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Q-ABSORBANCE RATIO SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND CANDESARTAN CILEXETIL IN SYNTHETIC MIXTURE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kotecha B*, Pambhar M, Zala G, Faldu S
Department of Quality assurance, Smt. R.D. Gardi B.Pharmacy College,
Nyara, Rajkot-360 110, Gujarat, India
kotecha_bijal29@yahoo.com

ABSTRACTS:
The present manuscript describe simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical q-absorbance method for the simultaneous determination of Amlodipine besylate and Candesartan cilexetil in synthetic mixture. Absorbance ratio method uses the ratio of absorbance at two selected wavelengths, one which is an Isoabsorptive point at 242 nm in Methanol. The second wavelength is used 255 nm, which is λmax of Candesartan cilexetil in Methanol. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 5-25 μg/mlof both drugs. The concentration of drugs was determined by using ratio of absorbance at isoabsorptive point and at the λ-max of Candesartan cilexetil. The method was successfully applied to pharmaceutical dosage form because of no interference. The result of analysis has been validated by recovery studies.


A REVIEW ON GAS GANGRENE AND ITS MANAGEMENT

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About Authors:
M. Sushma*, T. V. V. Vidyadhar, R. Mohanraj, M. Babu
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, RIPER,
K R Palli Cross, Near S.K University, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, 515721.
*sushma.banthi@gmail.com, vishnuvaravidyadhar@gmail.com

Abstract:
Gas gangrene is described as an infection of muscle tissue by toxin-producing clostridia. Gas gangrene is also known as “Clostridial myonecrosis”, gained recognition for its wartime incidence, during which only a paucity of civilian cases occurred during wars. Blood is major component in which its absences favour the development of gas gangrene. Such conditions were seen in the cases like atherosclerosis, diabetes, peripheral arterial disease. Depending on this blood supply and attack of infection the gas gangrene can be classified into Dry gangrene and Wet gangrene. This gas gangrene presents clinically with Dry and Cold skin with Pain and Swelling associated with Blisters. There are a typical causes and pathogenesis involving different type of toxins for the formation of gas gangrene. The treatment is approached by using a type ofMaggot therapy, Antibiotics, Oxygen therapy. Surgery also preferred in the treatment.


TO REVIEW THE PATHOGENESIS, TRADITIONAL TREATMENT AND FUTURE TRENDS IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND TREATMENT OF HIV INFECTIONS

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About Authors:
Muhammad Asim Javaid*, Emanual Michael Patelia, Annamaria Gal, Muhammad Saleem Qureshi
University of Bedfordshire,
Park Square Campus, Luton, LU1 3JU.
asimtarar@gmail.com

Abstract:
The HIV infection has a major role in the human immunodeficiency syndrome. According to the literature review, the main factor is the reduction of CD4 cells and increment in the growth of B-cells with hypergammaglobulinamia. The HIV has the external glycoprotein-120(gp120) and the trans-membrane protein (gp41) which is attached with the CD4 receptors and one or both chemokine receptors (CCR5, CXCR4) on the surface of the host cell. Before selecting the suitable regimens, resistance testing, efficacy against virus, tolerability, dosing frequency, pill burden, drug interactions and patient preferences must be considered. Initially the combination of 2nRTIs along with third suitable member from any other class may be considered as a suitable treatment. A number of drug classes have been proved effective in the treatment of HIV infections; they are nucleoside nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, protease inhibitors and entry inhibitors.


