Articles

METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR ESTIMATION OF NAPROXEN IN BULK SAMPLES AS WELL AS IN TABLET DOSAGE FORMS BY USING RP-HPLC

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ABOUT AUTHORS
S. Ashutosh Kumar*, Manidipa Debnath,Vaddi Pavan Krishna Kumar

Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance,
A.K.R.G College of Pharmacy,
Nallajerla, West Godavari, A.P
* ashu.mpharm2007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Purpose:
A simple, precise, accurate, rapid and economical reverse phase high-pressure liquid chromatographic method has been developed as per ICH norms for the estimation of Naproxen from pharmaceutical formulation.
Methods: The method was carried out on a Kromosil-C18 ODS column (150 mm X 4.6 mm; 5 µ) with a mobile phase consists of ammonium acetate buffer (adjusted to pH 4.0 with 1 % Triethyl amine): methanol (40:60 v/v) and filtered through a 0.45 µ cellulose nitrate filters. The flow rate was maintained in isocratic mode at 1.0 mL/min. The detection was carried out at 210 nm. The run time was 7.0 min.
Results: The retention time was 3.063 min for Naproxen. The developed method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification and solution stability.
Conclusion: The proposed method was adequate sensitive, reproducible, and specific for the determination of Naproxen in bulk as well as in tablet dosage forms.


EPILEPSY: A BRIEF REVIEW

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Abdul Waheed*, Swati Pathak, Roohi Mirza
Department of Pharmacology,
Amity Institute of Pharmacy,
Amity University, Noida, U.P., India
*abdul.waheed2050@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disorder characterized by tendency to recurrent seizures or fits. The seizures can leads to loss of consciousness, disturbance of movement, muscle spasms, autonomic and mental functions. Epilepsy is developed because of imbalance in nerve signalling chemical called neurotransmitters. During epilepsy, the level of excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate increases and the level of inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA decrease. These lead to abnormal signalling in brain causes epilepsy. Primary diagnosis of epilepsy includes eye–witness and family history. Electroencephalograph (EEG) is the cornerstone for diagnosis of epilepsy and measures the brain wave activity. Neuroimaging like computed tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) techniques are used to diagnose abnormalities in structure and function of brain. Video recording is also useful for the monitoring of epileptic events. The most common approach of treatment is to prescribe antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Three generations of AEDs including phenytoin, valproate, carbamazapine, lamotrigine, Oxcarbazepine, Primidone,Phenobarbitone,Gabapentin, Topiramate, Levetiracetam, Felbamate, Rufinamide, Zonisamide, Tiagabinand Vigabatrin etc. are prescribed. These AEDs have some teratogenic effects on  pragnent woman and lactating mother; need precautions. Instead of  pharmacological approaches, Non-pharmacological approaches also used for the treatment of epileptic seizures like ketogenic diet, atkins diet, yoga etc. Thr purpose of this review is to update the current knowledge on epilepsy classification, diagnostics, approaches of treatment, pathophysiology, mechanism of epileptogenesis and teratogenic effects.


ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS): A REVIEW

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Dr. (Mrs.) Anita Singh

Department of Home Science,
Kr. R.C.M. P.G College Mainpuri, U.P, India
dranitasinghkrcm@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lent virus (slowly-replicating retrovirus) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs). Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. HIV enters macrophages and CD4+ T cells by the adsorption of glycoproteins on its surface to receptors on the target cell followed by fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane and the release of the HIV capsid into the cell. There is no cure for HIV/AIDS, but a variety of drugs can be used in combination to control the virus.


DEVELOPMENT AND IN-VITRO DRUG RELEASE PROFILE OF SUSTAINED RELEASE FLOATING GRANULES OF CINNARIZINE

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Aman Mittal
Smt. Tarawati Institute of Biomedical & Allied Science
Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India
amanmittal_27@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Floating drug delivery systems (FDDS) are the drug delivery systems having a bulk density lower than the gastric content and they remain buoyant in the stomach for a prolonged period of time, with the potential for continuous release of drug. Cinnarizine, a H1-receptor antagonist, used for the treatment for vestibular vertigo disorders and motion sickness was selected as the drug aspirant and Gelucire 43/01 was selected as a lipid carrier in different ratio (1:0.5, 1:1, 1:1.5) along with drug to be formulated as gastro retentive multiparticulate system. The formulation F1 to F9 were prepared and formulation F4 to F9 were evaluated for in-vitro drug release and formulation F5 was selected as optimized formulation that exhibited good floating ability and zero order drug release (93.56 %) at the end of 8 hrs. The in-vitro drug release study of the aged sample show phase conversion of Gelucire. The phase conversion also caused increase in drug release. In conclusion, hydrophobic lipid, Gelucire 43/01 can be considered as an effective carrier for design of a multiple unit floating drug delivery system of cinnarizine.


RECENT INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN ORAL THIN FILM TECHNOLOGY: AN OVERVIEW

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Kh. Hussan Reza 1*, Pranabesh Chakraborty2
1 Department of Pharmacy, Bengal School of Technology, Sugandha, Hooghly, West Bengal
2 Director, Department of Pharmacy, Bengal School of Technology, Sugandha, Hooghly, West Bengal
*hassan23pharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Oral route of administration is most convenient route but often is disadvantageous for administering to geriatric and paediatric patients. Orally disintegrating film is found to be effective in delivering rapid drug action by dissolving the drug in buccal cavity. Since a decade oral thin films has got commercial importance in generic and non generic market projecting it as a multinational business asset. Current research in this field is found to be associated with industrialization and commercialization. Current article make an overview of not only technological changes in research and manufacturing but also gives an insight about growing market worldwide.


