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A REVIEW: FORMULATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLET

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Patel Zinkal K.*, Patel Rahul R, Dr Kanu R Patel, Dr Mukesh R Patel
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Shri B.M. Shah College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Dhansura Road College campus Modasa, Dist:- Arvali. Pin code:- 383315 Gujarat, (india)
*zinkal.pharm27@yahoo.in, rahulrpatel21089@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
As pharmaceutical scientists are attaining a better understanding of biochemical and physicochemical properties related to the drug action, the drug delivery systems are becoming simple. Recent advances in Novel Drug Delivery Systems (NDDS) aim for designing dosage forms, convenient to be manufactured and administered, free of side effects, offering immediate release and enhanced bioavailability, so as to achieve better patient compliance Oral delivery is currently the gold standard in the pharmaceutical industry where it is regarded as the safest, most convenient and most economical method of drug delivery. Fast dissolving tablet is designed to allow administration of an oral solid dose form in the absence of water or fluid intake. Such tablets when put on the tongue. it readily dissolve or disintegrate in the saliva without chewing or water within <60 seconds. Fast- or mouth dissolving tablets have been formulated for pediatric, geriatric, and bedridden patients and for active patients who are busy and traveling and may not have access to water. This review includes requirements for fast disintegrating tablets, sailent features, advantages, limitations, challenges in formulation, various technologies developed for fast disintegrating tablets, patented technologies, evaluation methods and various marketed products.


NUTRITIONAL VALUE OF DRY FRUITS AND THEIR VITAL SIGNIFICANCE - A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Pooja Dhiman, Kanika Soni, Sandeep Singh
Chitkara University,
Kalujhanda, Barotiwala,
Solan, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA
pooja.dhiman@chitkarauniversity.edu.in

ABSTRACT:
As a snack, dried fruit is drastically superior to junk foods, such as potato chips, pretzels, candy bars, and other unhealthy indulgences people reach for when they are hungry between meals. Dry fruits are small but are extremely rich sources of minerals and proteins. Every diet specialist always recommends a handful of dry fruits in our diet in order to keep us healthy and fit. There are just umpteen varieties in dry fruits such as raisins, cashew nuts, almonds, pistachios, walnuts, dates, plums and the list goes on.


BIOTECHNOLOGY FOR A BETTER WORLD

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Nirav.R. Soni
M.Pharm, A-One Pharmacy College,
Anasan, Ahmedabad-382330, India
nirav_sonic@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is not a source of energy, but a scientific method that provides tools to produce energy based entirely on modern biotechnological techniques, as to date encompass a wider range of altogether newer medicinal compounds, e.g., antibiotics, vaccines development and monoclonal antibodies (MABs) that may now be produced commercially using well-defined, optimized and improved fermentative methodologies. In fact, genetic engineering has brought in a sea change by virtue of the directed construction of microorganisms resulting in a plethora of newer life-saving drugs. Focus on a variety of  Research areas including health/medicine, food science, environmental science and agri- science and also bioenergy development.


MEDICATION SAFETY IN CHILDREN

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About Authors:
Languluri Reddenna
Pharm-D, Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
reddennapharmd@gmail.com

Abstract
Objective
Monitoring the safety of medicine use in children is of superlative prominence, on the other hand only limited data on this aspect. In-between 1979 and 2006, the poisoning death rate cut in half, declining from 0.35 to 0.17 per 100,000 children. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to evaluate the medication safety in children’s.
Methods
A prospective observationalstudy was conducted in thePICU, NICU, IP and OP department of Paediatricsat Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences overa 6-months period(fromaugust 2012 toJanuary 2013). The Institutional Ethics and Research Committee of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa (Rc.No.413/Acad./2011-12), approved the study. All patients under 12 year of age were included in the study. Patients referred from another health facility or hospital to collect their medications from the pharmacy of the respective health clinics were excluded from the study. All documented medication orders monitored for any drug misadventures and recommended to the pediatricians.
Results
Drug misadventures include medication errors 588 (84%), ADEs 27 (3.8%), ADRs 33 (4.8%) and drug interactions 52 (7.4%).
Conclusion
Prescriber’s workload, lack of sufficient knowledge and time spent with one patient are restrains that lead to most of the mistakes. Recognition of these errors is the first step in their prevention. There is a crucial need to develop methods to reduce medication errors in children should be the major priority. It can be concluded that drug misadventures are common in children.


A REVIEW ON CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF TRIFOLIUM PRATENSE

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About Authors:
1
Neeta Chaudhary, 2Dr. Shalini Tripathi

1
Research student of Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (U.P.)
2
Professor of Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road,
Lucknow (U.P.)
neetakhanna70@gmail.com

Abstract
Trifolium pratense L. is  commonly known as red clover. Red clover acting as a diuretic, expectorant and improving circulation. Trifolium pratenseisoflavones, plant based chemicals that have shown potential in the treatment of a number of conditions associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, cardiovascular health, and osteoporosis. Literature review revealed different pharmacological activities of Trifolium pratense like Biological estimation of oestrogenic activity An  ovariectomized rat model to determine the estrogenic and antiestrogenic activity, Antioxidant Profile, isoflavone biochanin A inhibits aromatase activity and expression, phase IIclinical extract possesses opiate activity, Determination in vivo and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of red clover.


