Articles

A REVIEW ON CLINICAL PHARMACIST CARE FOR MANAGEMENT OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY IN CLINICAL PRACTICE

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About Authors:
M.S.Umashankar, K.S.Lakshmi, A.Bharath Kumar*, A.Porselvi
Department of PharmacyPractice SRM College of Pharmacy,SRM University. Kattankulathur.Tamilnadu.India.
abharatpharma@gmail.com*

ABSTRACT :  Diabetic nephropathy is a type of progressive kidney disease that may occur in people who have diabetes. It affects people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and risk increases with the duration of the disease and other risk factors like high blood pressure and a family history of kidney disease.Kidney is made of hundreds of thousands of small units called nephrons.These structures filter the blood and helps to remove waste from the body, and control fluid balance.Clinical conditions we can investigate the symptoms like Persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/d or >200 μg/min) that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3-6 months and Progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate,severe tiredness,headaches,general feeling of  illness,frequent voiding, lack of appetite, itchy skin, and leg swelling.Diabetic nephropathy is diagnosed after a routine urinalysis and screening for microalbuminuria and fasting,random blood sugar level,glomeluar filteration rate,serum creatinine,creatinine clearance is used to confirm the disease.Reduction of  kidney damage by controlling blood sugar levels,controlling blood pressure through the eating healthy foods and getting regular exercise.The evidence suggest that  approaching early treatment,regular Patient follow-up will delays and prevents the onset of diabetic nephropathy.Clinical Pharmacist having significant role in providing education on disease related issues and he work with both the patient and physician to ensure that patient is to achieve optimal blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid control, and that other risk factors and lifestyle  modifications are being addressed.Appropriate control of their diabetes with nephropathy can be influenced through proper education and counselling by the clinical Pharmacists in clinical care.


DRUG TARGETS IDENTIFICATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS BY METABOLIC PATHWAY ANALYSIS:INSILICO PROCESS

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Amiya Kumar Ghosh*1,Saptarshi Samajdar2, Shiladitya Palit3,  Rupchand Pandit4
1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, UTKAL UNIVERSITY, Bhubaneswar- 751004,Odisha, India.
2Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences and Natural Products, CENTRAL UNIVERSITY OF PUNJAB, Bathinda-151001, Punjab, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, IITBHU, Varanasi, India
4Department of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology, Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra Ranchi-835215, Jharkhand, India
*amiyaghosh94@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: 
Tuberculosis (TB) has been declared as a global health emergency by the World Health Organization(WHO). This has been mainly due to the emergence of multiple drug resistant strains and the synergy between tubercle bacilli and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a pathogenic bacteria species in the genus Mycobacterium and the causative agent of most cases of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in the world from a bacterial infectious disease. This antibiotic resistance strain lead to development of the new antibiotics or drug molecules which can kill or suppress the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.The need for new antiTB is persistent due to the emergence of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we aimto identify new drug targets in Mycobacterium tuberculosis by phylogenomics among the Mycobacterium tuberculosisandcomparative genomics to Homo sapiens. The proposed target discovery pipeline is largely independent of experimental data and based on the assumption that Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins are likely to be essential if (i) there are no similar proteins in the same proteome and (ii) they are highly conserved across the Mycobacterium tuberculosisof mammals. We have performed an in silicocomparative analysis of metabolic pathways of the host Homo sapiens and the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (H37Rv). Novel efforts in developing drugs that target the intracellular metabolismof M. tuberculosis often focus on metabolic pathways that are specific to M. tuberculosis. We have identified five unique pathwaysfor Mycobacterium tuberculosis having a number of 60 enzymes, which are nonhomologous to Homo sapiens protein sequences,and among them there were 55 enzymes, which are nonhomologous to Homo sapiens protein sequences.These enzymes were alsofound to be essential for survival of theMycobacteriumtuberculosisaccording to the DEG database. Further, the functional analysis using Uniprot showed involvement of all the unique enzymes in the different cellular components.


PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF SESBANIA SESBAN LINN.: AN OVERVIEW

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Saptarshi Samajdar1, Amiya Kr. Ghosh2
1Centre for Pharmaceutical Sc. And Natural Products, Central University of Punjab
2Dept. of Pharmacy, Utkal University, Orissa

*saptarshisamajdar20@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: SesbaniaSesban Linn. (Family: Fabaceae) found all through the fields of India and ordinarily called as Jayanti. Herbals which shape a piece of our nourishment and give us an extra helpful impact are sought after and SesbaniaSesban Linn. is one of such plant. The plant has got great restorative significance. Blooms contain cyanidin and delphinidinglucosides, Pollen and dust tubes contain alphaketoglutaric, oxaloacetic and pyruvic acids. The leaves of Sesbania is additionally found to have hepatoprotective and powerful hostile to oxidant and against urolithiatic action. The ethanolic and fluid extraction of various parts of Sesbania. The present survey outlines the different pharmacological activities of Sesbaniasesban Linn.