ADR MONITORING: AN ESSENTIAL NEED FOR BETTER HEALTH CARE AND SAFETY

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Annu*, Priyanka
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak, Haryana, India.
*annu.gvm@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Adverse drug reaction (ADR) is the noxious and unintended response that occurs at the dose of drug normally used for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease. ADRs cause a huge burden on the modern society because of the increase incidence of the morbidity and mortality. ADRs can occur with any class of drugs and the availability of the more and more number of therapeutics increases the risk of ADRs consequently. It has been found that the maximum numbers of ADRs occur more among infants and children and also they are generally more severe as compared to adults. ADRs are of particular interest in today’s practice because clinical trials are done in the limited number of the subjects and therefore the drug which is found safer in the clinical trial may produces serious ADRs. The most common reason for this is that the clinical studies generally have limited sample size and have low statistical power. Therefore the ADRs monitoring is an essential need for the better health care and therefore the health care centre should promotes the spontaneous monitoring, reporting, documentation and prevention of ADRs.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ORODISPERSIBLE TABLETS TO ENHANCE DISSOLUTION RATE OF LAMOTRIGINE BY USING SOLID DISPERSION TECHNIQUE

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Bhumi B. Patel1*, Chainesh N. Shah2, Rumit M. Shah3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Shree Naranjibhai Lalbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Umrakh, Gujarat, India.
2 Department of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth, Piparia, Gujarat, India
3 Department of Pharmacognosy, Shree Naranjibhai Lalbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, Umrakh, Gujarat, India.
* patelbhumi198@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Lamotrigine belongs to biopharmaceu­tical classification systems; BCS class II (Low solubility & High permeability). In addition, it requires immediate therapeutic action. Hence, the main objective of this study is to improve the solubility by solid dispersion technique and formulate it as Orodispersible tablets to avert the problems of swallowing and to provide rapid onset of action. Lamotrigine solid dispersion was prepared by using PEG 6000 as solubility enhancers and formulated it into ODT by direct compres­sion technique using different concentrations of Sodium Starch Glycolate, Cross Carmalose Sodium, and Kyron T-314 as cross linked polymers. The tablets were evaluated for various parameters and the results were found to be sat­isfactory. The batches batch containing Kyron T-314 as super disintegrant in 7% concentration, as they showed 95.75% drug release in 15 minutes with a disintegration time of 11 seconds which shows improved dissolution rate in compare to marketed formulation of Lamotrigine.


PHARMACOGNOSTICAL STUDIES FOR STANDARDISATION OF A MEDICINAL SPICE, THE FRUIT OF ILLICIUM VERUM HOOK. F.

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M. A. Rashid*, R. H. Zuberi

Pharmacognosy Section
Regional Research Institute of Unani Medicine (RRIUM),
Aligarh, UP, India
* marashid212@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The fruit of Illicium verum Hook. f. of family Magnoliaceae has been utilized therapeutically as medicine as well as a spice. It is used to relieve a number of human ailments, owing to its properties as carminative, stimulant and appetizer. In order to set the quality standards, the market sample of the drug has been identified and standardized on the basis of Pharmacopoeial parameters, such as salient macro and microscopic characters, ash values, solubility, successive extractive values, thin layer chromatographic evaluations and U.V. spectroscopic analysis. Besides qualitative and quantitative estimations, fluorescence analysis of powdered drug has also been carried out in order to set standards for the crude drug.


HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF GLIMEPIRIDE BY INDUCING CCL4 HEPATOTOXICITY

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C.V.H.Hemavathy*, B. Raj kumar, R. Kiran kumar, G. Hema latha

Department of Pharmacy,
Kottam Institute of Pharmacy,
Erravally X Roads, Mahaboob Nagar
*hemarayudu19@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Hepatoprotective activity of  by inducing ccl4 hepatotoxicity. To study the hepatoprotective activity of against CCL4 induced hepatotoxcity. To evaluate the mechanism of hepatoprotection in terms of Liver antioxidant mechanism, Histopathological study. The animals were divided into Four groups of  three animals each. Except the normal group all the other groups received ccl4 in at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg by intraperitoneally for 14 days. Normal groups received plain tween 80 orally.  On the 14th day all the rats from all the groups were sacrificed, blood was collected from each animal for serum analysis  and their livers were stored  under freezing conditions for the estimation of endogenous anti oxidants and one sample from each group was stored in 10% formalin for histopathological studies.  In bio-chemical studies- Serum analytical methods (AST), (ALT), (Alk.P), (Bil), (TP), (TC). The present findings observed in this study revealed that,glimepirideis natural antioxidant lignin possess significant antioxidant activity against ccl4 induced hepatotoxicity via antioxidant mechanism. However, further research is required to find out the other possible mechanism of hepatoprotection to conform that  as glimepiridehepatoprotective molecule.


EMERGENCE OF NOVEL PEPTIDE MOLECULAR CLASS AS ANTIBIOTICS

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Akansha Bhandari1, Nitisha Bhandari2*
1
Department of Lifesciences,
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Science, Patel Nagar, Dehradun, India
2 Department of Biotechnology, Graphic Era University, Dehradun, India
*nitishabhandari89@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Modern era diseases bring more challenges and hurdles to the rational drug targeting. However chemotherapy is the most affected area as most reports are related to antibiotics resistance. Although some successes are accounted as new molecules and new structures are keep on synthesizing or either isolated. One such example is Teixobactin which is isolated for Eleftheria terrae, which was found to be active against Staphylococcus and Mycobacterium bacteria. The story of Teixobactin isolation could open new horizon and opportunistic ways for future designing of useful drugs against these resistance bacteria. In the similar context we tried to compile the relevant paper that was published in nature in 2015 into a commentary based critical review.


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