Abdul Waheed*, Swati Pathak, Roohi Mirza
Department of Pharmacology,
Amity Institute of Pharmacy,
Amity University, Noida, U.P., India
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder characterized by tendency to recurrent seizures or fits. The seizures can leads to loss of consciousness, disturbance of movement, muscle spasms, autonomic and mental functions. Epilepsy is developed because of imbalance in nerve signalling chemical called neurotransmitters. During epilepsy, the level of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate increases and the level of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA decrease. These lead to abnormal signalling in brain causes epilepsy. Primary diagnosis of epilepsy includes eye–witness and family history. Electroencephalograph (EEG) is the cornerstone for diagnosis of epilepsy and measures the brain wave activity. Neuroimaging like computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques are used to diagnose abnormalities in structure and function of brain. Video recording is also useful for the monitoring of epileptic events. The most common approach of treatment is to prescribe antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Three generations of AEDs including phenytoin, valproate, carbamazapine, lamotrigine, Oxcarbazepine, Primidone,Phenobarbitone,Gabapentin, Topiramate, Levetiracetam, Felbamate, Rufinamide, Zonisamide, Tiagabinand Vigabatrin etc. are prescribed. These AEDs have some teratogenic effects on pragnent woman and lactating mother; need precautions. Instead of pharmacological approaches, Non-pharmacological approaches also used for the treatment of epileptic seizures like ketogenic diet, atkins diet, yoga etc. Thr purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge on epilepsy classification,diagnostics, approaches of treatment, pathophysiology, mechanism of epileptogenesis and teratogenic effects.