ADVANCEMENTS IN PHARMACOLOGY AND ITS EFFECT ON 'HEALTH-CARE' INDUSTRY

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Neha Bala, Naresh Mali
*
Institute of Health Management Research, Jaipur
Rajasthan,  India
malinaresh888@gmail.com

The tremendous pharmacological advances witnessed during the last few decades have revolutionize virtually all aspects of modern life,including our understanding of disease.New drugs have contributed significantly to the economic impact of new developments in health care.With recognition that the pace of pharmacological development and acquiring of new knowledge will certainly accelerate in the coming years,let us consider what these advances might hold for Pharmacological advancement,Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism


FORMULATION AND IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS OF KETOPROFEN: EFFECT OF DISINTEGRANTS ON DRUG RELEASE

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ABOUT AUHTOR
Kambham Venkateswarlu*,
Department of Pharmaceutics,
JNTUA-Oil Technological and Pharmaceutical Research Institute
Andhra Pradesh,  India
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT 
The objective of the present investigation was to formulate and evaluate the mouth dissolving tablets (MDTs) of ketoprofen (KPN) using disintegrants like Crospovidone (CP), Croscarmellose sodium (CCS) and Sodium starch glycolate (SSG) and the effect of disintegrants on drug release was also studied. The powder blend was evaluated for flow properties and found acceptable flow properties. The prepared MDTs were evaluated for post compression parameters such as hardness, friability, weight variation, dispersion time, drug content and in-vitro drug release. Tablets possessing sufficient strength supported by hardness and friability results. The formulation KP6 showed lease dispersion time of 14 sec and it was selected for drug release studies. KP6 showed 99.9% of drug release in 5 min and time taken for 70% of the drug is 2.8 min. Based on the results obtained from the dispersion time and in-vitro dissolution studies, it could be concluded that the concentration of disintegrant is indirectly proportional to the dispersion time and directly proportional to the amount of drug release respectively.


INSILCO MOLECULAR DOCKING STUDY OF DIHYDROISOQUINOLINIUM DERIVATIVES AS DPP IV INHIBITORS IN TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Amiya Kumar Ghosh*1, Shiladitya Palit2, SaptarshiSamajdar3
1Dept. of Pharmacy, Utkal University, Orissa
2Dept. of Pharmacy, IITBHU
3Centre for Pharmaceutical Sc. And Natural Products, Central University of Punjab

amiyaghosh94@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
With the spread of western lifestyles, the occurrence of diabetes in the world’s population is rising. Diabetes is a complex metabolic endocrine disorder that occurs when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or when the body cannot effectively use the insulin it produces. It is classified into two basic forms Type I and Type II diabetes. A major goal for the treatment of type II diabetes is the enhancement of insulin secretion by pancreatic islet b-cells. The current therapeutic agents, although effective in increasing insulin secretion, are associated with undesirable side effects. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) is responsible for conversion of glucose tolerance (GLP-1), into inactive form. The inhibition of DPP-IV would be beneficial in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Improved glucose tolerance in diabetic patients was achieved with several small molecules as DPP IV inhibitors, including sitagliptin. The current study was designed to identify a suitable inhibitor agent for DPP IV. Computer-assisted molecular modeling approach has contributed to the successful discovery of several novel antidiabetic DPP IV agents.Someisoquinoline was designed computationally and screened through insilico docking studies against crystal structure of Dipeptidylpeptidase-IV (DPP-IV) ( PDB entry 2P8S )as a projected target for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.Insilico docking methodology using Auto Dock vina comprising a search method Genetic Lamarckian algorithm was used. Genetic Lamarckian algorithm performs an Automated Docking and has an advantage of empirical binding free energy force field that allows the prediction of binding free energies for docked ligands. In-silico evaluation shows satisfactory docking results, when compared with standard using docking. It is concluded that investigational ligands has the potential of inhibiting DPP-IV and there by further screening (invitro and invivo) studies can be carried out in order to find out optimized bioflavonoids for treating type2diabetes mellitus.


PREVENTION OF MEDICATION ERRORS- A STEPAHEAD IN PROVIDING BETTER PATIENT SAFETY

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Steffi Jerry Mammen,
Inamdar Multispecialty Hospital,
Pune,
Maharashtra, India
steffi.thomas@ymail.com

Abstract:
The reality that medical treatment can harm patients is one that the healthcare community has had to come to, in terms with over recent years. Adverse events associated with medication errors are chief causes among them. A medication error is an error which can be defined as any discrepancy between the prescriber's interpretable medication order and what was administered to a patient. Prescribing & drug administration appears to be associated with greatest number of errors.

To ensure patient safety& provide better health services, medication errors should be curbed. India is still lacking the regulatory system for the control of medication errors.

Therefore, a stringent regulatory set up should be established to reduce medication errors.  Awareness among the health-care professionals regarding medication errors may be the major factor in the establishment of a successful regulatory system. Some of them might be aware but reporting is rare due to many factors such as miscommunication, fear of punishment, potential termination from job, failure to comply with the policies etc.

Reporting will disclose medication errors, could trigger warnings, but should not  create an unhealthy atmosphere post reporting, and acknowledging the facts and working on it could help prevent medication errors as all of health care domain are working for patient safety at the end.


DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MECLIZINE AND FOLIC ACID IN BULK AND PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Naveen Kumar G.S* 1, U. Srinivas 2, Hanumanthchar Joshi 3,
1 Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
Sarada Vilas College of pharmacy,
Mysuru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Pharmacognosy,
Srinivas College of pharmacy, Mangalore, Karnataka India,
3 Department Pharmacognosy,
Sarada Vilas College of pharmacy, Mysuru, Karnataka India
*naveengs.2010@gmail.com

ABSTRACT  
An UV spectrophotometric method using simultaneous equation was developed for the simultaneous determination of meclizine and folic acid in a binary mixture. In the proposed method, the signals were measured at 390.0 nm and 237.0 nm corresponding to absorbance maxima of and folic acid in methanol respectively. Linearity range was observed in the concentration range of 2-12 µg/ml for both the drugs. Concentration of each drug was obtained by using the absorptivity values calculated for both drugs at two wavelengths, 390.0 nm and 237.0 nm and solving the simultaneous equation. The method was validated and proposed method was fast, accurate and precise so it can be used for regular quality control of the drug.


NANOCAPSULES: NANO NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Gauri Nilewar*, P.B. Mute, P.P. Talhan, Shruti Thakre,
Dr. R.G. Bhoyar college of Pharmacy,
Wardha Maharashtra, India
*samvedna.nahatkar90@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Nano capsules are vesicular systems in which the drug is confined to a cavity consisting of an inner liquid core surrounded by a polymeric membrane. Nano capsules having various advantages and disadvantages. Preparation of Nano capsules can be used as a two types of polymers 1) Natural polymers 2) Synthetic polymers. Nano capsules are prepared by different method those are a) Solvent evaporation b) Nano precipitation c) emulsification / Solvent diffusion d) Salting out e) Dialysis f) Super critical fluid technology. Different characterization and evaluation tests are performed to Nano capsules. Dispersed polymer nanocapsules can be used as nano-sized drug carriers to get controlled release as well as efficient drug targeting. Drug-loaded polymeric nanocapsules have showed possible applications in the field of drug delivery systems. Enormous research efforts have been performed in order to develop modern nano-particulate drug delivery systems. However, newly developed drug molecules with moderate biopharmaceutical profile are still missing. The entrapment of this drug molecule can protect them from the biological environment and facilitate their transport through biological barriers. Therefore nano-carriers especially nanocapsules (NC) can give the promise for therapeutic benefits in the field of drug delivery system. Nanocapsules, existing in miniscule size, range from 10 nm to 1000 nm. They consist of a liquid/solid core in which the drug is placed into a cavity, which is surrounded by a distinctive polymer membrane made up of natural or synthetic polymers. They have attracted great interest, because of the protective coating, which are usually pyrophoric and easily oxidized and delay the release of active ingredients.


NEUROPROTECTIVE AGENTS, NATURAL PLANT HERBS & DRUGS IN ISCHEMIC STROKE: A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUHTORS
Nesar Ahmad*,Zafar Khan, Noorul Hasan, Abdul Basit, Seikh Zohrameena
Department of Pharmacology,
Faculty of Pharmacy,
Integral University, Lucknow, UP, India
*nesar50@gmail.com

ABSTRACT 
Stroke is a destructive experience which can result in permanent disability in brain. There is no permanent drug which can improve the blood flow at infracted area and also improve the neurological deficit. Due to the lack of treatments available for stroke, many researchers will investigate the suitable plants or drugs for the treatment of this disease. Numerous medicinal plants and herbal drugs are available to treat stroke, some of the plants are Ginkgo biloba, Fructus Chebulae, Pomegranate, Rosa laevigata, Garlic, Leonurus heterophyllus, Olive, Grape, Allium cepa, drugs such as Pravastatin, Senkyunolide I, Phloretin, Mgso4, HAMI 3379, Oleoylethanolamie, scopolamine and mecamylamine, Nitric Oxide, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 3,5,6,7,8,3’,4’-Heptamethoxy flavones, Rosiglitazone, Puerarin, the activity was estimated by parameters like superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, Hemispheric swelling index (cerebral edema), H2O2 induced cell injury, OGD-R induced cell injury, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidises, mitochondrial membrane potential, Western blotting assay, ROS scavenging assays, Superoxide anion  scavenging assay, Hydroxyl radical  scavenging assay, H2O2 scavenging assay, Singlet oxygen scavenging assay, Peroxyl radical scavenging assay, Peroxynitrite anion scavenging assay, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, blood–brain barrier integrity, cerebral infarct size, in Situ Apoptosis Detection, Western blotting, SOD, GSH, glutathione peroxidase, and MDA levels, Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Lactate dehydrogenase activity assay, Determination of caspase activity, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, Determination of choline acetyltransferase activity (ChAT), Cell viability, Oxygen glucose deprivation/reperfusion assay, Flow cytometry, Immunohistochemistry.  The present review focused on different medicinal plants and drugs that have been tested in Stroke in animal models.


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