A REVIEW ON PHARMACOGNOSY, PRE-PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TRIDAX PROCUMBENS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
*Amita Pandey1, Dr. Shalini Tripathi2
1Research scholar, Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (U.P.)
2Professor, Rameshwaram Institute of Technology and Management, Sitapur Road, Lucknow (U.P.)
*pandey.amita2012@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Pharmacognostical parameters for the leaves of Tridax procumbens L were studied with the aim of drawing the pharmacopoeial standards for this species. Macroscopical and microscopical characters, pre-phytochemical and pharmacological Studies. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their Pharmacological analyses of this species. The Pre-phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, carotenoids, flavonoids (catechins and flavones), fumaric acid, fl-sitosterol, saponins and tannins. It is richly endowed with carotenoids, saponins, oleanolic acid and ions like sodium, potassium and calcium. Luteolin, glucoluteolin, quercetin and isoquercetin have been reported from its flowers. It has known for its number of pharmacological activities like hepatoprotective activity, antiinflammatory, wound healing, antidiabetic activity, hypotensive effect, immunomodulating property, bronchial catarrh, dysentery, diarrhoea and to prevent falling of hair promotes the growth of hair, and antimicrobial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The leaf juice possesses antiseptic, insecticidal and parasiticidal properties, as a remedy against conjunctivitis and is used also to check haemorrhage from cuts, bruises and wounds insect repellent. It is also used as bioadsorbent for chromium (VI). This review focus on folk occurrence and the wide pharmacological activities of Tridax procumbens.


AFRICAN HERBAL PLANTS USED AS ANTI-MALARIAL AGENTS - A REVIEW

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About Authors:
Enegide Chinedu*, David Arome, Solomon F. Ameh
Department of Science Laboratory Technology (Physiology & Pharmacology Technology),
University of Jos, Jos Nigeria
*chinex.snow@gmail.com

Abstract
Malaria is an infectious disease caused by single-celled obligate parasite known as Plasmodiumand is transmitted to man through the vector Anophelesmosquito. It has persistently been a major public health problem to the global community. As estimate has shown that globally, about 3.3 billion people were at risk of malaria in the year 2011. It has now been ranked among the world's top killer infectious diseases and remains the most prominent cause of death and illness in Africa particularly among pregnant women and children under the age of five years. Due to the development of drug-resistance by the malaria parasites and also the development of resistance to various insecticides by the vector, development of new antimalarial agents is imperative and herbal plants have for long been a major source of new drug discovery. Consequently, in various African countries, several plants have been reported to be having antimalarial effects and are being applied traditionally as antimalarial agents. The purpose of this review article therefore, is to collate and document different plants used traditionally as antimalarials in six African countries (Nigeria, Ghana, Ethopia, Benin, Cameroon and Togo). One hundred and fifteen herbal plants from the six African countries have been captured in this article due to their local usage as antimalarial agents. The array of medicinal plants employed as antimalarial agents in Africa, unveils a promising source for the development of new and better antimalarial drugs. Scientific investigations should therefore be carried-out on them.


A REVIEW ON ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF RICINUS COMMUNIS LINN.

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About Authors:
KM. Preeti*, Ansu Bala Verma
Department of Pharmacology, Rameshwaram institute of technology and management,
Lucknow- 227202,  India
preeti30sept@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In recent years, Ricinus communis Linn. has become a subject of interest because of its beneficial effects on human health. The present ethnopharmacological review was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic properties of  Ricinus communis by scientific evidences. It belongs to the family Euphobiaceae, which is commonly known as castor. Ricinus communis is found thoughout the hotter parts of India. This plant is extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathic and Allopathic system of medicine as cathartic. Traditionally  this plant is used as laxative, purgative, fertilizer and fungicides etc. whereas the plant possess beneficial effects as antioxidant, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, CNS stimulant, antidiabetic, insecticidal, larvicidal, antinociceptive, antiasthmatic, antiulcer, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, lipolytic, wound healing and central analgesic and many other medicinal properties. The extracts or the isolated compounds of this plant have been found to have potent activity against various ailments. The aim of present article is to explore the pharmacological or medicinal importance of the plant Ricinus communis linn.


FUTURISTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM MICROEMULSIONS : A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shingitha K.P
Department of Pharmacy
Noida Institute Of Engineering And Technology Greater NOIDA, G.B Nagar
shingithanair@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Recently microemulsion have attracted great attention as they help to optimize efficiency of wide range of products and processes. Microemulsion are isotropic, thermodynamically stable multicomponent fluids which is composed of water, oil, surfactant or cosurfactant where the diameter of the droplet of the microemulsion is in the range of 100 Å TO 1000 Å. Microemulsion are unique class of optically transparent (translucent) solution which comprises of the colloidal system that are attracting many scientific and technological interest past few decades.This interest is due to their properties like ultra low interfacial tension, large interfacial tension and solubilization capacity of both oil and water soluble drugs.


SURFACTANTS: BASICS AND VERSATILITY IN FOOD INDUSTRIES

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About Authors:
Dr.Rakesh K. Sharma
M.Sc., M.Phil., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor, Applied Chemistry Department,
Faculty of Technology & Engineering,
The M. S. University of Baroda,
Vadodara, Gujarat, India.
rksharmamsu@gmail.com

Abstract
Surfactant, as an abbreviation of “surface active agent”, is an organic compound that is amphiphilic comprising both hydrophilic groups(commonly referred to as “polar heads”) and hydrophobic groups(“nonpolar tails”). Based on the electron charges of the polar head parts, surfactants are classified as anionic, cationic, nonionic, zwitterionic. Many other pecular class of compounds also categorized in the types of gemini, cyclodextrin based, polymeric surfactants etc. Due to their some interesting properties such as nontoxicity, higher rate of biodegradability, high foaming capacity and optimal activity at extreme conditions like temperatures, pH and salinity, surfactants have been increasingly attracting the attention of the scientific and industrial community. Biocompatible, biodegradable, and/or nontoxic emulsion-based formulations of surfactants have great potential for applications in the food preparation and processing. Basics of surfactants and mainly there way of utility as food emulsifiers in food industries is thoroughly discussed.