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CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF CITRULLINE-A NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID PRESENT IN WATERMELON: AN OVERVIEW

About Authors:
Gaurav Singh*1, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Patel Chirag J3, Patel Pinkesh3, Tarun Parashar1, Soniya1
1*Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Rajawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India-248007.
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
*gaurav.hipr@gmail.com, +91-8057832184/9236167104

ABSTRACT:
Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can manufacture it from other nutrients. Within the body, citrulline is converted to the amino acid L-arginine i.e. citrulline acts as a precursor of amino acid arginine.  Some of the proposed uses of citrulline supplements are based on raising levels of arginine. Citrulline also plays a role in a physiological process called “the urea cycle,” in which toxic ammonia is converted to urea. Citrulline boosts our energy levels by lowering blood lactate concentration. It also enhances the process of elimination of ammonia. Although citrulline is not coded for by DNA directly, several proteins are known to contain citrulline as a result of a posttranslational modification.



PHARMACEUTICAL AND INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS OF ROBOTS IN CURRENT CLINICAL SCENARIO: A RECENT REVIEW

About Authors:
Roopesh Sachan1*, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Tarun Parashar1, Soniya1, Patel Chirag J3, Patel Pinkesh3, Devesh Kaushik4
1*Department of Pharmaceutics, Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Rajawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India-248007.
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
4Territory Business Manager, Diabetes Division, Abbott Healthcare Private Limited, Okhla, New Delhi, India- 110020.
*roopeshsachan@gmail.com, +91-9557469989, 9236167104

ABSTRACT:
In the world of pharmaceuticals, there is a vital role for robotics to play in the complicated processes of research and development, production, and packaging. Justification for robots ranges from improved worker safety to improved quality. Speeding up the drug discovery process is another benefit of robotics. Drug Production Robotics plays an important role in the manufacture of pharmaceutical drugs because, unlike other industries, pharmaceuticals demand higher speed and accuracy. Devices such as syringes, inhalers, IV bags and diabetes testing kits are made with the help of robotics. There is a great potential for the use of robotics systems in the pharmaceutical industry and pharmaceutical companies are gradually injecting more robotic systems into their operations.


PROBABLE ROLE OF ENZYMES BACE1 AND BACE2 IN FIGHTING WITH ALZHEIMER’S DISEASE: A NEURO CLINICAL REVIEW

About Authors:
Patel Chirag J*1, Pinkesh Patel1, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Tarun Parashar3, Soniya3, Roopesh Sachan3, Gaurav Singh3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
3Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Rajawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India-248007.
*chirag.bangalore@gmail.com, +91-8000501871

ABSTRACT:
Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurologic disease of the brain leading to the irreversible loss of neurons and the loss of intellectual abilities, including memory and reasoning, which become severe enough to impede social or occupational functioning. Alzheimer's disease is also known as simply Alzheimer’s, and Senile Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (SDAT). During the course of the disease plaques and tangles develop within the structure of the brain. This causes brain cells to die. Patients with Alzheimer's also have a deficiency in the levels of some vital brain chemicals which are involved with the transmission of messages in the brain - neurotransmitters. Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia. The disease gets worse as it develops - it is a progressive disease. There is no current cure for Alzheimer's, although there are ways of slowing down its advance and helping patients with some of the symptoms. Alzheimer's is also a terminal disease - it is incurable and causes death. According the National Institute on Aging, there are estimated to be between 2.4 million and 4.5 million Americans who have Alzheimer's. β-Secretase is an aspartic-acid protease important in the formation of myelin sheaths in peripheral nerve cells. The transmembrane protein contains two active site aspartate residues in its extra cellular protein domain and may function as a dimer.

Beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) also known as beta-site APP cleaving enzyme 1 (beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1), memapsin-2 (membrane-associated aspartic protease 2), and aspartyl protease 2 (ASP2) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BACE1 gene.Beta-secretase 2 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the BACE2 gene. BACE2 is a close homolog of BACE1, a protease known to be an important enzyme involved in the cellular pathways that some believe lead to Alzheimer's disease. The aim of present article is to provide in depth knowledge about probable role of enzymes BACE1 and BACE2 in the management of Alzheimer's disease (AD). An attempt is also made to focus on general overview of Alzheimer’sdisease.


AQUASOMES: A POTENTIAL APPROACH FOR NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY

About Authors:
Patel Chirag J*1, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Patel Pinkesh1, Umesh Kumar1, Patel Jaimin1, Chaudhari Bharat1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
*Mr. Chirag Patel has published various Books, Research and Review articles. His academic works include 35 Publications (2 books was published in Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany & 8 Research Articles and 25 Review Articles was published in standard and reputed National and International Pharmacy journals)
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
*chirag.bangalore@gmail.com, +91-8000501871

ABSTRACT:
Aquasomes are spherical in shape with 60–300 nm particles size used for drug and antigen delivery. Aquasomes are nanoparticulate carrier systems but instead of being simple nanoparticles these are three layered self assembled structures, comprised of a solid phase nanocrystalline core coated with oligomeric film to which biochemically active molecules are adsorbed with or without modification. These structures are self assembled by non covalent and ionic bonds. The solid core provides the structural stability, while the carbohydrate coating protects against dehydration and stabilizes the biochemically active molecules. Properties like protection and preservation of fragile biological molecules, conformational integrity, and surface exposure made it as a successful carrier system for bioactive molecules like peptide, protein, hormones, antigens and genes to specific sites. Three types of core materials are mainly used for producing aquasomes: tin oxide, nanocrystalline carbon ceramics (diamonds) and brushite (calcium phosphate dihydrate). Calcium phosphate is the core of interest, owing to its natural presence in the body. Aquasome deliver their content through specific targeting and slow sustained release process.


TRANSFERSOMES: A NOVEL TECHNIQUE FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

About Authors:
Patel Chirag J*1, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Patel Pinkesh1, Umesh Kumar1, Patel Jaimin1, Chaudhari Bharat1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
*Mr. Chirag Patel has published various Books, Research and Review articles. His academic works include 35 Publications (2 books was published in Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany & 8 Research Articles and 25 Review Articles was published in standard and reputed National and International Pharmacy journals)
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
*chirag.bangalore@gmail.com, +91-8000501871

ABSTRACT:
The transdermal route of drug delivery has gained great interest of pharmaceutical research, as it circumvents number of problems associated with oral route of drug administration. Recently, various strategies have been used to augment the transdermal delivery of bioactives. Mainly, they include electrophoresis, iontophoresis, chemical permeation enhancers, microneedles, sonophoresis, and vesicular system like liposomes, niosomes, elastic liposomes such as ethosomes and transfersomes. Among these strategies transferosomes appear promising. A novel vesicular drug carrier system called transfersomes, which is composed of phospholipid, surfactant, and water for enhanced transdermal delivery. Transfersomes are a form of elastic or deformable vesicle, which were first introduced in the early 1990s.The system can be characterized by in vitro for vesicle shape and size, entrapment efficiency, degree of deformability, number of vesicles per cubic mm. These carriers can transport pharmacological agents, including large polypeptides, through the permeability barriers, such as the intact skin.


ETHOSOMES: A NOVEL VESICULAR CARRIER FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

About Authors:
Patel Chirag J*1, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Patel Pinkesh1, Umesh Kumar1, Patel Jaimin1, Chaudhari Bharat1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
*Mr. Chirag Patel has published various Books, Research and Review articles. His academic works include 35 Publications (2 books was published in Lambert Academic Publishing, Germany & 8 Research Articles and 25 Review Articles was published in standard and reputed National and International Pharmacy journals)
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
*chirag.bangalore@gmail.com, +91-8000501871

