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National Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research
Dementia is defined as a loss of intellectual abilities that is severe enough to interfere with social or occupational functioning.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is most common cause of dementia. 50-70% of all cases of dementia are due to Alzheimer’s disease.
AD is characterized by early memory deficits, followed by gradual erosion of other cognitive functions. The most severe neuropathological changes occur in the hippocampus, followed by association cortices or subcortical structures, including the amygdale and nucleus basalis of Meyhert.
M.Pharm., Ph.D. Scholar
Psychiatric Centre, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan
Studies indicate that slightly over half of all cases of infertility are a result of female conditions, while the rest are caused by either sperm disorders or unidentified factors. Infertility in female is very often observed. It is inability to conceive and produce the child. ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology) has been carried out such as IVF, ICSI but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various allopathic, Ayurvedic and other alternatives medicines and physiotherapy with acupuncture are been effective to enhance the pregnancy and these drugs and exercises will even prevent the recurrent abortions. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effective method for treatment of female infertility.
Rohan Kiran Kohok
University of Surrey, U.K.
Xenobiotic is a chemical compound for example a pesticide, drug, and carcinogen that is foreign to living organism’s biological systems. Human poisoning occurs when xenobiotic compound concentration increases beyond the level of human body’s ability to resist (metabolise) it. Natural compounds can also act as a xenobiotic if they are taken up by organisms which are unable to digest and excrete it from the body. Following there are two such reports on human poisoning caused by xenobiotic compounds.
Mahaveer Kabra*1, Sanjay Bhandari1, Ami Sharma1, Reema Jain2
Department of Pharmacology,
1Kota College of Pharmacy, Kota
2Bhupal Noble’s Institute of Pharmaceutical science, Udaipur
A histamine antagonist is an agent which serves to inhibit the release or action of histamine. Allergies are caused by an excessive response of the body to allergens, such as the pollen released by grasses and trees. An allergic reaction indicates an excessive release, of histamine by the body.Histamine is a natural chemical produced by the immune (disease-fighting) system of the body. The main action of histamine is related to allergies. An allergen is a substance that is not normally harmful, such as pollen, but which causes an overreaction by the immune system in some people.drugs show their action by binding with their specific receptor like H1-receptor antagonists are Diphenhydramine, Meclizine etc. H2-receptor antagonists Cimetidine, Famotidine. All antihistamines are reversible, competitive antagonists at histaminic (H1) receptors. They act by inhibiting binding of circulating histamine to its receptor site, but do not prevent histamine release. Administration of an antihistamine results in inhibition of respiratory, vascular, and gastrointestinal smooth muscle constriction, a decrease in histamine-activated secretions from salivary and lacrimal glands, and anti-inflammatory effects. Antihistamines also decrease capillary permeability, which reduces the wheal and flare response to an allergen, as well as diminishes itching. Competitive inhibition of histamine at H2 receptors of the gastric parietal cells resulting in reduced gastric acid secretion, gastric volume and hydrogen ion concentration reduced. Antihistamines are used as treatment for allergies.
Banwari Lal Gupta
L.R.S. Institute of Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases,
Despite decades of research and drug development for cancer treatment, cancer still remains one of the major causes of human death in the world. An important aspect in cancer therapy is the development of a targeted drug delivery system that decreases the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and other cancer therapies. The current conventional method in treating cancer involves inserting catheters to allow for chemotherapy, to reduce the amount of cancer present, and/or then to surgically remove the tumors, followed by more chemotherapy and radiation sessions.
Research on thermal therapy- the heating of pathological tissue using energy source (radiofrequency, microwave, high-intensity focused ultrasound or laser energy and cryosurgery. There are clear reasons for using hyperthermia in cancer treatment. Treatment at temperatures between 40-44°C is cytotoxic for cells in low pO2 and low pH environmental conditions, which are found specifically within the tumor tissue, due to insufficient blood perfusion. Under such conditions radiotherapy is less effective, and systematically applied cytotoxic agents will reach such area in lower concentrations then in well perfused area. Therefore the addition of hyperthermia to chemotherapy or radiotherapy will result in at least an additive effect. Furthermore, the effects of both radiotherapy and many drugs are enhanced at an increased temperature. Hyperthermia can be allied by several methods such as: local hyperthermia, regional hyperthermia, and whole-body hyperthermia.
Countless researches are on their way, in the relation of improvement of heating techniques, development of hyperthermia planning models and thermometry. The clinical studies have confirmed future expectations of hyperthermiawould be valuable. Hyperthermia is a potential combined approach and deserving more attention for its further development. This article will throw the lights on hyperthermia therapy for improvement of cancer treatment.
Patelia Emanual Michael
Department of pharmacology, University of Bedfordshire,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU.
Aspirin continues to be evaluated in vitro and in pre-clinical models to help elucidate mechanisms involved in carcinogenesis and the response of tumours to anti-neoplastic agents. Recent randomised evidence from trials primarily designed to prevent cardiovascular disease show a reduction in cancer incidence with long-term follow-up and epidemiological evidence from colorectal and breast cancer studies evaluating the effects of aspirin use after diagnosis suggests that aspirin may have a role in the adjuvant setting. The clinical management of patients is also continually evolving, with new combinations of agents or strategies being assessed; aspirin should not be overlooked in this process because it is neither new nor expensive.
