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Toxicity studies on Lantana camara:
Research on the plant Lantana camara showed that after ingestion of lantana foliage by grazing animals causes intrahepatic cholestasis and ruminants like cattle, buffalo, sheep and non-ruminants like horse, rabbits, guinea pigs susceptible to the Lantana camara. Lantana poisoning in livestock has been reported in India, U.S.A, Australia, Brazil, Indonesia, and Africa.

Incidence of Lantana poisoning reported during transportation of animal’s lantana free regions to lantana infested areas or on leaving the animals for grazing in lantana infested      8 localities after some period of stall feeding. Incidences of Poisioning in buffalo (Kangra valley, H.P.), sheep, goats (in Rampur bushier) and after eating lantana foliage, the animals suffer from constipation and anorexia. After 24-48 hours animals get jaundice, photosensitive, subsequently eye-lids become hairless.

Lantadene-A,B were toxic to guinea pig, sheep. Lantadene-A were most toxic principle in the plant, Lantadene-C was showed hepatotoxicity in guinea pigs, after absorption of toxins were transported to liver in portal blood. Toxins resemble cholesterol and absorption of cholesterol is facilitated by esterification with cholesterol esterase. Biotransformation and disposition investigated in guinea pigs and lantana is not detected in liver, bile, blood, urine, gall bladder.

The metabolites of Lantana camara like lantadene-A, B were showed in G.I.T. and in faeces. L.camara poisoning causes photosensitisation due to retension of phylloerythrin which is normally excreted in bile and jaundice due to accumulation of bilirubin as a result of inhibition of bile secretion. Administration of activated charcoal at the rate of 500g in 4 liters of electrolyte to sheep and 2.5 kg in 20 liters of electrolyte given to cattle for the treatment[15].

Cytotoxicity test on Vero line cell showed that the leaf extract of Lantana camara at concentration up to 500 mg/ml inhibited the growth of cells 2.5 times less than that done by triton 100.1% and started to decline at elevated concentration while female mice loose body weight, liver damage after single dose of leaf extract in acute toxicity test and male lost organs-heart and kidney[43].

It was the first weed for biological control at the turn of century and was the serious weed in the plantation crops like coffee, palm oil, coconuts, cotton, it invades in Australia, East Africa, Fiji, India, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Leaves and seeds contain triterpenoids were toxic to sheep, cattle shows photosensitivity and death due to poisoning[44].

L.camarawas potencially toxic and shows photosensitivity, hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, intestinal haemorrhage, dermatitis[9]. L.camara is a major invader of forest, pastuer, watelands throughout India (Dobhal 2010), ability to grow under wide range of climatic conditions (dat, alleo chemicals released by roots in the soil inhibiting the growth of neighbouring plant, significant loss (28.4%) of species richness and 63% loss of basal area ofvegetation was recorded in the invaded localities compared to non-invaded oneson nayar region in Garhwal Himalayas (Uttarkhand) India [45].

L.camarais top in terms of highest impacting invasive plant species (batin off and batler 2003) and one of the world’s 100 worst invasive alien species (GISP 2003) and depletion of tree population in the Vidhyan tropical dry deciduous forest in India [46].

Effect of poisoning by the L.camara cause ruminal stasis and marked decreased in fore stomach motility 4-6 hour after dosing with plant and continued to be depressed throughout the course due to inhibiting impulses arising from damaged liver [47].

Accidental poisoning with L.camara cause liver damage and accumulation of phylloerythrin in the blood which sensitize animal skin to UV light, marked inflammation in eyes and sexual orifices, in cattle, buffalo, guinea pig-jaundice, rise in glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, elevated hepatic and renal xanthine oxidase activity[48].

As the lantana camara is a most noxious plant, toxicity depends up on three phases- (1) The release and absorption of toxins in the G.I.T. (2) The hepatic phase resulting in cholestasis, hyperbilirubinemia, hypererythremia. (3) Tissue phase where in injury results from the accumulation of bilirubin and phylloerythrin[49].

