THE DETAIL STUDY OF LANTANA CAMARA PLANT FOR THEIR MEDICINAL IMPORTANCE -A REVIEW

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Antiulcerogenic activity:
The methanol extract of leaves (MELC)showed significant decrease in the gastric lesions in aspirin, ethanol and cold resistant strain induce rats.It has been showed that anti?ulcer activity of extract was dose dependent manner. MELC decreases volume of gastric juice, total acidity, free acidity and increases pH significantly (P<0.001) in aspirin induced gastric ulcer. Pre?treatment with the extract (200 and 400mg/kg) showed ulcer protective effect in aspirin induced (63.31%, 71.02% protection), ethanol induced (85.79%, 93.09% protection) and coldrestraint stress induced (46.86%, 63.90% protection) ulcer models [4].

L.camara extract significantly reduced ulcer index, total acidity, and significantly increase gastric PH of aspirin+pylorus-ligation induced ulcerogenesis and ethanol induced gastric ulcer models. The inhibition zone in diameter of extract against H.pyroli was 20 mm [19].

Nematicidal activity:
The complete extraction of Lantana camara in various solvent was done and it was showed that organic extract caused significantly mortality (nematicidal potential) in meloidogyne javanica juveniles in vitro where as aqueous and methanolic extracts were demonstrated greater inhibition compared to ethyl acetate or n-hexane extracts which indicated that the active principles were polar in nature and contain lantanoside, linoroside, lantanone, camarinic acid[5].

L.camara shows nematicidal activity against root-knot nematode meloidogyne incognita (begun et.al 2008) [20].

Extracts of the leaves, twigs, stems and roots of Lantana camara were screened for activity in the brine shrimp lethality test (BST). The active fractions yielded known oleanonic acid, lantadene A and oleanolic acid, which were very toxic to brine shrimp larvae and not lethal to Spodoptera littoralis Biosduval, Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stal. And Aphis craccivora Koch when tested at 5000µg/ml, lantadene-A however, suppressed the fecundity of C. tomentosicollis at this concentration [21].

Topical activity against dermatophilosis:
Ointment prepared with ethanolic extract of Lantana camara leaves, Senna alata, Mitracarpus scaber was used for topical treatment of chronic crusty or acute lesions of dermatophilosis and also hair grows on the treated areas, for more 3 years-no recurrence has been seen[22].

Anti-inflammatory activity:
The Extracts of Lantana camara and its fractions was investigated using stabilization of red blood cell membrane lysing technique. The whole plant extract gives positive reaction for saponins, flavonoids, ethanol extract gives positive reaction for tannins while ethyl acetate fraction for flavonoids and butanol fraction for saponins. The percentage membrane stability compared with Ibuprofen, Indomethacin and Ethanol protects the erythrocyte membrane while ethyl acetate shows highest protection against induced lyses[23].

Insecticidal activity:
Insecticidal activity of Lantana camara and repellant property after 21 days(82.7-90% insect mortality), the mean lethal exposure times(LT50) to achieve 50% mortality varied from 5-6 days (7.5-10%w/w) to seven to eight days (2.5-5%w/w)[24].

Synthetic mosquito repellants shows side effects so natural insecticide L.camara leaves methanol extract investigated for highest repellent activity against anopheles stepheni with an average 2.63 mosquitos landings whereas hexane extract shows 3.17 mosquito landings were found in Ibadan, Nigeria [25].

 Lantana camara and coconut oil extract used against aedes aegypti (94% protection for 2 hr), aedes albopictus (50% protection for 4 hr) (Dua et.al 1996) [26].

 L.camara hexane extract shows insecticidal activity against bean weevil (93%) and maize weevil (73.3%) after 24 hr treatment [27]. L.camara has insecticidal activity against stored grain pest, vegetable crops pest[18].  

Anti-bacterial activity:
Antibacterial activities of Lantana camara leaf and yellow, lavender, red, white flower ethyl acetate, acetone, chloroform extract prepared and evaluated by agar well diffusion method.

Theflower extracts possess strong antibacterialactivities more than the corresponding leaf extracts.

However, onlyethyl acetate extracts showed to be most effective against all of the bacteriaexcept Salmonella aureus. Acetone and chloroformextracts did not show any significantinhibitory effects against the bacteria.All four types of L.camara flower extractsdisplayed almost similar antibacterial activitieswith zone of inhibition value ranging from 10-21 mm.

L.camara yellow andwhite flowers extracts showed the highestinhibitory effects against Bacillus subtilis with a zone of inhibition of 21 and20 mm respectively. Leaf extracts comparedto the flower extracts, displayed lessinhibitory effects against all the bacteriatested with a relatively smaller zone ofinhibition area ranging from 9-15 mm.Escherichia coli was found to be the most sensitive bacteria to allL. camara flowers and leaf extracts. P.aeruginosa and Bacillussubtilis was also found to be highly susceptible to all L.camara flower and leafextracts[28].

L.camaraproduced minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of37.5 mg/ml against both Salmonella aureus, pseudomonas aeruginosa and shows appreciable results against mycobacterial tuberculosis[29].

L.camara used against microbial diseases because ethanolic extract shows activity against bacillus substilis, pseudomonas aeruginosa than aqueous extract and no activity against salmonella aureus[30].

