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Let us first of all know about plagiarism and how it is different from copyright piracy. Plagiarism word is derived from Latin word plagiaries which mean stealing someone else’s work1. According to oxford dictionaries its literal meaning is “the practice of taking someone else’s work or ideas and passing them off as one’s own”2. Wikipedia defines plagiarism as “the wrongful appropriation and purloining and publication of another author's language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions, and the representation of them as one's own original work”1. The word plagiarism is different from copyright piracy3. Copyright piracy is unauthorised doing anything, the exclusive right to do which is with copyright owner or reproduction, sale or hiring in any form4,5 whereas plagiarism is the failure of giving credit to original author5 but both are infringements of copyright (under Indian Copyright Act, 1957) and hence crime. Unauthorised reproduction, sale or hiring is not infringement of copyright after expiry of the copyright protection period which varies nation-wise (minimum requirement under Berne Convention is 50 years and 60 years in case of India, post mortem of copyright owner) but under author’s moral rights his authorship and control over the work is forever and no one can represent it as his/her own original work6. If someone is doing so it would be plagiarism and hence serious ethical offense and crime.
Raaz K Maheshwari
Department of Chemistry, SBRM PG Govt College,
The use of PPCPs is on the rise on the globe. PPCPs enter into the environment through individual human activity and as residues from manufacturing, agribusiness, veterinary use, and hospital and community use. Individuals may add PPCPs to the environment through waste excretion and bathing as well as by directly disposing of unused medications to septic tanks, sewers, or trash. Because PPCPs tend to dissolve relatively easily and don’t evaporate at normal temperatures, they often end up in soil and water bodies. Some PPCPs are broken down or processed easily by a human or animal body and/or degrade quickly in the environment. However, others do not break down or degrade easily. The likelihood or ease with which an individual substance will break down depends on its chemical makeup and the metabolic pathway of the compound. Varying concentrations of drugs found in water sources can have ill effect on the aquatic life and human health. For pharmaceutical pollution, the solution calls upon all health care sectors to participate in preventing pharmaceutical pollution. Green Pharmacy aims at zero pharmaceutical waste in our environment. It offers an opportunity for social action that will greatly benefit our environment at all levels of our society. It encourages health providers and clients to focus on healthy lifestyle and prevention to ensure their well-being through regular wellness practices. It provides education and opportunity for everyone involved with the life cycle of medicine to participate in reducing pharmaceutical pollution. With relatively simple yet firm commitments to change our habits, becoming stewards of medicine rather than consumers of medicine we effectively become part of the solution. This review paper delineates about the powerful approaches of green pharmacy that provides comprehensive solution to pharmaceutical pollution affecting much of well being on globe. Research to date points to the ubiquity of PPCPs in aquatic environments. Existing wastewater treatment facilities are inadequate and aren’t designed to remove them from the waste stream. Our current system of quantifying their toxicological effects is inadequate. Now is the time to prevent further harm to living organisms and the environment.
*Rakesh Gupta, Hemant Kumar Sharma, Manvendra Jaiswal, Rajeev Sharma, Narendra Nyola, Dr. Rajesh Yadav
Alwar Pharmacy College, M.I.A. Alwar,
Rajasthan, India 301001
Experimental design is a planned interference in the natural order of events by the researcher. A selected condition or a change (treatment) is introduced. Observations or measurements are planned to illuminate the effect of any change in conditions. Complex designs, usually involving a number of "control groups," offer more information than a simple group design. It involves the Experimental Design and Data Analysis. The various type of experimental design, e.g. Statistical(Randomized Blocks, Latin Square, Factorial Design), Quasi Experimental (Time Series, Multiple Time Series), True Experimental(Pretest-Posttest Control Group, Post-test: Only Control Group, Solomon Four-Group), Pre-experimental (Static Group, One Group Pretest-Posttest, Experimental One-Shot Case Study).Process Models for DOE is common to begin with a process model of the `black box' type (Quadratic model & Linear model).Full factorial designs in two levels, Full factorial designs not recommended for 5 or more factors. Replication provides information on variability, Factor settings in standard order with replication, No randomization and no center points; Randomization provides protection against extraneous factors affecting the results. Contour plot Display 3-d surface on 2-d plot Vertical axis, Horizontal axis, Lines CCD designs start with a factorial or fractional factorial design (with centre points) and add "star" points to estimate curvature; A CCD design with k factors has 2k star points, 3 types of CCD designs, which depend on where the star points are placed Circumscribed (CCC), Inscribed (CCI), Face Cantered (CCF); the value of α is chosen to maintain rotatability.
