Pharmacology Articles


About Author: Deepali Jaybhaye, Sushilkumar Varma, Amol Gite
Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Mission Hospital,
Aurangabad, Maharashtra – 431001, India.

Vijay Bonde
Department of Pharmacology, Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences,
Sewagram, Wardha, Maharashtra – 402102, India.

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1052

Tectona Grandis linn. is one of the well known Indian herbs. In Ayurveda Tectona grandis stem extract has tocolytic effect. The main syndrome of preterm birth is caused by uterus contractions from excitatory factors. Administration of tocolytic agents is a strategy to prevent the occurrence of preterm births. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Tectona grandis stem extract on the contractions of uterine strips isolated from non?pregnant female Wistar rats (250~350 g) prior injected (Before 24 Hrs) Estradiol benzoate. Contractions of the uterus were induced with Oxytocin 0.01 IU. The results compared with stander drugs like Magnesium Sulfate (75 mg), Nifedipine (0.18 mg), and Isoxsuprine (0.18 mg) along with their effect on frog blood vessels, rat and frog heart, skeletal muscle. After seeing these effects we conclude that Tectona grandis stem extract possess the same tocolytic effect as that of standard drugs.

A Review on Conduct and Analysis of Bioavailability and Bioequivalence Studies

About Author: 1. Shah Dhaval D., M.Pharm-II Semester, Quality Assurance Department, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Jaipur, India
2. Sharma Anil, M.Pharm, H.O.D. Quality Assurance Department, Gyan Vihar School of Pharmacy, Jaipur, India

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1050

Generic pharmaceutical products need to confirm to the same standard of quality, efficacy and safety as required of the originator’s (innovator) product. Spefically, the generic product should be therapeutically equivalent and interchangable with the reference product. Testing the bioequivalence between a test product pharmacetically equivalent or a pharmaceutical alternative and a suitable reference product in a pharmacokinetic study with a limited no of subjects is one way of demonstrating therapeutic equivalence. Generic drug applications are termed “abbreviated” because they are generally not required to include preclinical and clinical data to establish safety and effectiveness. This article provides the information about important aspect involved in bioequivalence and regulatory requirment for bioequivalence study.

Assets of Pharmacovigilance, Its Necessity and Future in INDIA in coming five years.

About Authors: Mrugank BP1,  Mangala L2,  Hareesha RP3
Department(s) and institution(s)
1. National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Department of Pharmacy Practice, M.Pharm (Student)
2. Gauhati Medical College and Hospital (GMCH), Department of Pharmacology, Prof and Head; Chief academic co-ordinator, NIPER-Ghy.
3. National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Department of Pharmacy Practice, M.Pharm (Student)

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1048

Background: "Pharmacovigilance is the science and activity relating the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other possible drug - related problems." [1]

Literature:Periodic safety update reports (PSUR)[2]and Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA)[3]are two important assets for maintenance of Drug safety Pharmacovigilancesystem as they are designed to represent the safety data on a particular drug from all the sources and geographical regions in the worldand to understand internationally, accepted clinically validated medical terminology for medical coding respectively.


Abour Author: Kesinath Kotha*1, Varun Raj Vemula2, Rupesh Kotte3
1. Department of Pharmacy Practice, St Peters institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Warangal, A.P
2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Vikas College of Pharmacy, Warangal, A.P.
3. SRR college of pharmaceutical sciences, Karimnagar, A.P.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is chronic obstruction of the flow of air through the airways and out of the lungs, and the obstruction generally is permanent and may be progressive over time. According to WHO in India, a study collecting data without spirometry assessment suggested that 12 million people were affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Recent studies show a prevalence of respiratory symptoms in 6%–7% of non-smokers and up to 14% of smokers. In a recent study in southern India, the prevalence rate of COPD in adults was around 7%. COPD is the fourth leading cause of death in the U.S. and the economic burden of COPD in the U.S. in 2007 was $42.6 billion in health care costs and lost productivity.
In view of its importance, the use of corticosteroids in treatment & management of COPD in acute & chronic conditions has been discussed along with emphasis on recent research trends. Use of corticosteroids & different combination products in the treatment of COPD along with their uses and side effects are presented.


