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REVIEW: PLAGIARISM AN ACT OF UNETHICS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Anuradha Sharma1*, Vaibhav Walia2, Monika Gahlawat3
1Division of Pharma. Chemistry, 2Division of Pharmacology, 3Division of Pharmaceutics,
G.V.M. College of Pharmacy,
Sonepat, Haryana, India
*anusarswat@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Plagiarism is a multifaceted and ethically a complex problemwhich simply means the stealing and publication of another author’s work as one's own original work without acknowledge the original author. Plagiarism is simply an act of fraud.Authors should acknowledge sources fully and appropriately to follow the ethics and plagiarism is failure to do so. However the students or the authors sometimes fail to acknowledge the source appropriately and properly. These failures are largely due to the lack of knowledge to use the citations properly. Therefore to maintain the ethics the plagiarism should be avoided. The aim of this paper is to define plagiarism, its type, methods of detection and the ways to avoid plagiarism.


A REVIEW ON PARKINSON’S DISEASE: ITS PATHOPHYSIOLOGY, TREATMENT AND SURGERY

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Singh Divya1, Siddhi Shrimali2, Rathore KS2*
1Department of Pharmacology, Jaipur College of Pharmacy, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India
2Department of Pharmaceutics, BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
*kamalsrathore@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Parkinsonism disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder. Degeneration of dopamine producing cells in the substantia nigra (part of the basal ganglia) leads to a decreased dopamine production. The cause of the damage is unknown. The main known risk factor is age. Parkinson’s affects functional activities such as balance, walking, speech, handwriting, typing, fastening buttons, driving, and many other simple, or complex but familiar and routine activities, as they are usually controlled by the mechanisms of dopamine and the basal ganglia. This review briefly focuses on deep brain stimulation neurosurgical treatment. Levodopa was the first drug approved specifically for Parkinson’s disease. Levodopa is converted by enzymes in the brain to produce dopamine, thereby supplementing function that has been lost as dopamine-producing neurons die.Topics covered in the review includes pathogenesis, mechanism of action, side effects of medicines and neurological surgery.


MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDIES OF N-(2-BENZOYLPHENYL)-L-TYROSINE DERIVATIVES WITH ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF TYPE 2 DIABETES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Anuradha Sharma1*, Vaibhav Walia2, Monika Gahlawat3
1Division of Pharma. Chemistry,2 Division of Pharmacology,3 Division of Pharmaceutics,
G.V.M. College of Pharmacy,
Sonepat, Haryana, India
*anusarswat@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Type 2 diabetes is one of the major life threatening diseases worldwide. These cases are progressing at an incremental rate every year and number of research works is going on to control the disease by targeting its enzymes or proteins. In modern drug designing, molecular docking is routinely used for understanding drug receptor interaction. In the present study molecular docking were performed on a diverse set of N-(2-benzoylphenyl)-L-tyrosine derivatives that demonstrate antidiabetic activity by stimulating peroxisome proliferator activated receptor- γ. The docking program in Glide dock justifies the correlation between the experimental values and the values derived computationally. Therefore, the dock analysis performed in Glide dock suggests the importance of evaluating the prediction accuracy of scoring functions adopted in various docking program.


SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF LINEZOLID AND CEFIXIME IN THEIR COMBINED DOSAGE FORM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Joshi HV*1, Patel JK2, Shah UA1, Patel Kinjal1
1Department of QA,
2Department of Pharmaceutics,
Nootan Pharmacy College, Visnagar, Gujarat, India
hirakjoshi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Simple, accurate, precise, reproducible, requiring no prior separation and economical procedures for simultaneous estimation of Linezolid (LIN) and Cefixime (CEF) in tablet dosage form have been developed. The method is simultaneous equation method; in this method 257.0 nm and 288.0 nm were selected respectively for LIN and CEF to measure the absorbance of both the drugs at mentioned wavelengths. Both the drugs show linearity at 10-50 μg/mL, the range was selected by studying their ratio present in combined formulation. Recovery studies range from >99.35% for CEF and >99.23% for LIN in mentioned analytical method i.e. simultaneous equation method. The proposed methods are recommended for routine analysis since it is rapid, simple, accurate and also sensitive and specific (no heating and no organic solvent extraction is required).


DIFFERENCE SPECTROSCOPIC METHOD FOR THE ESTIMATION OF ACEBUTOLOL HYDROCHLORIDE IN BULK AND IN ITS FORMULATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jadhav Santosh*, Mali Audumbar, Pawar Seemarani, Kharat Rekha, Tamboli Ashpak
Department of Pharmaceutics, Sahyadri College of Pharmacy, Methwade,
Sangola-413307, Solapur, Maharashtra, India.
*jadhavsan88@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
A simple, precise and accurate difference spectroscopic method has been developed for the estimation of Acebutolol Hydrochloride in bulk drug form by difference spectrophotometric method. Acebutolol Hydrochloride has exhibited maximum absorbance at about 233nm and 234nm in acidic and basic solution respectively. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 2-10 µg/ml in both the cases. The regression of coefficient was found to be r2=0.9992. The LOD and LOQ value were found to be 0.2670ppm and 0.8091ppm respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Acebutolol Hydrochloride in bulk drug. As per ICH guidelines the result of the analysis were validated statistically and were found to be satisfactory.