IN SILICO DESIGN AND COMPUTATIONAL STUDY OF NOVEL 1, 3, 4-THIADIAZOLE DERIVATIVES AS POTENTIAL AFFINITY WITH NA/H EXCHANGER RECEPTOR FOR ANTICONVULSANT ACTIVITY

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vinit Raj*, Amit Rai, Jitendra Kumar Rawat
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University (A Central University),
Vidya Vihar, Raebreli Road, Lucknow-226025 (U.P.), India
raj.vinit24@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A series of novel 1, 3, 4-thiadiazole derivatives were designed keeping in view the structural requirement of pharmacophore and Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) and evaluated in silico anticonvulsant activity. Docking procedures allow virtually screening a database of compounds and predict the strongest binder based on various scoring functions. In the docking study, the most active compounds of the series were, VR 2, VR 3 and VR 4 exhibited good binding properties. Result reveals that the protein-ligand interaction energy of derivatives VR 2, VR 3 and VR 4 were -7.08 kcal/mol, -6.64 kcal/mol and -7.42 kcal/mol respectively, which is slightly higher than the standard anticonvulsant phenytoin drug as -6.03 kcal/mol, so that the derivatives have satisfactory affinity with established convulsant receptor namely Na/H exchanger. A computational study was also carried out including prediction of pharmacokinetic properties, toxicity and bioactivity studies. The percentage of absorption (%ABS) was calculatedand observed that all titled compounds exhibited a better %ABS ranging 92.66, 85.81, 90.07 and 86.98, respectively and compared than standard Phenytoin drug as %ABS 88.92. Although VR 1 had slightly lesser protein affinity, its other pharmacological parameters were same like other screened compounds. The above observation suggested that these compounds would serve as better lead compound for anticonvulsant screening for future drug design perspective.


PROSTAGLANDINS AND ITS TYPES

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About Authors:
S. Ramya Silpa
Department of Pharmacology,
Balaji College of Pharmacy, Anantapur, AP, India.
shilpasankarapu@gmail.com

Abstract:
Prostaglandins are potent bioactive lipid messengers synthesized from arachidonic acid mediated by enzyme COX. Prostaglandins (PGs) play a key role in the initiation of the inflammatory response. Their biosynthesis is significantly increased in inflamed tissue, and they contribute to the development of the cardinal signs of acute inflammation. Although the proinflammatory properties of individual PGs during the acute inflammatory response are well established, their role in the resolution of inflammation is more controversial.


ENGINEERED NANOCARRIERS: AN EMERGING TOOL IN THERAPEUTICS AND DIAGNOSTICS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
S. Chouhan*, P. Sharma, J. Pathak, A. Namdev, M. Sain
Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology,
Pharmacy wing; Jodhpur
shailendra.chouhan26@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In present era nanoparticles have emerged as an efficient and promising tool in therapeutics and diagnostics. Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field it merges basic sciences and applied disciplines like biophysics, molecular biology and bioengineering. Nanotechnology has created impact in various fields of medicine comprising neurology, oncology, immunology, cardiology, endocrinology. Nanotechnology presents revolutionary opportunities for diagnosis and therapy of many diseases. The nanoparticles capable of diagnosis, drug delivery and monitoring of therapeutic response are expected to play a significant role in emergence of era of personalized medicine.


EVALUATION OF ANTI DIARRHEAL POTENTIAL OF CINNAMON LEAVES

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Nandu Kayande1*, Pankaj Kushwah2, D.K. Vir3
1HOD Department of Pharmacology
2Department of Pharmacognosy
3Department of Pharmacology
Nimar Institute of Pharmacy, Dhamnod,
Opp.ITI, Maheshwar Road Dhamnod, Dhar. M.P.454552
nandu_kayande@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
The objective of present study was to evaluate in vivo anti-diarrheal potential ofCinnamon leaves. Sample was analyzed for quantities estimation of photochemical and anti-diarrheal activity of aqueous leaf extract, at 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w) was investigated using castor oil induced model. The aqueous leaves extract of Cinnamon leaves (100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three groups of rats (five animals per group) in order to evaluate the activity of the extract against castor oil-induced diarrhea model in rat. Two other groups received normal saline (5mg/kg) and Loperamide (2mg/kg) as positive control. The effect of the extract on castor oil-induced diarrhea, gastrointestinal transit and intestinal fluid accumulation (enter pooling) was assessed respectively. In this study, the phytochemical analysis of aqueous leaves extract of Cinnamon leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenols. At oral doses of 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight, the plant extract showed pronounced significant (p<0.05) antidiarrhoeal activity compared to the control group. No mortality and visible signs of general weakness were observed in the rats following the extract administration of up to a dose of 2000 mg/kg. The results showed that the aqueous leaves extract of Cinnamonleaves has a significant antidiarrhoeal activity which supports its use in traditional herbal medicine practice.