H37Rv and TMC-331 are internationally used as standard mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) strains which were rifampicin sensitive and rifampicin resistance, respectively. The values for rifampicin were 1.0 µg/ml for both H37Rv and wild strain but rifampicin hardly showed any activity on TMC-331.

The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) value for the methanol extract of L. camara was 30µg/ml for the H37Rv, and 20µg/ml for both the TMC-331 and wild strains of M. Tuberculosis where as MBC for rifampicin was 2.0µg/ml for both H37Rv and the wild strain. L. camara extracts showed an advantage over rifampicin by being highly active against the rifampicin-resistant strain of mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)[31].

Methanol, petroleum ether, water, chloroform extracts of L.camara roots and stems  shows antibacterial activity against  gram positive Salmonella aureus, staphylococcus aureus and gram negative E.coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa [32].

L.camarahaving more antibacterial activity against E.coli, bacillus substlis, klebsiella, pneumonia, Salmonella aureus than croton spariflorus and antigonon  leptopus[33]. Water extract of L.camara active against fungal pathogens and bacteria [34].

Methanol extract is better than chloroform extract for anti-microbial activity from different parts of plant [35].L.camara shows minimum inhibitory concentration (MIB) against p.vulgeris and p.cholerae[36]. Aromatic oil of L. camara shows bactericidal activity against E.coli, Salmonella.aureus and has bacteriostatic activity against bacillus species [37].                

Antiurolithiatic and anti-oxidant activity:
Ethanolic extract of Lantana camara leaves showed antiurolithiatic activity against 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol and 2% w/v ammonium chloride induced calcium oxalate urolithiasis and for antioxidant activity against hyperoxaluria induced oxidative stress in male albino rats. After treatment with the extract, a significant reduction in the deposition of calcium, oxalate and also urinary excretion of calcium, oxalate and creatinine was observed, indicating its antiurolithiatic effect. The administration of extract showed decreased the extent of lipid peroxidation and hence enhanced the levels of antioxidant enzymes in the kidneys of urolithic rats, reflecting its antioxidant efficacy against hyperoxaluria induced renal oxidative stress[38].

Anti-Leukaemia activity:
In 1991, Herbert J.m.et al reported that verbascoside isolated from L.camara possess anti-tumour activity in vitro due to inhibition of protein kinase c. Shashi B.M.et al finding Lantana’s extracts have anti-tumour activity. Lantadenes and related triterpenoid inhibited Epstein - Barr virus activation, making hope to build anti-tumour promoters by few changes in chemical structure (the substituents on the carboxylic acid through an ester bond).

Some triterpenoids like 22-beta-acetoxylantic acid and 22-beta-dimethyl acryloxyloxy lantanoic acid has been reported to anti-mutagenic. Study on lantadenes and their esters by Sharma.et.al reveled the importance of the groups attached to C-22 and C-17 in relation to anti-tumour activity.

Games-howel statistical test showed that leaf and root extract of L.camara had similar anti-protective activity (p>0.1, n=3) after 24 hrs and 72 hr that was constrastable with carboplatin (p<0.05,n=3). L.camara leaf extract has about 1/11.5 times as anti-leukaemia activity as carboplatin after 72 hrs (leaf extract IC50, 394.41+99.73 μg/ml; carboplatin IC50, 34.83+3.60 μg/ml) and root extract around 1/9.5 times as effect as this drug at same interval (root extract IC50, 328.36+53.08 μg/ml). L camara root and leaf extract had roughly equal anti-proliferative activity on leukaemia jurkat cell line by the mechanism of apoptosis induction, but this activity was about 1/10 of carboplatin potency, a reference anti-cancer drug[39].

L. camarashows anti-proliferative activity in percent of living cell in laryngeal cancer cell line (55.98+0.74) and percentage of living cells in lung cancer cell line(25.8+0.19)[40].

Anti-filarial activity:
L.camara
has anti-filarial activity against human lymphatic filarid brugia malayi (80%) and rodent filarid acanthocheiconema viteae (95%) maintained in rodent rats. Crude extract at 1g/kg for 5 days by oral route killed 43.05% of adult brugia malayi and sterilized 76% of surviving female worms in the rodent model mastomys coucha.

A 34.5% adulticidal activity along with sterilization of 66% of female worms could be in chloroform fraction. Oleanonic acid and oleanolic acid from hexane and chloroform fractions showed LC100 at 31.25 and 62.5 μg/ml respectively on b.malayi in vitro. This is first ever reported on the anti-filarial efficacy of L.camara[41].

Anti-motility activity:
Effect of L.camara on neostigmine induced gastrointestinal transit in mice investigated. neostigmine used as premotility agent, intestinal motility accessed by charcoal meal test, the intestinal transit with L.camara methanolic extract(LCME) at a dose of 500mg/kg was 26.46% where at 1mg/kg completely inhibited the transit of charcoal in normal mice. The intestinal transit in the neostigmine pre-treated groups was 24 and 11 at the same dose respectively. Plant extract at 125 to 250mg/kg doses were administered intraperitonially shows significant reduction in faecal output compared with castor oil treated mice, at higher dose(500-1000mg/kg) the fecal output completely stopped, so L.camara was used in secretory and functional diarrhoea caused by castor oil[42].

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