Present study was to know the how much knowledge about the nutritional labelled foods. samples were selected and collected general information like their age, awareness of labelled foods available in the market, their level of education with the help of pretested questionnaire.
The main animus of a drug is to enhance human happiness by elimination or suppression of of disease and symptoms and to improve the quality of life. Although death is inevitable. But the drug facilitate in reducing health related human suffering and gives a shape to our lives with new hopes, aspirations and remnant of dignity.
SRF, Departmnet of Pharmacology Division,
NRI-Panchakarma, Cheruthuruthy Post, Thrissur, Kerala
Multiple sclerosis(MS), also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata, is an inflammatory disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a wide range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental and sometimes psychiatric problems. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by clinical attacks (relapses) correlated with lesions separated in time and space. MS is a severe inflammatory disease in which the myelin (insulator for electrical signalling in NS) breakdown and causes severe deficits in brain and nerve function. Much like rubber insulation on an electrical cord, myelin surrounds long projections from the body of neurron and allows signal to travel down the cell with sreed and efficacy Therefore patients suffers deficits in balance, coordination, moments as well sensory disturbances from the loss of this neuronal insulation. MS is one of the most common neurological causes of long term disability, the myelin producing oligodendrocytes of the CNS are the target of recurrent cell mediated autoimmune attack. MS is a episodic & progressive disease occurs in early to 35 years & then declining. MS occurs with male:female ratio of 2:1 The incidence is higher in temperature climate and in northen europeans.
Oxytocin is a natural hormone that is released by the brain to help people bond with others. It is the hormone that helps bring on labor during childbirth, and the production of milk in lactating mothers. It is responsible for that strong bond between mother and child. Apart from this, oxytocin has also been found to strengthen the bond between partners during and after sex, and higher production levels can be triggered by many types of touching, such as kissing, cuddling and orgasm. Oxytocin also has an integral role to play in the formation of trust. The Zrich University study, led by Dr. Thomas Baumgartner et al, “highlights the neural mechanisms through which oxytocin acts to facilitate trust behaviour by investigating what happens in the brain when trust breaks down”.
Gel electrophoresis is used for the protein separation. These gel electrophoresis techniques are played important role in proteomics and genomics. Gel electrophoresis is one of the most important methods for the protein separation. The protein mixtures are separated by isoelectric point and molecular weight in two dimensional gel electrophoresis. Small amount of protein can also be separate with the help of gel electrophoresis.
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Rakesh Thakur, Jayesh Patel
Department of Pharmaceutical analysis and chemistry (Gujarat technical university)
Department of Pharmacology (University of Bedfordshire)
Amino acid sequence comparisons have several distinct advantages over nucleotide sequence comparisons, which, at least potentially, lead to a much greater sensitivity. Firstly, because there are 20 amino acids but only four bases, an amino acid match carries with it >4 bits of information as opposed to only two bits for a nucleotide match. Thus, statistical significance can be ascertained for much shorter sequences in protein comparisons than in nucleotide comparisons. Secondly, because of the redundancy of the genetic code, nearly one-third of the bases in coding regions are under a weak (if any) selective pressure and represent noise, which adversely affects the sensitivity of the searches. Thirdly, nucleotide sequence databases are much larger than protein databases because of the vast amounts of non-coding sequences coming out of eukaryotic genome projects, and this further lowers the search sensitivity.
Dengue fever is a viral caused disease that is spread by the bite of mosquito Aedes aegypti. There are 4 distinct, but closely related, serotypes of the virus that cause dengue (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4)
Sudden high fever (104-105 degree, 4 to 7 days after the infection)
A flat red rash may appear over most of the body 2-5 days after the fever starts.
Fatigue, headache, joint aches, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes, dehydration, thrombocytopenia.
Dengue causes liver involvement in a number of patients. Hepatomegaly and elevations in aspartate(AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are common. Postulated mechanisms for liver injury includes direct damage or various immune mediated effects mainly through cytokines, T cells, apoptosis or free radicals.