RESEALED ERYTHROCYTES - AS A CARRIER

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Meenu Sharma*, Saroj  jain
Department of Pharmaceutics, Hindu college of pharmacy
Panchayat Bhawan, Gohana Road, Sonipat (Haryana)
meenu99sharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Amongst various carriers explored for target oriented drug delivery, vesicular, microparticulate and cellular carriers meet several criteria rendering them useful in clinical applications. Lymphocytes, leukocytes, platelets, granulocytes and erythrocytes have been  proposed as a cellular carriers.  Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells, and have been the most extensively investigated and found to possess great potential in novel drug delivery. The biocompatibility, non- pathogenicity, non-immunogenicity and biodegradability make them unique and useful carriers. The prime function of these RBCs is to transport gases for respiratory processes. Carrier erythrocytes are prepared by collecting blood sample from the organism of interest and separating erythrocytes from plasma. By using various methods the cells are broken and the drug is entrapped into the erythrocytes, finally they are resealed and the resultant carriers are then called "resealed erythrocytes". Erythrocytes have been proposed as a carriers for a wide range of bioactive components including drugs enzymes, pesticides, DNA molecules and others.


EVALUATION OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LAWSONIA INERMIS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Himangshu Sekhar Maji*, Debdutta Banerjee, Sushomasri Maji
Department of Pharmacy, Bengal School of Technology,
Sugandha, Delhi Road, Hooghly,
West Bengal, India
hsmaji77@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Lawsonia inermis(Henna Plant) has been used as herbal medicine for ages. In this study the antibacterial effect of ethanolic extract of Lawsonia inermis root against bacterial cultures of Vibrio cholera 156, Salmonella typhi 102, Shigella dysenteriae 2, Staphylococcus aureus ML 281, Escherichia coli Row, Shigella Flexneri  6430 Bcy, Bacillus polymyxa NCTC 4747, Vibrio cholera 2080, Salmonella typhi 642. The alcoholic extract was found to be more effective according to NCCLS agar dilution method.


IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIAL SPECIES BY COMBINED BIOINFORMATIC AND POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

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About Authors:
Emanual Michael Patelia, Bushra Ahmed, Muhammad Javaid, Jayesh Patel, Rakesh Thakur, Mishra Trinath
Department of Pharmacology, University of Bedfordshire, England,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU
ricky.emanual@gmail.com

Abstract
The identification will be carried out by comparing a potential PCR product obtained from an unknown species with other PCR products specific to 5 known species, using the same five set of pairs of primers specific of these five species respectively. This implies that each PCR product obtained for each species has to be specific to each species and can be considered as a marker in this exercise. This specificity will be based on the uniqueness of the chosen template that is to be used for each PCR. In addition, since the PCR products will not be sequenced, they will be differentiated by their size, which will be identified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The PCR product can only be used as a marker that defines a species if the amplified sequence is unique to this species. Therefore, the first step in this exercise will be to identify a suitable sequence to amplify for each species. Following the identification of a suitable template, the size of the PCR will have to be defined; since the comparative analysis will be based not only on the presence of a product but also its size, all PCR products should have different sizes identifiable on agarose gel. Since the size of a PCR product is defined by the location of primers along the sequence, the second step in this exercise will be to design suitable primers. Finally, having defined specific template and primers for each species, PCR will be carried out using the DNA of unknown species as a template with all five sets of primers so that a successful PCR product and its size would identify the unknown species as one of the five species.