Alleochemicals from lantana plant were lantadene-A,B and umbelliferone, methyl coumarin. In recent reports on bilirubin clearance effect of Chinese herbal tea in zhi huang or its active ingredient 6,7-dimethyl esculetin in jaundice were exiting investigation on possible ameliorative effects of lantana intoxicified animals[50].

Triterpines-lantadene -A,B produces jaundice, ruminal stasis, hepatic and ruminal cholestasis. the decresed ruminal motility causes retained toxic material in rumen and absorption maintains the disease, treatment by large quantity of activated charcoal in rumen with multiple of electrolyte solution to stimulate ruminal motility and rehydrate the animal [51]

L.camara var. aculeatagiven in dose of 6g/kg body weight to guinea pig produces cholestasis, after euthanized the animal L.camara could not be in blood and urine samples and find in lower G.I.T and feces. [52]

Single dose (1-3 mg/kg) of L.camara produces liver injury after injected i.v. in sheep due to triterpinene acid-lantadene-Aand chatracterised by transient rises in serum enzymes with or without hyperbilirubinemia. In higher dose produce hepatic necrosis and in lower doses produce cholestatic syndrome for several days[53].increase in hepatic and renal xanthine oxidase activity and causes rise in glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase acitivity, obstructive jaundice, photosensitisation when ingested L.camara in cattle, sheep, buffalo, guinea pig[54].

Bentonite and activated charcoal given by stomach tube as a 5g/kg in calves, five of six calves in each of the groups given bentonite and activated charcoal recovered while 5 of 6 calves in the control groups died, so bentonite have cheap alternative to activated charcoal in cattle[55].

500g of activated charcoal in 4 liter electrolyte given orally can protect sheep against intoxification, mortality was higher in intoxified sheep given only electrolyte and untreated sheep, six cows with 2-2.5 g activated charcoal in 20-30 liter electrolyte solution given by stomach tube recovered naturally occurring lantana poisoning [56].

Dried alcoholic extract of L.camara leaves on oral administration to albino rats causes photo dermatitis [57], pressure changes occurring in the jejunam,dueodenum,caecum and spiral colon of sheep were recorded due to L.camara in intestinal motility, L.camara didn’t affect responses of duodenum to pentagastrin given i.v. or hydrochloric acid,so L.camara does not cause intestinal paralysis [58].

The polar and apolar extract of L.camara given by i.p route (1.5, 3.0, 5.0 g/kg) to mice , both extract shows death after 2 days shows both extract have some common principles but only apolar extract presented dose dependent increased lethality[59]. Effect of l.camara on general reproductive performance and teratology in rats has been investigated, the data showed interfered in the frequency of fetal skeleton anomalies from dams treated with extract and induced embryotoxicity indicated by post implantation loss without any sign of maternal toxicity[60].

The l.camara extract did not interfere with all over weight or internal organ weight but interfere with sperm count, daily sperm production and sperm morphology in dose dependent manner[61].                  

Vaccination as a possible means of preventing lantana poisoning-the toxic triterpene acids lantadene-A,B were isolated and conjugated bovine serum albumin or haemocyanin. The conjugates were emulsified with complete freund’s adjacent and injected in to sheep and cattle .vaccinated animals produced antibodies against the toxic compounds cholestasis was less severe in vaccinated sheep challenged with a toxic dose of lantana. The results indicated a mild protective effect of vaccination against the hepatotoxic effect of toxins [62].

The authors acknowledge Professor Dr Suresh Nagpal, Chairman, Krupanidhi Institutions, for providing necessary facilities like various journals, books and digital library to carry out the review work in an effective manner.

From the above review we can conclude that the plant Lantanacamarawhichis having a wide range of medicinal value due to their variety of chemical constituents can be further investigated on toxicological and other parameters to obtain a valuable marketed product. The specific part of the plant has to identified for their pharmacological use and the different pharmaceutical approach has to applied to formulate suitable dosage form.



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