Pharmacology Articles

DIABETES MELLITUS : MANAGEMENT

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Duganath2, Rubesh Kumar Sadasivam3, N.Devanna4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Faculty Of Pharmacy, Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
3Faculty Of Pharmacy, Department Of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
4Director of JNTUA-OTRI,
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001

k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic syndrome that results from a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from the improper insulin secretion and/or inefficient insulin action and possibly by abnormally high amounts of other counter regulatory hormones such as growth hormone, sympathomimetic amines and corticosteroids.

This chronic hyperglycemia is associated with long term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs (Multi Organ Dysfunction Synrome) leading to diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and macrovascular diseases.


REVIEW ON ATHEROSCLEROSIS

About Authors:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Devanna2, C.Vanajakshi3, Kottamasi Vijaya Bhaskar4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director Of Jntua-Otri,
3M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
4M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmacology,
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

Abstract:
This review gives the information about what are the causes, symptoms and treatment of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis is a slow and progressive building up of plaque, fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin in the inner lining of an artery. This building up of plaque may lead to thickening of the arteries, subsequently blocking the blood flow either partially of totally in an artery.


REITERS SYNDROME- A FORM OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jyotirmoyee Patnaik
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences.
Rourkela, Orissa
patnaik.jyotirmoyee@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Reactive arthritis, formerly referred to as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of arthritis that affects the joints, eyes, urethra and skin. The disease is recognized by various symptoms in different organs of the body that may or may not appear at the same time. Also one form of reactive arthritis is characterized by a triad of arthritis, nongonococcal urethritis, and conjunctivitis, and by lesions of the skin and mucosal surfaces.


NEUROFIBROMATOSIS

About Authors:
Tapan Behl*, Monika Sharma, Dr. Heena Goel
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology,  
Doaba Group of Colleges, Kharar, Mohali
tapanbehl31@gmail.com

Abstract:
Neurofibromatosis is genetic disease characterized by lesions mainly in brain region with a broad array of complications associated with it. The prime role of treatment is to obtain a relief from the symptoms associated this disease.


ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK: SHOCKING ERROR OF IMMUNE SYSTEM!

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About Author:
Arvind Negi
Centre for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001
arvindnegi2301@gmail.com

Abstract
Activation of immune response is developed in respect to some xenobiotic sensitization, which is supposed to prevent and protect the body from sufferings induced by these xenobiotic. But unfortunately sometime body behaves in a paradoxical manner which misguides the immune system and ultimately turned into a bizarre situation of immune function. One of such response is anaphylactic shock, which is quite fatal if untreated. This review brings insights into the molecular physiology of anaphylactic shock and how some people elicit allergic response to certain substances but not the other. This major catastrophe of the body holds an error of immune system whereas this commentary based review disclosed the synchronization of the unfortunate lessons of the immune system, which makes it a cruel to cause DEATH!


THYROID DYSFUNCTIONS AND ITS MONITORING

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About Authors:
Pathak Namita*, Kothiyal Preeti, Dr. Prashant Mathur
Department of Clinical Pharmacy,
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Sciences,
Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, 248001
pathak_namita@ymail.com

Abstract
The prevalence of hypothyroidism is three times higher among women than men. The prevalence in an unselect­ed community population of young, middle aged and elderly individuals is about 1.4 percent and the estimated annual incidence rate is one to two per 1,000 women. Surveys of geriatric populations have yielded estimated prevalence rates for overt hypothyroidism of 0.2 percent to 3 percent. The presentation of symptoms in the elderly may be atypical or absent. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is estimated to be between 4.0–8.5% of the adult US population without known thyroid disease, and the prevalence increases with age. Up to 20% of women over the age of 60 are estimated to have subclinical hypothyroidism. Caucasians are more likely to have subclinical hypothyroidism than non-Caucasians. The risk is highest in those with type I diabetes mellitus, a family history of thyroid disease or head/neck cancers treated with external beam radiation. Other risk factors include previous radioactive iodine treatment or thyroid surgery. Interestingly, about 20% of patients on thyroid medications are both over re­placed and under replaced. Because of the high incidence of thyroid disease, The American Thyroid Association recommends measuring thyroid function on all adults beginning at age 35 years and every 5 years thereafter noting that more frequent screening may be appropriate in high risk groups. The treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism has been controversial but more recent data suggest there are increased risks of ischemic heart disease in untreated patients and that a more aggressive approach to treat­ ment would be appropriate.7 In contrast, subclinical hyperthyroidism has more well understood risks of atrial fibrillation and flutter and so should be more ag­gressively treated.


ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME(ACS)-DETAILS REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Amitava Sinharay
B.Pharm
Dr.Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd.
India
a.amitava.s@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION:
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) refers to any group of symptoms attributed to obstruction of the coronary arteries. The most common symptom prompting diagnosis of ACS is chest pain, often radiating of the left arm or angle of the jaw, pressure-like in character, and associated with nausea and sweating. Acute coronary syndrome usually occurs as a result of one of three problems: ST elevation myocardial infarction (30%), non ST elevation myocardial infarction (25%), or unstable angina (38%)


FREGOLI SYNDROME

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Jyotirmoyee Patnaik
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences
Rourkela, Orissa
patnaik.jyotirmoyee@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
During the past 80 years, delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS), especially the Fregoli a syndromes, have posed challenges to mental health professionals due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the syndromes and a lack of effective treatment. During the past two decades, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have pointed to the presence of identifiable brain lesions, especially in the right front parietal and adjacent regions, in a considerable proportion of patients with DMS. Prior to the advent of such studies, DMS phenomena were explained predominantly from the psychodynamic point of view. Deficits in working memory due to abnormal brain function are considered to play causative roles in DMS.


THE ROLE OF SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEM IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION

About Authors:
Mr. Salahuddin Mohammed
Associate Professor of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences,
Department of Pharmacy, Mizan Tepi University,
Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.
salahuddin_pharma48@yahoo.com

Introduction
Secondary messenger system is a part of cellular signaling process in which proteins of different kind are activated through generation of diffusible signaling molecules. The activated proteins then participate in a cellular response.
Second messengers are produced catalytically in response to the extracellular signals (primary messengers) and amplify their response, thus second messengers are a part of signal transduction cascades.


ESTIMATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS

About Authors:
Samudrala Lahari

St.Peters Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Kakatiya University
plushylahari@gmail.com

Abstract
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. It results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity or both. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the itiology of diabetes and Diabetic complications. So, during Diabetes hyperglycemia causes increased production of free radical especially reactive oxygen species(ROS) for all tissues from glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycosylation.


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