A REVIEW ON ROLE OF LASER PHOTOCOAGULATION THERAPY IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
M. Sushma*, T. V. V. Vidyadhar, M. Babu M.D., R. Mohan raj
*Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, RIPER.
K R Palli Cross, Near S.K University, Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh
sushma.banthi@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Diabetic retinopathy, one of the leading causes of blindness for diabetic patients between the ages of 20 and 74. The clinical research provides control of blood glucose and blood pressure substantially reduces the risk of blindness due to diabetic retinopathy, many patients develop this eye disease and are at risk for serious vision loss, sometimes even despite outstanding metabolic control. Diabetic retinopathy occurs when high blood glucose damages the micro blood vessels in the retina which leads to leakage of small amounts of blood, serum, blood fats and blood proteins proliferates to vision loss and formation of scar tissue. Here the retinal laser therapy also called aslaser photocoagulation has greatly reduced the number of patients who lose vision to Diabetic retinopathy. Laser photocoagulation refers to the precise and concentrated application of high energy light, typically of a single wavelength called monochromatic light.


A REVIEW ON DIFFERENT TYPES OF ICHTHYOSIS AND MANAGEMENT

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
T. Vishnu Vara Vidyadhar*, M. Sushma, R. Mohan raj, M. Babu
*Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, RIPER
K R Palli Cross, Near S.K University, Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh, India
vishnuvaravidyadhar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Ichthyosis is one of the most devastating of the genodermatoses. Neonates usually die within the first few days of life from infection or dehydration related complications. Prenatal diagnosis remains difficult but may be possible in high risk pregnancies by performing a foetal skin biopsy or by three-dimensional ultrasonography. Ichthyosis may be either inherited or acquired. Inherited Ichthyosis is usually apparent during the first year of life, often at birth, and continues to affect a person throughout life. Acquired Ichthyosis may occur as the result of medical problems including hormonal, inflammatory or malignant disorders. Managing the signs and symptoms the treatment is targeted which includes creams, lotions, or ointments to relieve dryness.


ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF TOLPERISONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND DICLOFENAC SODIUM IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL FORMULATION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Akash M Patel*, Nirav N Patel, Prakash A Sathwara
*Faculty of Pharmacy, Dharmsinh Desai University,
Nadiad, Gujarat
Aku.pharmacy@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Quantitative analysis of any drug is an important tool in an industry. It is important to determine that the raw material, intermediate products as well as final products meet its specifications and are of required quality. The number of drugs and drug formulations introduced into the market has been increasing at an alarming rate. These drugs or formulations may be either new entities or partial structural modification of the existing ones or novel dosage forms.

Spectrophotometry and HPLC methods are considered to be most suitable for estimation of the drugs present in pharmaceutical dosage forms.

· Literature review reveals that several spectroscopic and Chromatographic method have been reported for estimation of TOL and DIC alone as well as with other drugs.
· Simultaneous equation, dual wavelength difference UV spectrophotometry and First derivative spectroscopic method is available for this combination.
· The aim of work is to develop and validate cost effective First derivative method in water and RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of TOL and DIC in bulk and Tablet dosage form.
· Development of UV spectrophotometric method.


METHOD VALIDATION OF ANALYTICAL PROCEDURES

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Prakash Chanda Gupta
QC Executive,
National Healthcare Pvt. Ltd., Nepal
p_c_gupta@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
After the development of an analytical procedure, it is must important to assure that the procedure will consistently produce the intended a precise result with high degree of accuracy. The method should give a specific result that may not be affected by external matters. This creates a requirement to validate the analytical procedures. The validation procedures consists of some characteristics parameters that makes the method acceptable with addition of statistical tools.


ROLE OF BCG IN TREATMENT OF BLADDER CANCER

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ABOUT AUTHOR
Abhishek Singhal
Department of Pharmacology,
Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Pharmacy, Kondhwa (Bk.),
Pune, Maharastra, India
*abhishekspharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Aim: This review is written to describe the role of immunotherapy in cancer treatment.
Annually, 13,000 deaths result from bladder cancer. Since the first report of intravesical use of BCG in 1976, investigators try to understand the working mechanism of BCG as an antitumour modality. Arbitrarily, BCG therapy consists of a single course of six weekly intravesical instillations. Bacillus Calmette-Gue´rin, an attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis, was developed by Calmette and Gue´rin with the intention to generate a vaccine against tuberculosis. Extension of BCG treatment (maintenance immunotherapy) is used to increase efficacy.
Results of various experiments describe that after instillation in the bladder, BCG accumulates near the bladder wall and is internalised and processed by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and (high-grade) tumour cells. Then BCG antigens are presented to CD4+ T cells. Then local synthesis of a particular set of cytokines or cell-mediated immune response. NK cells may be involve in tumour cell killing.