Vinay Kumar Singh
General Manager-Technical,
Mikasa Cosmetics Limited,
Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Baby Products are products intended to be used on infants and children under the age of three. Baby products are specially formulated to be mild and non-irritating and use ingredients that are selected for these properties. Baby products include baby shampoos, baby Wash and baby lotions, baby oils, baby powders and baby creams. Now a days even baby cologne, baby perfume etc. are also available.

The effects of baby-care products can usually be divided into the following categories: cleansing, caring, and protection.

Currently, a multitude of product types can be found in the market. Although the shear number of products is overwhelming, but features are common.

Cleansing: Bath Additives: As soon as the umbilical cord has fallen off, the baby can be bathed. However, daily bathing of the baby is not advisable, as this would dry out the skin too much. A bath every 2 to 3 days is sufficient. The bath temperature should lie between 36 and 37°C.Bath additives usually contain a mixture of various anionic (e.g., fatty alcohol ethersulfates, protein fatty acid condensates), nonionic (e.g., ethoxylated fatty alcohols, fatty acid glycerides), and amphoteric (e.g., betaines) surfactants. Numerous protein hydrolysates, superfatting agents, solubilizing agents, plant extracts, colorants, and perfumes are also found in this product category. In general, bath additives contain mild surfactant mixtures, which neither dry out the skin nor burn in the eyes.

Cleansers for the Diaper Area: Baby oils containing mineral oils as well as oil-impregnated towelettes are widely used.Liquid petrolatum is a very desirable ingredient in view of its stability, touch, barrier function, and cost. Liquid petrolatum also has a remarkable occlusivity.

Soft towelettes containing mild oil-in-water (o/w) cleansing milks or, alternatively, clear cleansing lotions are also frequently found. They normally contain anionic and/or nonionic surfactants in low concentrations as well as varying amounts of skincare ingredients like plant extracts and protein hydrolysates. These towelettes are also offered in dispenser boxes.

Whereas the irritating effect of soaps mainly results from their alkalinity, the use of alkaline-free soaps has shown that all detergents induce a significant delipidizing effect, which can also contribute to skin irritation.

Liquid cleansers are usually used for cleansing of the face, arm pits, and the genital area. Normally alkaline free, their composition resembles the composition of baby shampoos, whereas the concentration of surfactants is normally higher. The reasoning behind the higher surfactant level lies in the smaller product amount used for cleansing.

Shampoos: Baby shampoos are usually formulated to be nonirritating to the eyes. This guarantees extraordinary product safety and also ensures that babies do not object to shampooing. Although basically the ingredients used are comparable with the ingredients found in bath additives, the concentration of surfactants is normally lower. Viscosity is adjusted to make it hard for the shampoo to migrate into the eyes.

Care: Face and Body Creams/Body Lotions: Face creams are especially important for the protection against environmental influences like sunlight, wind, and cold temperatures, which may dry out baby skin.

The composition resembles that of the body-care creams, although the moisturizer content is often higher.

The ingredients used are often more compatible with the mucous membranes (especially in the area of the eyes) than in the case of body creams.

Body-care creams are frequently used for their excellent superfatting properties. Both o/w and w/o emulsions are found on the market.

Body-care lotions are normally used for large-area body care, e.g., after baby bath. Both o/w and w/o emulsions are found in the market. Classic ingredients used are lanolin, lanolin alcohol, paraffin oil, vaseline, natural and synthetic wax esters, natural oils, fatty alcohols, and emulsifiers (e.g., fatty acid glycerides, ethoxylated fatty alcohols). Now a days natural sugar based surfactants are in use. Many skin-caring, soothing active ingredients are also found.

Protection: Sun Protection: Spending summer vacation at the seashore is a tradition of many families. Unfortunately, the beach is a high-risk environment for future skin cancer because it allows for maximum sunlight exposure. Heat, wind, and humidity are often present. These factors can enhance or intensify UV injury. With or without topical sun-protection measurements.Babies and small children should be kept out of direct sunlight. As soon as children begin to explore their environment, it usually becomes impossible to confine them to the shade. In such cases, sunscreens need to be applied.

A wide variety of different o/w and w/o emulsions, hydrogels and oleogels are found in the market using a variety of UV-filter systems. Many products contain broad spectrum (UVA and UVB) sunscreens with a moderate SPF. Products with a water-resistant SPF are favorable at the seashore.

Cold Protection: Mild facial creams are especially important in the winter for protection against the harsh effects of a dry, cold climate. At freezing temperatures, significant protection against frost bite is obviously helpful. Specific petrolatum-based water-free formulations, which optionally contain zinc oxide and skin-soothing agents like panthenol, can protect the skin at temperatures below freezing.

Adults that have sensitive skin or that are very sensitive to ordinary products may also use Baby Lotions, Oils, Powders and Creams. Manufacturers conduct extensive safety tests to ensure that these products are safe for use on young children.

Other Problems faced by babies

Diaper Rash: This is one of the most common skin conditions in children. Chafing can occur from a wet diaper rubbing against the skin, from folds of the baby's skin rubbing together, or just from a baby's skin being wet for too long.

