Enzyme Biotechnology related to isolation, extraction, purification of enzymes

                             ENZYME BIOTECHNOLOGY

Enzymes are an important class of biomolecules synthesized by living cells. They control all biochemical reactions required for life processes in all living organisms. Thus, they are called "Biocatalysts".

Definition: Enzymes can be defined as the complex Organic catalysts produced by living cells but capable of acting independently of cells that produce them.
Enzymes are proteinaceous in nature except Ribozyme. Ribozymes are few RNA molecules with enzymatic activity.

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  • Enzymes are colloidal in their nature.
  • Enzymes are soluble in water and dilute alcohol, but precipitated by concentrated alcohol.
  • They are thermolabile in nature. Optimum activity - 35 to 40oC, Denaturation- Above 65oC, Negligible activity- 0oC.
  • They are highly selective in their action.
  • Enzymes are precipitated by usual protein precipitating reagents like ammonium sulphate, heavy metals, alkaloidal reagents and organic solvents.
  • They have iso-electric points. Example: Pepsin- 1.1, Casein- 4.6, Urease- 5.0


Many enzymes require certain non-protein small additional factors, collectively referred to as cofactors for catalysis. The cofactors may be organic or non-organic in nature.
The non-protein, organic, low molecular weight and dialyzable substance associated with enzyme function is known as Coenzyme. Examples: Vitamins such as Thiamine pyrophosphate, FMN, FAD, NAD+ , NADP+, PLP.

Apoenzyme + Coenzyme ------> Holoenzyme.

The term activator is referred to inorganic cofactor (like Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, etc.)necessary to enhance enzyme activity.