin, psoralidin, corylifolin, bavachromanol, psoralenol.

Leucoderma, leprosy, psoriasis. Diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic(seeds)

Ammi majus Umbelliferae

Fruits of Ammi majus

Xanthotoxin, bergapten, isopimpilin, imperatorin (furanocoumarin)

Idiopathic vertigo

Increase t formation of melanin pigment in the skin on exposure to uv light

Ammi visnege (khella, picktooth)

Umbelliferae

Dried ripe fruits of Ammi visnege

Khellin, visnagin, khelloside, samidine, visnadine,dihydrosamidine

(furanocoumarin)

Smooth muscle relaxant, coronary vasodilator in angina pectoris, bronchial asthma, whooping cough.

Saffron (kesar)

Iridaceae

Dried stigmas & upper parts of styles crocus sativus

Crocin(crocetin+gentiobiose), crocetin, picrocrocin (bitter) (glucose+safranal),protocrocin (2 mol.picrocrocin+crocin)

Colouring (food dye) flavouring agent, stimulant Antispasmodics, Emmenagogue.

Chirata

Gentinaceae

Herbs of Swertia chirata S.peniculata

S.ciliata

S.densifolia

Ophelic acid (bitter yellow), chiratin, amarogentin (phenolic carboinic acid ester of sweroside), gentianine & gentiocrucine (alkaloids)

Bitter tonic, febrifuge,ayurvedic preparation“sudarshan powder”-chronic fever

Quassia Simarubaceae

Stem woods of picrasma excelsa

Amaroid compounds-Quassin, neoquassin, isoquassin

(picrasmin) & 18-hydroxy quassin

Bitter tonic, enema to expels thread worms, insecticidal properties

Pediculosis (lotion).

Gentian

Gentianaceae (light blue florescense under uv radiation)

Dried fermented rhizomes & roots of yellow gentian Gentian lutea

Gentiopicroside (gentiopicrin) – gentiogenin + glucose, amarogentin, amaroswerin, gentioside, gentinin (mixture of gentiopicrin & gentisin)

Bitter tonic to stimulant gastric secretion & improving appetite

List of traditional drug:

Name of drug

Biological Source

Chemical constituents

Use

Shatavari (shatmuli)

Liliaceae

Dried roots & leaves of Asparagus racemosus wild

Shatavarin 1-lV, quercetin, rutin, hyperoside, Diosgenin, quercetin.

Galactogogue, tonic, diuretic, antioxytocic property,Rheumatism, nervine disorder, in threatened abortion and safe delivery

Bhilawa Anacardiaceae

Fruits of Semicarpus anacardium

 

Anti-inflammatory

Kantkari

Solanaceae

Whole plant Solanum xanthocarpum

Solasonine(glycoalkaloid)

Solasodine, solamargine, carpesterol, norcapesterol

 

Expectorant, febrifuge, carminative.

Kalijiri

Centratherum anthelminticum

 

Anthelmintic, tonic, stomachic.

Bach

Araceae

Dried rhizomes of Acorus calamus

Asaraldehyde, asarone, eugenol, acorine-bitter

Carminative, vermifuge.

Rasna

Zingiberaceae 

Dried rhizomes of Alpinia officinarum

A.galanga

Galangol, alpinol, galangin, sorghumol dioxyflavanol,bochmerd.

Aromatic, stimulant, carminative, catarrhal antibacterial, Rheumatism.

Punarnava (rakta)

Nyctaginaceae

Dried herbs boerhaavia diffusa

B.repens, B.procumbens

Punarnavine, punernavoside

Diuretic, expectorant, stomachic, jaundice

Neem

Meliaceae

All parts of the plant Azadirachta indica

Melia azadirachta

Azadirachitin, nimbin, nimbidin, salinin and nimbolin B, meliantrol, salanin, nimatone, quercetin.

Antifeedant,attractants

Repellant, insecticide,

Nematicide, growth disruptor, antimicrobial.

 

Shilajit(tin, lead,gold

copper,silver,black iron)

Exudates from rock

Fulvic acid 7-methoxy carboxy biphenyl

Antistress,aphrodisiac, diabetes, improve the strength & complexion of body..

Gymnema (gurmar)

Asclepidaceae

Dried leaves of Gymnema sylvestre

Gymnemic acids-glucoronic, tartaric acid

Antidiabetic agent, astringent, stomachic, tonic, refrigerant, aid in dieting and weight control.

Guggul

(Guglip tablet)

(Burseraceae)

Gum resin of Commiphora mukul

E-guggulsterone

Z-guggulsterone

Guggulsterol

Hypolipidaemic, hypocholesterolaemic, astringent, antiseptic, bitter stomachic, carminative, appetizer & uterine stimulant.

Lahsun (garlic)

(Liliaceae)

Fresh ripe bulbs of
Allium sativum

(+)-S-allyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (alliin), allicin (diallyl thiosulphonate), E-ajoene & Z-ajoene

Antithrombotic,diuretic expectorant,diaphoretic, antibacterial,larvaecidal disinfectant, inhibit platlets aggregation

Methi (fenugreek)

(Leguminosae)

Dried ripe seeds of Trigonella foenumgraceum

Trigofoenoside-A,B,C,D,E,F,G

Trigonelloside C, yamogenin tetroside B&C

Tenugrin B, graecunins A,B,C,H,I,J,K,L.

Hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, antiulcer

Antidiabetic,

Antineoplastic  

Adulsa (vasaka)

(Acanthaceae)

Dried leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees

Vasicine, vasicinol, vasicinone, adhatonine

Expectorant,hypotensive, Antimicrobial abortifacient effect

Brahmi

(Apiaceae )

(scrophulareacae)

Dries arial parts of leaves of Centella asiatica

Baccopa monnieri

(nirbrahmi)

Asiatic acid, madecassic acid, asiaticoside, madecassoside

Diuretic, Nervine tonic, leprosy, eczema,anabolic sedative, anticonvulsant

Immunity promoting agent (bhrami ghrita & asthanga ghrita )

Shankhapushpi

(Convolvulaceae)

Whole dried herbs of Convolvulus pluricanlis choisy

Kaempferol, kaempferol-3-glucoside, 6-methoxy-7-hydroxy coumarin, n-hexacosanol. 3,4-dihydroxy cinnamic acids

Nervine tonic (epilepsy, insanity, nervous debility) improve memory, reduce fighting response

Gokhru (chota)

(Zygophyllaceae) (Dashmoolarishta & Chyavanprash)

Dried ripe fruits of Tribulus terestris

Terestrosins ABCDE, desgalactotigonin, F-gitonin, gracillin, trillin, dioscin, tribulosin, tribuloside.

Diuretic properties, nephritis, kidney stone, painful misturation, gout,

Aphrodisiac, spermatogenesis

Article by
Kamal kumar goyal

Assistant Professor, Sri Balaji College of Pharmacy,
Rajasthan university of health science, Jaipur

kamalg82@gmail.com

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE

Search this website