Cradle Cap (Seborrheic Dermatitis): In babies, cradle cap appears as red, scaly, flaky skin on the scalp, but it also can appear on other areas of the body, such as the face and neck. The causes of cradle cap are unknown, but it's believed to stem from excessive production of oil, which traps dead skin cells and creates crusty, flaking areas that appear greasy and thick.Cradle cap is definitely unsightly, but it is not an infection, and typically it does not cause itching or discomfort. Over time, cradle cap will clear up, but you can hasten the process.

Keratosis Pilaris: Keratosis pilaris (KP) often looks like tiny red bumps on the upper arms, neck, or legs (sometimes described as "chicken skin"). KP results from clogged pores caused by a buildup of dead skin cells. KP is not an issue of hygiene or an infection.

Eczema: Eczema is very common among babies and children. In children it usually looks like red, irritated scaly patches, along with tiny blister-like eruptions. The skin may even become so dry that it cracks.

The infant cosmetics industry seems to be growing all the time, churning out new products that are ‘essential’ for  children. As anyone who has held a baby or toddler will know, babies and infants generally have beautiful unblemished skin. Baby’s skin is less oily than adults and their sweat glands are not yet fully developed. There is a reason that people use the expression “smooth as a baby’s bottom”

As anyone who has given birth to a child knows, little babies smell perfect the way they are. They have that gorgeous baby scent of their own. Yes, they may occasionally produce poo explosions that leave even the most hardy of us reeling in shock,

In the words of Dolce & Gabbana, their baby eau de toilette was inspired by “the softness of baby skin, the freshness of baby breath, a mother’s sweet hug, the first smile”.

In the last five years, the premium baby skin care category, which comprises mostly of natural and organic brands, has grown significantly.

According to Euromonitor International, sales of premium baby care in the United States increased 68 percent from 2005 to 2010. In contrast, sales of total baby care rose just 16 percent during the same period.

Johnson & Johnson, introduced an inexpensive five-product natural line in 2010.These lines tend to use organic ingredients, like almond and safflower oil, flower extracts and aloe, and are free from chemicals like parabens, sulfates and phthalates,

Internationally, In the world of baby body care, Mustela, the 60-year-old Paris-based skin care line that reformulated its products in 2010.The company has a Musti eau de soin, a perfume for babies, that costs $29 a bottle.) Love Me Baby Me, a Los Angeles-based line that uses ingredients like organic aloe and chamomile in its five products, has a lotion for $25.95, and MD Moms, also based in Los Angeles, offers a $12 72-pack of baby wipes with ginger root extract. Noni juice is the key ingredient in Lavanila products, which start at $15, and  Aveeno, which is owned by Johnson & Johnson, has a new Organic Harvest line whose three products are made with at least 70 percent organic ingredients and cost $12 each. California Baby was a leader in the trend in premium baby skin care.

In India, Personal and healthcare major Emami has forayed into the baby care segment with the launch of Sona Chandi Healthy & Fair ayurvedic baby massage oil. The product is a formulation based on research by Himani Ayurvedic Science Foundation and has been approved by Academy of Ayurvedic Doctors in India for its efficacy and purity.

Homegrown FMCG major Dabur is revamping its Rs 85-crore baby care portfolio with a focus on ayurvedic formulations and is also planning to expand the current range of products. The product range revamp is aimed at making Ayurveda and Dabur's baby care range more

contemporary and in sync with today's consumer tastes and preferences. The company, which is now repositioning the entire baby

care portfolio as "ayurvedic expert for babies", will provide information about scientifically tested formulations on refurbished packs.

The market size of Indian baby care products as per Assocham, are expected to grow by 40 per cent to Rs 4,200 crore by 2014 on account of rising income levels and increasing awareness.

According to industry body, India has emerged as the most preferred market for the companies involved in baby care product manufacturing and marketing. The growing segment of population in the age group of 0-4 years has been providing tremendous opportunities as compared to any other baby product market worldwide. According to the survey, metropolitan cities are the largest consumers of such products.

However, among the BRIC nations, the per capita expenditure on baby personal care products is the lowest in India.

Further, the estimated online market for baby products is around Rs 200-250 crore and tends to double within a year.

India, with 1,258 million people, is the second most populous country in the world, just after China. More than 127 million children under 4 years, along with its nearly 27 million annual births and a fertility rate of 2.54 children per woman, make India an attractive market for the baby care industry
According to the statistics from the RNCOS March 2012 report, the Indian baby and child care market has substantially grown during the past few years and caught the attention of many international players. Estimated to be US$11.12 billion and growing with a CAGR of 17% over 2014-2019, Indian baby and children products market is expected to reach US$ 21 billion (€16 billion) by the end of 2015.

The continuing healthy birth rate, coupled with growing awareness, surging income levels, aggressive marketing strategies, shifts in consumer behaviour and the acceptance of premium products is set to maintain the growth momentum of the country’s  baby products market.

The baby products category is largely dominated by multinationals such as Johnson & Johnson.

The craze for baby products has spread to small towns, too, as marketers cash in on affordability. There is a very affluent and upper middle-class segment that can afford imported products. And, then, there is a middle class with aspirations, that is willing to stretch budgets.

Other players in this segment are Dabur, Wipro, Himalaya and Emami. What is important is that manufacturers must produce products that are completely safe to be used on that so tender & soft skin of babies.



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