ABSTRACT:
Transdermal drug delivery system is a type of convenient drug delivery system where drug goes to the systemic circulation through the protective barrier i.e. Skin. Skin acts as a major target as well as a principal barrier for topical / transdermal drug delivery. Vesicular system is one of the most controversial methods for transdermal delivery of active substances in that ethosome are the ethanolic phospholipids vesicles which are used mainly for transdermal delivery of drugs.  Ethosomes have higher penetration rate through the skin as compared to liposomes hence these can be used widely in place of liposomes. The increased permeation of ethosomes is probably due to its ethanolic content. Ethanol increases the cell membrane lipid fluidity which results in increased skin penetrability of the ethosomes. These ethosomes permeates inside the skin and fuse with cell membrane lipids and release the drug. Hot and cold methods are used for formulation of ethosomes. Characterizations of ethosomesinclude Particle size, Zeta potential, Differential Scanning Calorimertry (DSC),Entrapment efficiency, Surface tension activity measurement, Vesicle stabilityand Penetration Studiesetc.


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MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLET: A OVERVIEW

About Authors:
Ashish Kumar Garg*, M.M. Gupta
Department of Pharmaceutics, Jaipur College of Pharmacy,
Jaipur, Rajasthan
*ashish1pharma@gmail.com

Abstract
Conventional dosage forms like tablets and capsules are now days facing the problems like dysphagia, resulting in the high incidence of non compliance and making the therapy ineffective. To obviate the problems associated with conventional dosage forms, mouth dissolving tablets have been developed having good hardness, dose uniformity, easy administration and serves as the first choice of dosage form for paediatrics, geriatrics and travelling patients. The MDTs were developed with an aim of having sufficient hardness, integrity and faster disintegration without water.Fast dissolving Tablets are disintegrating and/or dissolve rapidly in the saliva without the need for water. Some tablets are designed to dissolve in saliva remarkably fast, within a few seconds, and are true fast-dissolving tablets. Others contain agents to enhance the rate of tablet disintegration in the oral cavity, and are more appropriately termed fast-disintegrating tablets, as they may take up to a minute to completely disintegrate. This tablet format is designed to allow administration of an oral solid dose form in the absence of water or fluid intake. Such tablets readily dissolve or disintegrate in the saliva generally within <60 seconds.


NOVEL APPROACH OF BILAYERED TABLETS: AN OVERVIEW

About Authors:
Patel Pinkesh*1, Patel Chirag J1, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Umesh Kumar1, Patel Jaimin1, Chaudhari Bharat1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
*pinkesh.patan@yahoo.com, +91-8866436904

ABSTRACT:
In the last decade, interest in developing a combination of two or more Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients (API) in a single dosage form (bilayer tablet) has increased in the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmacokinetic profile relies on the fact that the fast release layer provide the loading dose of drug and the sustained release of drug maintain the drug concentration within therapeutic window for longer period of time. Bilayer tablets offer definite advantages over conventional release formulation of the same drug. Now a day, several pharmaceutical companies are developing bilayer tablet for co-administration of drugs to improve the therapeutic efficacy as well as to reduce the chances of drug-drug interaction.


PPARG AGONIST: ROLE OF DIABETES IN TYPE- 2

About Author:
swati khandelwal
Maharishi arvind college of pharmacy,
rajasthan university of health science, jaipur
imswatikhandelwal@gmail.com

1. DIABETES
1.1 INTRODUCTION-

Diabetes is a condition in which the body does not produce enough, or properly respond to, insulin, a hormone produced in the pancreas. Insulin enables cells to absorb glucose in order to turn it into energy. In diabetes, the body either does not respond properly to its own insulin or does not make enough insulin, or both. This causes glucose to accumulate in the blood, often leading to various complications.
The term diabetes, without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus, which is associated with excessive sweet urine (known as “glycosuria”) but there are several rarer conditions also named diabetes. The most common of these is diabetes insipid us in which the urine is not sweet (insipid us meaning “without taste” in Latin); it can be caused either by kidney or  pituitary gland.


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