You are herePharmacology Articles
1M Prasad Naidu, 2Dr Madhu Sudan Reddy, 3T Madhu Chaithanya, 4N Mallikarjun Rao
1(Medical Biochemistry) NMCH, Nellore, AP, India.
2(MD Pharmacolgy) NMCH, Nellore, AP, India.
3(Medical Pharmacology) MIMS, Vijayanagaram, AP, India.
4(MSc Botany). Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP, India.
Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)
An important technique for the separation of proteins is based on the migration of charged proteins in an electric field, a process called electrophoresis. These procedures are not generally used to purify proteins in large amounts, because simpler alternatives are usually available and electrophoretic methods often adversely affect the structure and thus the function of proteins. Electrophoresis is, however, especially useful as an analytical method. Its advantage is that proteins can be visualized as well as separated, permitting a researcher to estimate quickly the number of different proteins in a mixture or the degree of purity of a particular protein preparation. Also, electrophoresis allows determination of crucial properties of a protein such as its isoelectric point and approximate molecular weight. The polyacrylamide gel acts as a molecular sieve, slowing the migration of proteins approximately in proportion to their charge-to-mass ratio. Migration may also be affected by protein shape. In electrophoresis, the force moving the macromolecule is the electrical potential, E. The electrophoretic mobility of the molecule, µ, is the ratio of the velocity of the particle molecule, V, to the electrical potential. Electrophoretic mobility is also equal to the net charge of the molecule, Z, divided by the frictional coefficient, f, which reflects in part a protein’s shape.
Ashutosh Kumar Dubey*, Vishal Jackob, Srishti Srivastava, Anusha Srivastaav
1Institute of Foreign Trade and Management
2Rajiv Academy of Pharmacy
The aim of the study was to determine the developed depression during chemotherapy. Depression is a common symptom in cancer patients, which is difficult to be detected and consequently to be treated. It deteriorates over the the course of cancer treatment, persists long after the end of therapy and influences negatively the quality of life. Early diagnosis of depression consists a matter of great importance for a medical treatment. Patients with depressive symptoms scored significantly higher in behavioral disengagement and self-blame as their coping strategies compared to those who were not depressed. The final rationale for this study was to produce research which could be used to educate oncology nurses to create an awareness of psychological side effects in chemotherapy patients.
*1Akanksha baranwal, 2Akanksha Sharma, 3Anamika singh
1,3Department of pharmacology
2Department of clinical research
Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology
The purpose of this review is to provide a basic understanding of the important relationship between microvascular remodelling, angiogenesis and hypertension, that is, provide an overview of recent experimental and clinical evidence from anti-hypertensive and pro- and anti-angiogenic therapy with respect to hypertension and microvascular structure. Microvascular rarefaction, that is, a loss of terminal arterioles and capillaries, is found in most forms of human and experimental arterial hypertension. This further increases peripheral resistance, and aggravates hypertension and hypertension-induced target organ damage. In some cases with a genetic predisposition, hypertension is preceded by a loss of microvessels. Therefore, new therapies aimed at reversing microvascular rarefaction potentially represent candidate treatments of hypertension. The microvasculature is formed by the continuous balance between de novo angiogenesis and microvascular regression. Imbalanced angiogenesis, in addition to functional shut-off of blood flow, contributes to microvascular rarefaction. Numerous clinical trials assessing anti-angiogenic agents in cancer patients show that this therapy leads to microvascular rarefaction and causes or aggravates hypertension. The development of specific pro-angiogenic treatment to correct hypertension or ischaemic disorders, however, it is still in its infancy. On the other hand, long-term treatment by classic anti-hypertensive therapies that present vasodilator activity can correct for hypertension-associated rarefaction in man.
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Kunal Patel, Mikul Patel
Department of Pharmacology,
University of Bedfordshire,
Luton, LU1 3JU, England.
According to the method (BCA), it is used for the quantitative analysis of proteins. It is used for the determination of unknown sample of protein. The sds-page is used for the identification of proteins though the separation. According to the gel image the sample of protein is ER-α and HER positive. So, the person needs the therapy for ER-α and HER positive breast cancer. The amino-terminal region was consistently detected in the cell nucleus by specific immunohistochemistry leading to the concept of a potential intranuclear association between ER cleavage products and/or other regulatory proteins. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) belongs to the family of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs). The availability of specific antibody-based test systems is essential to testing of HER2 protein expression.
