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RATIONAL USE OF MEDICINES: CAN WE PROMOTE

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About Authors:
Languluri Reddenna
Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences,
Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
reddennapharmd@gmail.com

Abstract
Rational use of drugs can be defined as prescribing the right drug, in sufficient dose for the adequate duration and suitable to the clinical requirements of the patients at least cost. Causes of irrational use comprise not have of knowledge, skills or self-determining information, unhampered accessibility of medicines, overburden of health personnel, unsuitable promotion of medicines and earnings motives from selling medicines. In appropriate drug usecan have dire consequences; it has been associated with hospitalization and evencaused deaths of inpatients in health carefacilities. A variety of situations and circumstancespromote irrational use of medicines.Rational use of medication saves lives, confines undesired toxicity, adverse events and maximize on the benefits that can be imitative from best use of medications. According to surveys conducted in 2004 by HAI Africa and WHO in 11 Sub-Saharan Africa countries in 2004, the average accessibility of the essential medicines in public health facilities was below 70%. Communication between professionals and consumers is essential to the enhancement of rational use of medicines. It is essential to recommence collaboration of physicians and pharmacists concerning accurate and competent drugs prescribing. Governments, private health care institutions, entity health care providers and patients all have an accountability to endorse rational use of medicines. Professionals should provide information to the customers about the name of the medicine, the intention for which the medicine is being taken, dose, frequency of use, and duration of use.


INTERLEUKINS IN THERAPEUTICS

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ABOUT AUTHOR:
Anjan Khadka
Department of Pharmacology,
AFMC, Pune, India
anjankhadka14@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
Interleukins are a subset of a larger group of cellular messenger molecules called cytokines, which are modulators of cellular behaviour. On the basis of their respective cytokine profiles, responses to chemokines, and interactions with other cells, these T-cell subsets can promote different types of inflammatory responses. During the development of allergic disease, effector TH2 cells produce IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, and IL-32.  IL-25, IL- 31, and IL-33 contributes to TH2 responses and inflammation. These cytokines have roles in production of allergen-specific IgE, eosinophilia, and mucus. ILs have role in therapeutics as well as diagnosis and prognosis as biomarker in various conditions. Therapeutic targeting of the IL considered to be rational treatment strategy and promising biologic therapy.


A REVIEW ON INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS SYNDROME (ICS)

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About Authors:
M Sushma*, TVV Vidyadhar, R Mohanraj, M Babu
Department of Pharmacy Practice, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research (RIPER),
K R Palli Cross, Near S.K University, Anantapuramu District, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.
*sushma.banthi@gmail.com

Abstract:
Interstitial cystitis (IC) is an irritative bladder syndrome of multifactorial aetiology and is said to be one of the several conditions that causes bladder pain, which is most commonly seen in women than in men. It is of unknown aetiology. But some factors like autoimmune disorder, Genetic predisposition, Gynaecologic surgery in the past, History of recurrent UTIs. The body's immune system attacks the bladder, similar to other autoimmune conditions. The urologist may use a special scope called a cytoscope to look inside your bladder for inflammation, pinpoint bleeding. Management of IC is done by oral therapy of pentosanpolysulphate, Tricyclic anti-depressants, Anti-histamines, Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, Bladder analgesics. Whereas intravesical therapy Dimethyl sulphoxide, heparin, Bacillus calmette-Guerin


KNOCKDOWN (MICRO-RNA INHIBITING TECHNIQUE) TECHNIQUE FOR EVALUATION OF ALPHA-1A ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR AND P2X1 RECEPTOR FUNCTIONS

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About Authors:
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Emma Spiking
University of Bedfordshire, England,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU
ricky.emanual@gmail.com

Abstract
The new approach regarding the knocking down the protein expression by the use of shmRNA complimentary to the mRNA sequence of the respected protein expression have a major impact on the research area. The knockdown of P2X1 and ADRA1A genes have no effect on chromosomal DNA but have a lack of effect on expression of P2X1 and α1A receptors. The produced genetically engineered male mice can be of 100% infertile. The simple PCR (polymerase chain reaction) based approach can be used for the generation of knockdown cell lines. The Animals should have the treatments according to the guidelines mentioned under international society for applied ethnology. The SIRION biotech have shown the managed shRNA knockdown of about 90% significance interval.


A REVIEW: ATHEROSCLEROSIS & ITS TREATMENT

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About Author:
Mr. Yogesh K. Patil
Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology,
Shree Mahavir Institute of Pharmacy,
Nashik.
yogesh_kpatil85@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:
Atherosclerosis is deposition of fatty substances into the inner wall of blood vessels. Due to deposition of lipid material into blood vessels there is restricted flow to blood to various organs like kidney, heart, lungs etc. To overcome this effect various drugs available in market like statins, fibrates etc. There is also way to clean lipid from inner lining of blood vessels through surgery which is last step of treatment. There are mainly two surgeries available that is bypass surgery of heart and angioplasty.