Abour Author: RJ Pathyusha B

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1043

The present work describes the local anesthetic activity of milky latex obtained from Calotropis procera and its potentiation with epinephrine and pH. The milky latex at a dilution of 1:10, exhibited significant local anesthetic activity. Both epinephrine (5µg/ml) and pH of 7.2 prolonged the duration of local anesthetic activity. The method used is infiltration anesthesia in Guinea pig. In conclusion, the duration of the effect produced by combination of Calotropis procera latex and epinephrine was longer than that by latex alone.

Study of Effect of pH on Pioglitazone by UV Spectroscopy and Its Estimation in Bulk and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms

About Authors: Arun Kumar Dash*, Suchismita Jena, Sudhir Kumar Sahoo
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance
Royal College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences,
Andhapasara Road Berhampur, Odisha

Reference ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1040

A simple method for the estimation of Pioglitazone in bulk and pharmaceutical dosage forms has been developed. 0.1N HCl was chosen as the solvent system. The λmax was found to be 270nm and all absorbance values were carried out at 270nm. The responses were linear in the range of 5-100µg/ml. The regression equation of the calibration graph and correlation coefficient were found to be y = 0.026x - 0.020 and 0.999 respectively. The %RSD values for both intraday and interday precision were less than 1%. The recovery of the drug from the sample was ranged between 99.36 and 100.49%. The proposed method was validated for precision, accuracy, intraday, interday assay, robustness and ruggedness. Commercial tablets containing 20mg and 40mg of Pioglitazone were analyzed by the proposed method and the results were well within the claimed limits. Furthermore the effect of pH on Pioglitazone was studied.

Study of Antimicrobial Property of Some hypoglycemic Drugs

About Authors: Amitesh Kumar Palo*1,  Birendra Kumar Pattanaik2, Arun Kumar Dash3.

1College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur, Odisha
2Gaytri Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gunupur, Odisha.
3Royal College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Andhapasara Road, Berhampur.

In the present work, a comparative antimicrobial study of different hypoglycemic drugs (Metformin, Phenformin, Rosiglitazone Pioglitazone)was carried out. The antimicrobial assay was carried out against bacteria and fungi namely Bacillus liceniformis, Escheriaceae coli, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aurous subsp, Staphylococcus epidermidis by using disc diffusion method. Dilution and Diffusion dilutionmethod were used as standard disk with Ciprofloxacin as the standard drug. The entire procedure can be carried out by inoculation of bacterial strain to the agar media in which the drug solution is added. From this the antimicrobial activity of drug was determined.


About Authors: Shanker Swaroop Sharma
Sagar Institute of Tech. & Management, Barabanki

With enormous increase in the population the demand of pesticides gradually increases throughout the world. the question arises that where the fault begins, whether farmers are spraying overdose of pesticides either to earn money or to save their crop. Movement of pesticides into surface or ground water affected human & wildlife beyond acceptable safety levels where 20000 deaths reported annually.

An Article on Pharmacogenetics

About Authors:Kisananad Vishwakarma,
SGI Barabanki,

Pharmacogenetics is generally regarded as the study or clinical testing of genetic variation that gives rise to differing response to drugs. It refers to genetic differences in metabolic pathways which can affect individual responses to drugs. Much of current clinical interest is at the level of pharmacogenetics, involving variation in genes involved in, drug metabolism with a particular emphasis on improving drug safety. The wider use of pharmacogenetic testing is viewed by many as an outstanding opportunity to improve prescribing safety and efficacy.


About Authors: T.Venkatesh.Y.Nandini,L.Sai Kishore,V.Satish Kumar, P.Archana, G.malathi
Guided by: Ms.S.Rekha
Chilkur Balaji College of Pharmacy,Moinabad,Hyderabad.

The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity “KSHEERABALA THAILAM” (an ayurvedic preparation of IMCOPS) by topical application against fresh egg white induced inflammation on Swiss albino rats. Using Randall and Baroth methodKsheerabala Thailam was investigated for the anti-inflammatory activity in Swiss albino rats against Diclofenac as standard reference and normal saline as control .  The time taken for reduction of the inflammation in the rat paw was determined. The topical application of Ksheerabala Thailam exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity when compared with the standard Diclofenac and normal saline. The topical application of Ksheerabala Thailam has anti-inflammatory effect on Swiss albino rats.