STEM CELL THERAPY FOR PARKINSON’S DISEASE: A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Vipul Gandhi*, Sushil Burle, Satish Kosalge
Hi-Tech College of Pharmacy Chandrapur
Padoli Phata,  Nagpur Highway, Morwa, Chandrapur-442406.
*vipul96gandhi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Some of the problems with Un productive relaxing treatments and insufficient repair aptitude in the central nervous system are most troubling problems for few neurological diseases. Providentially, the development of clinically relevant populations of stem cells has provided an opportunity to overcome the failure of endogenous repair systems and substitute new cells into the injured brain. However, there are still several existing difficulties in interpreting into clinical application. In this review, we mainly focus on the stem cell based therapies for Parkinson’s disease and discuss the possible advantages and drawbacks. We hope this review may provide suggestions for viable policies to overcome the current technical and biological issues relatedto the application of stem cells in Parkinson’s disease (Fu et al., 2015).

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2587

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 6, Issue 6

Received On: 12/03/2018; Accepted On: 17/04/2018; Published On: 01/06/2018

How to cite this article: Gandhi V, Burle S, Kosalge S; Stem Cell Therapy for Parkinson’s disease: A Review; PharmaTutor; 2018; 6(6); 1-8; http://dx.doi.org/10.29161/PT.v6.i6.2018.1

INTRODUCTION:
The Stem cells have the potential to develop into many different types of cells in the body. It mostly serves as a repair system for the body. This type of cells is of two type embryonic cells and adult cells.On a division, the stem cells have a potential while repairing it remains same or develop into another type of cell with more sophisticated functions it mostly develops as a muscle, brain or RBC cells.

The stem cells consist of many different types of cells it many modifies the embryonic and adult cell used to differentiate stem cells by the developmental stage of the animal from where this cellscome. The adult stem cells more correctly termed as “somatic” stem cells meaning from the body mostly found in the fetus, umbilical cord blood, placenta, and infants. In the 3- to 5-day-old embryo, called a blastocyst, the inner cells give rise to the entire body of the organism, including all of the many specialized cell types and organs such as the heart, lung, skin, sperm, eggs and other tissues. In some adult tissues, such as bone marrow, muscle, and brain, discrete populations of adult stem cells generate replacements for cells that are lost through normal wear and tear, injury, or disease. In laboratory scientist and researchers are continuously working on various aspects of stem cell how they are different from other cells, there essential properties and what makes them different from specialized cell types. Many new researchers are also using the stem cell for the screening of new Drugs moiety apart from this it also helpful for the development of model systems to study normal growth and identification of causes of birth defects (Canet et al., 2014).

CLASSIFICATION OF STEM CELLS (Canet et al., 2014):

Fig.1.  Classification of Stem Cell

ON THE BASIS OF POTENCY
The stem cell classification on the basis of potency.
Totipotent: This type of cells are having the ability to differentiate into all possible cell types. Examples are the zygote formed at egg fertilization and the first few cells that result from the division of the zygote.  
Pluripotent: The ability to differentiate into almost all cell types. Examples include embryonic stem cells and cells that are derived from the mesoderm, endoderm, and ectoderm germ layers that are formed in the beginning stages of embryonic stem cell differentiation.  
Multipotent: The ability to differentiate into a closely related family of cells. Examples include hematopoietic (adult) stem cells that can become red and white blood cells or platelets.  
Oligopotent: The ability to differentiate into a few cells. Examples include (adult) lymphoid or myeloid stem cells.  
Omnipotent: The ability to only produce cells of their own type, but have the property of self-renewal required to be labeled a stem cell. Examples include (adult) muscle stem cells.

ON THE BASIS OF SOURCES
The easiest way to categorize stem cells is by dividing them into two types: Early or embryonic and mature or adult. Early stem cells, often called embryonic stem cells, are found in the inner cell mass of a blastocyst after approximately five days of development.
Embryonic stem cells: Embryonic stem cells are self-replicating pluripotent cells that are potentially immortal. They are derived from embryos at a developmental stage before the time of implantation would normally occur in the uterus. The embryos from which human embryonic stem cells are derived are typically four or five days old and are a hollow microscopic ball of cells called the blastocyst.
Adult stem cells: Adult stem cells are undifferentiated totipotent or multipotent cells, found throughout the body after embryonic development that multiplies by cell division to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues.

Pluripotent stem cells: nowadays the third type of stem cell, with properties similar to embryonic stem cells, has emerged. Scientists have engineered these induced pluripotent stem cells (is cells) by manipulating the expression of certain genes - 'reprogramming' somatic cells back to a pluripotent state. 

WHAT IS PARKINSON’S DISEASE?
Parkinson’s disease is a type of disorder of movements that can affect the ability to perform common and daily activities. As this disease is linked to a wide range of symptoms, These symptoms are typically divided into; i) Motor symptoms and ii) Non-Motor symptoms.

The most common motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are tremor (a form of rhythmic shaking), stiffness or rigidity of the muscles, and slowness of movement ( bradykinesia). A person with Parkinson's disease may also have trouble with balance, posture, coordination, and walking. Common non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease are constipation, sleep problems, depression, anxiety, and fatigue (Sung et al., 2017).

CAUSES OF PARKINSONS DISEASES
Genetic Factors: Scientists have estimated that less than 10% of cases of Parkinson's disease are primarily due to genetic factors. The most usual genetic effect that triggers Parkinson's disease is a mutation in a gene called LRRK2. This defect is particularly found in families of North African or Jewish descent. Mutations in alpha-synuclein have been found to trigger Parkinsons disease, but these are very few. In most cases of Parkinson's disease, no primary genetic cause can be found.
Environmental Factors: Certain environmental effects, such as exposure to chemicals, pesticides or certain heavy metals and repeated head injuries, can increase the risk of Parkinson's disease. It may not affect in certain cases due to habituation of environment. However, the environmental factors do influence the development of Parkinson's disease, perhaps particularly in people who also have a genetic susceptibility.
Other Factors: This factor includes age because of it most common in adults above the age of 50. Mostly the women are having more percentage than men. Parkinson's disease often seems to affect Caucasians more than African Americans or Asians. Now that you know a bit more about what Parkinson's disease actually is, the following chapter will provide greater detail about what to expect in terms of symptoms (Khan et al., 2013).

MOTOR AND RELATED SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE:

There are five primary motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease:

  1. Tremor
  2. Rigidity
  3. Bradykinesia (slow movement)
  4. Postural instability (balance problems)
  5. Walking/gait problems.

NON-MOTOR SYMPTOMS OF PARKINSON'S DISEASE

  1. Disturbances in the Sense of Smell
  2. Sleep Problems
  3. Depression and anxiety
  4. Fatigue
  5. Mental processes
  6. Weight loss
  7. GIT related issues
  8. Lightheadedness
  9. Urinary issues
  10. Sexual concern
  11. Sweating
  12. Melanoma

STAGES OF PARKINSON’S DISEASE:

Fig.2. Stages of Parkinson’s disease

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