VALUE BASED PRICING-NEW CONCEPT

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About Author:
Shwetlata Singh
Pharmaceutical Management
Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Research, Delhi
shweta.kul99@yahoo.com

Abstract:
This article involves discovering how Value-Based Pricing(VBP) is creating a buzz in pharmaceutical sector. The goal is to make people understand what is exactly VBP. It will give valuable information regarding various pricing policies in pharma & pros & cons of VBP. Article also includes brief  implication of this policy in UK health sector where this policy has been applied recently.


ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM BY ALLOXAN INDUCED MODEL IN RATS

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
C Velmurugan*1, Anurag Bhargava2
1Department of Pharmacology, Research scholar, Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences and Research center, Bhagwant University, Sikar road, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India-305004.
2Department of Pharmacognosy, CH. Devi lal College of Pharmacy, Bhagwangarh, jagadhri, Haryana-135003.
velu0906@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethyl ether and ethanol extracts of Gossypium Herbaceum (200mg/kg) leaves was evaluated with measurements including, blood glucose level and biochemical parameters. The extracts of the leaves was tested for its efficacy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Animals were induced for diabetes with Alloxan (150 mg/kg of body weight- i.p.). The extracts of Gossypium Herbaceum administered daily. The extracts were also evaluated for acute oral toxicity studies and its effect on different biochemical parameters. The extracts showed significant (p<0.01) antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity as compared to diabetic control. The extracts show beneficial effects on blood glucose level in alloxan model. It also reduces the elevated biochemical parameters such as triglycerides (TGL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), Total Cholesterol (TC) and increased the reduced level of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which might be due to presence of flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids and phenolic compound present in that extract. Thus extracts of Gossypium Herbaceum could serve as good oral hypoglycemic agents and seems to be promising for the development of phytomedicines for diabetes mellitus associated cardiac disorders.


SEX DETERMINATION USING THE ADVANCED OMIC TECHNIQUES: POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND SDS PAGE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

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About Authors:
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Emma Spiking
Department of Pharmacology,
University of Bedfordshire, England,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU
ricky.emanual@gmail.com

Abstract:
The polymerase chain reaction is widely used technique for the amplification of target nucleotides for the gene of interest. Amplification of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome by PCR and the identification by electrophoresis has a major role in sex determination. In the proposed method, the house keeping primer glyceraldehydes phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a marker of both total and DNA and mitochondrial RNA and SRY gene should be used for the identification of the unknown samples. In the SDS PAGE gel electrophoresis, two bands are noticeable; first band at 218 bp for GAPDH and second band at 741 bp for SRY gene. The sex chromosomes has a important role in the etiology of normal sexual development. Biopotential gonal needs two chromosomes to the development of ovary. The existence of SRY gene located on the Y chromosome, a testis is developed. The sex ambiguity can be developed by the discodance between chromosomal sex and appearance of the external genitalies.


PROBIOTICS - A REVIEW

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About Authors:
V.Sankar1*, Akash kurian2
*1Department of Pharmacy Practice, PSG College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore.
2PHARM.D Intern, PSG College of Pharmcy, Coimbatore.
*akash.kurian8@gmail.com

Abstract:
The objective of review is to outline the probiotics use in medicine and to give insight in to the field for different applications. The use of probiotics in treatment regimen is increasing. Probiotics are live organisms and prebiotics are components of food that are not otherwise easily digested by humans and these food components essentially feed beneficial bacteria in the gut. Probiotics can be formulated to many different types of products including drugs, foods and dietary supplements. Species of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium are most commonly used as probiotics. Probiotics are intended to assist the body’s naturally occurring gut mitochondria. Some probiotic preparations have been used to prevent diarrhea caused by antibiotics or as part of treatment for antibiotic related dysbiosis. This article focus on the probiotics use,  clinical trials and its future.


ENHANCEMENT OF SOLUBILITY CHARACTERISTICS OF ALPRAZOLAM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Sandeep.M1*, Das Saumya1, Joe Cherry Divya2, J. Tarun1, B. Kiran kumar1
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Vikas College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Rayanigudem, Suryapet, Nalgonda, Andhra Pradesh, India
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Nalanda College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cherlapally, Nalgonda, Andhra Pradesh, India
sandeepm005@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Alprazolam is an anti-anxiety with sedative and hypnotic actions and used in treatment of anxiety and panic disorders. It is practically insoluble in water and hence has a less bioavailability. In the present study attempt has been made to prepare and characterize inclusion complexes of alprazolam with HP-β-CD and PEG6000 (Polyethylene glycol6000). The phase solubility analysis indicated the formation of 1:1 molar inclusion complex of alprazolam with HP-β-CD and PEG6000. The inclusion complexes were prepared by two different methods viz. physical and kneading methods. The complexes were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The complexes prepared by physical method with HP-β-CD exhibited greatest enhancement in solubility and fastest drug release of 90.29% and kneading method with PEG6000 exhibited greatest enhancement in solubility and fastest drug release of 90.19%.