Varsha Tanaji Jadhav1*, 2Joyeeta Sanyal
Cilicant Chem.Pvt.Ltd., Microbiologist, Pune
Rasayani Biologic.Ltd., Microbiologist
Nephrotoxcity is the injury or damage to the one or both of the kidneys due to a toxic material. Usually toxic material taken orally results in nephrotoxicity. The kidneys are the most essential organs of the urinary system. They are responsible for the quality, quantity and filtration of the fluids in the body. Every day, the kidneys filter about 180 litres of blood, and about four times as much as the amount that passes through any other organ. Hence the kidneys are more often exposed to toxic substances in the blood and are very vulnerable to damage from those materials. They also help to control blood pressure and other direct cell activities and homeostasis as they produce vitamins and hormones for example hormones erythropoietin, rennin. Other important functions performed by them are regulation of calcium, chloride, sodium ions, and pH control (Taferner B, et al., 2009). The kidneys functional units are the nephrons. Diseases of the kidney are diverse, but they commonly display some characteristic clinical features. These include chronic diseases, acute injuries, urinary tract obstruction and infection, renal damage or failure. Epidemiological results suggest that environmental toxins like heavy metals plays significant role in the development of these diseases. Particularly large amounts of these are disposed of as industrial by-products which are not biodegradable. The incidences of chronic and acute renal failures have risen in past few years. In the America only, kidney diseases are the ninth leading cause of death (Ernesto Sabath et al., 2012). Hence identifying the risk factors associate with these diseases is important to prevent it.This report aims to discuss the physiopathological mechanisms and the consequences of kidney injury due to arsenic and Non Steroidal Anti Inflammatory Drugs (NSAID).
Anamika singh*1, Neha Singh2
1M.Pharm (Department of Pharmacology)
2M.Pharm (Department of Pharmaceutics)
Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology.
Tuberculosis is a leading killer of young adults worldwide and the global scourge of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is reaching epidemic proportions. It is endemic in most developing countries and resurgent in developed and developing countries with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus infection. This article reviews the current situation in terms of drug delivery approaches for tuberculosis chemotherapy. A number of novel implant-, microparticulate-, and various other carrier-based drug delivery systems incorporating the principal anti-tuberculosis agents have been fabricated that either target the site of tuberculosis infection or reduce the dosing frequency with the aim of improving patient outcomes. These developments in drug delivery represent attractive options with significant merit, however, there is a requisite to manufacture an oral system, which directly addresses issues of unacceptable rifampicin bioavailability in fixed-dose combinations. This is fostered by the need to deliver medications to patients more efficiently and with fewer side effects, especially in developing countries. The fabrication of a polymeric once-daily oral multiparticulate fixed-dose combination of the principal anti-tuberculosis drugs, which attains segregated delivery of rifampicin and isoniazid for improved rifampicin bioavailability, could be a step in the right direction in addressing issues of treatment failure due to patient non-compliance.
Punjab Technical University,
The use of antiangiogenic drug is an advantage as a novel treatment for a number of conditions, ranging from cancer to psoriasis. Antiangiogenic therapy becomes a new course of treatment for cancer. This has led to the reassessment of antiangiogenic therapy for cancer, and new strategies have been proposed to increase the efficacy of these agents in this setting. Angiogenesis has also been implicated in other conditions that are notoriously difficult to treat, such as arteriosclerosis, arthritis, psoriasis and diabetic retinopathy.Increased understanding of the angiogenic process, the diversity of its inducers and mediators, appropriate drug schedules and the use of these agents with other modalities may lead to radically new treatment regimens for many of these conditions. The role of angiogenesis in different pathological settings and emerging antiangiogenic agents currently in preclinical and clinical studies are discussed in this review. However, while potential benefits are profound, limitations of antiangiogenic therapy have also been identified, suggesting that there is also a need for caution in applying these compounds to the clinical setting.
National Institute Of Pharmaceutical Education And Research
Dementia is defined as a loss of intellectual abilities that is severe enough to interfere with social or occupational functioning.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is most common cause of dementia. 50-70% of all cases of dementia are due to Alzheimer’s disease.
AD is characterized by early memory deficits, followed by gradual erosion of other cognitive functions. The most severe neuropathological changes occur in the hippocampus, followed by association cortices or subcortical structures, including the amygdale and nucleus basalis of Meyhert.
M.Pharm., Ph.D. Scholar
Psychiatric Centre, S.M.S. Medical College, Jaipur, Rajasthan
Studies indicate that slightly over half of all cases of infertility are a result of female conditions, while the rest are caused by either sperm disorders or unidentified factors. Infertility in female is very often observed. It is inability to conceive and produce the child. ART (Assisted Reproductive Technology) has been carried out such as IVF, ICSI but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various allopathic, Ayurvedic and other alternatives medicines and physiotherapy with acupuncture are been effective to enhance the pregnancy and these drugs and exercises will even prevent the recurrent abortions. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effective method for treatment of female infertility.
Rohan Kiran Kohok
University of Surrey, U.K.
Xenobiotic is a chemical compound for example a pesticide, drug, and carcinogen that is foreign to living organism’s biological systems. Human poisoning occurs when xenobiotic compound concentration increases beyond the level of human body’s ability to resist (metabolise) it. Natural compounds can also act as a xenobiotic if they are taken up by organisms which are unable to digest and excrete it from the body. Following there are two such reports on human poisoning caused by xenobiotic compounds.