*Ravi Patel, Dr Shori Thakur
Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science Department,
University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield
AL10 9AB, United Kingdom
Oxidative stress play important role in the progression of many diseases. Superoxide anion is a key reactive oxygen species (ROS) produce from univalent reduction of oxygen shows cytotoxicity. Superoxide binds to Nitric oxide (NO) and produces peroxynitrite which is a deleterious ROS. Nitric oxide is produced with help of Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) which catalyse the conversion of L-arginine to citrulline. NO is small and produced in gaseous form which helps it in the diffuse from inside and outside of cells. NO has got many functions like vasodilation, nonspecific immunity, neurotransmission and also neurogenic vasodilation. NO produce from endothelial regulates vascular tone by various mechanisms like it produces vasodilation, inhibit platelet activation and leukocytes adhesion, and inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation. Thereby NO plays important role in the progression of atherosclerosis so many researches are going on NO. NO also plays important role in the Inflammation and contribute in the organ failure. There are 3 types of NOS from which iNOS is non calcium dependant and can produces NO at very large level compare to other two types of NOS. DEM (Diethyl maleate) is a glutathione depleting agent which binds to glutathione through transferase reaction. It has been seen that DEM reduces the cytotoxicity induce by LPS, protect local skin inflammation, reduces lung injury and also increase survival rate in cerebral ischemia reperfusion. There by it get attraction of scientist for more research. The main aim of the study is to find out the effect of DEM on iNOS expression and cell viability. Results shows that DEM reduces the nitrite production and iNOS expression in LPS treated macrophages in dose dependant manner whereas it does not show any effect in macrophages not treated with LPS. It shows increase in the cell viability in LPS activated macrophages. These results indicate that a glutathione play regulatory role in iNOS expression but the mechanism underlining this is still unknown.
Amitava Sinha Ray
Department of Pharmacy,
Bengal School of Technology
West Bengal University of Technology, West Bengal
It was 1922 Metformin first published in the scientific literature by Emil Werner and James Bell, as a product in the synthesis of ''N'',''N''-dimethylguanidine. After doing an experiment on rabbit, Slotta and Tschesche concluded that Metformin has sugar-lowering action, in 1929.
Metformin was approved in Canada in 1972, but did not receive approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for type 2 diabetes until 1994.
Glucophage was the first branded formulation of Metformin to be marketed in the United States, beginning on March 3, 1995.
Metformin is a biguanide class of drug.Two biguanide antidiabetics, Phenformin and Metformin were introduced. Because of higher risk of lactic acidosis, Phenformin was withdrawn in many countries and has been banned in India since 2003.
Tripti Verma*, Keshav Vashistha, Sachin Vispute
B N College of Pharmacy,
The review examines the recent trials of clopidogrel in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes, as well as current cardiac guidelines from several professional societies. As the publication of the landmark study Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events (CURE), the clinical benefit of early and intermediate-term use of combined antiplatelet agents--clopidogrel plus aspirin--in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients became evident. Pretreatment and intermediate-term therapy with clopidogrel in NSTEMI ACS patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was further supported by the PCI-CURE trial. Recently, the results of two major trials Clopidogrel as Adjunctive Reperfusion Therapy-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 28, Clopidogrel and Metoprolol in Myocardial Infarction Trial established the pivotal role of clopidogrel in the other spectrum of ACS-STEMI. Coupled with the results from previous multicentre trials, these two studies provide a guide for the early and long-term use of clopidogrel in the whole spectrum of ACS. A review summarising the results of the recent clinical trials and a discussion on its implications for the clinical management of ACS is presented.Clopidogrel is well established in the treatment of acute coronary syndromes and is ubiquitous in cardiology practice. Landmark studies have established the importance of clopidogrel in the treatment of non-ST and ST elevation myocardial infarction and in percutaneous coronary intervention by reducing death, reinfarction, and adverse cardiac events.
Mr. Gunjegaonkar shivshankar M., Mr. T.T. shelke
Dept. of Pharmacology, JSPMs Charak College of pharmacy and research,
Wagholi, Pune, Maharashtra
The 21st century has a paradigm shift from allopathic medicinal system to homeopathic and Ayurvedic medicinal system as it is been proved that the adverse effects or unwanted effects associated with the modern synthetic medicines are more than the herbal medicines. Worldwide acceptance of herbal medicine is increasing day by day and its beneficial effects are focused by scientific researches. The herbs play important role in management of diverse group of diseases ranging from acute fever to cardiac complications. The current review is taken with interest to gather the scientific information of plant which shows the hepatoprotective activity. Various scientific research reveals that these medicinal plant did not shows any acute toxicity even in high doses. The preliminary phytochemical studies show the presence of important secondary metabolites like flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins, rutin and rotenoids. Triterpenoid etc.