A REVIEW “THREE DIMENSIONAL (3D) DRUG PRINTING : A REVOLUTION IN PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCE”

 

Barriers and challenges
Post-processing : In many cases, 3D printer is unable to generate components with the desired accuracy and only produce products with nearly final shape. These products may then require a finishing operation, such as grinding or polishing, to produce the final product (H.Stahl 2013a).

Limitations of Materials
The choice of different raw materials as feedstock for 3D printers is still rather limited. There might be physical and technical limitations regarding the diversity of potential raw materials ( H. Stahl 2013b).

Massive job loss:
3D printing technology will fall somewhere between the extremes of creating and destroying jobs. Currently, 3D printing serves as an indispensable tool for rapid prototyping, but as systems improve and become mainstream in manufacturing, 3Dprinting technology will likely replace unskilled human labour needed for subtractive manufacturing processes. At the same time, skilled jobs in CAD design, math, materials engineering, and automation oversight will become more valuable (Tom Schneider, Emily Apel, Peter Brost, et al. 2014).

Regulatory Concerns: Securing approval from regulators is another significant barrier that may impede the widespread pharmaceutical application of 3D printing. Only one dosage form printed by Aprecia pharmaceuticals has received the FDA’s approval till this date. However, fulfilling more demanding FDA regulatory requirements could be a hurdle that may impede the availability of 3D-printed drugs on a large scale (C. Lee Ventola 2014).

FUTURE TRENDS AND CONCLUSION
3D printing technology is expected to play an important role in the trend toward personalized medicine, through its use in customizing nutritional products, organs, and drugs. This  technology is expected to increased due to be common in pharmacy settings. The manufacturing and distribution of drugs by pharmaceutical companies could conceivably be replaced by emailing databases of medication formulations to pharmacies for on-demand drug printing. This would cause existing drug manufacturing and distribution methods to change drastically and become more cost-effective. If most common medications become available in this way, patients might be able to reduce their medication burden to one polypill per day, which would promote patient adherence (C. Lee Ventola 2014 a) . This technologies are going to transform pharmacy practice by allowing medications to be truly individualized and tailored specifically to each patient, although technical and regulatory hurdles remain (Robert J. Szczebra 2015; C. Lee Ventola 2014 b).

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