You are herePharmacology Articles
Dhakar Mukesh*, M. Jeevan, Kumar Neeraj, Dashora Ashok
Geetanjali Institute of Pharmacy,
(Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry.)
AirPort Road, Dabok, Udaipur (Rajasthan)- 313022
Antioxidants are essential and important for plants and animals’ sustenance. They are substances that protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Cancer develops when cells multiply in the presence of oxidation and other damage. Certain "antioxidant" substances, such as vitamin C, are able to exploit the differences between cancer and healthy cells; they kill cancer cells while helping healthy cells. Antioxidants are substances that may protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Free radical damage may lead to cancer. Antioxidants interact with and stabilize free radicals and may prevent some of the damage free radicals Examples of antioxidants include Quercetin Curcumin Beta-carotene, Lycopene, Vitamins C, E, and A, and other substances. Epidemiological studies have consistently shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is strongly associated with reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.
Sapient Laboratories PVT. LTD
Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder which results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both, further characterized by hyperglycemia, and causes long term damage and failure of various organs. It is estimated that 366 million people had Diabetes Mellitus in 2011; by 2030 this would have risen to 552 million. Many oral hypoglycaemic agents are marketed nowadays. DPP-IV Inhibitors or Gliptin, a new oral hypoglycaemic class, they work by promoting insulin secretion by stimulating Incretins; GLP-1 (Glucagon Like Peptide-1) and GIP (Glucose -dependent insulinotropic peptide) and inhibiting DPP-IV enzyme which deactivates incretins. DPP-IV Inhibitors produce no weight gain and may have long term beneficial effects on beta-cell function and mass and so far they have fewer gastrointestinal effects. Now this drug class is available, we will discuss the disease pathology and mechanism of action of DPP-IV inhibitors, efficacy of this new class of oral hypoglycaemic agents.
Renuka G. Hade
Quality Assurance Department, Wockhardt Limited,
Aurangabad (431210), M.S.
Aripiprazole is a new antipsychotic agent. There is presently no evidence to suggest that it is more effective than existing antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia but it offers prescribers another treatment option for this illness. Its efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia is not established; for these patients clozapine is generally considered the drug of choice.
Aripiprazole is a widely used antipsychotic drug supplied in various dosage forms of Aripiprazole Tablets, Aripiprazole Orodispersible tablets and Aripiprazole Oral solution. These formulations are approved by United States Food and Drug Administartion (USFDA) and European Medicinal Agency (EMA) under the brand name Abilify®, manufactured by Otsuka Pharmaceuticals Limited.1
Based upon the current market demands of the Aripiprazole worldwide, a complete review of the non-clinical (Animal) safety (toxicological studies), is of considerable importance.
*Jayalakshmi Ramanna, Dr. Ravishankar Gunturu
BDS, M.sc., CCRP
To find the maternal and foetal outcomes in Pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH).
Primary objective: To study the maternal and foetal outcomes in PIH.
* To compare these outcomes in primiparous and multiparous PIH women.
* To find prevalence of different types of PIH and to study their outcomes
Medical records of one year were reviewed. A total of 791 cases were present as per the medical records. Out of these, 245 cases had PIH.
Statistical methods: Chi square test was used to compare variables. Descriptive analyses were used to study maternal foetal outcomes.
Result: The commonly seen maternal outcomes were higher rates of caesarian section, maternal deaths and post partum hemorrhage in PIH women. The foetal outcomes were live births, still births, deaths, low birth weight and low APGAR scores. There was a strong association between maternal outcomes and parity. The rate of caesarian was higher in primiparous women. The association between foetal outcomes and parity was not statistically significant. Preeclampsia was the most common type of PIH and these women were more prone to hypertensive complications.
NONINVASIVE AMBULATORY BLOOD PRESSURE MONITORING AFTER ADMINISTRATION OF ACE-INHIBITOR/CCB AND THEIR COMBINATION
S.M Abdullah1*, M Tandon1, N Saha2, K K Pillai3
1M.Pharm, Department of Clinical Pharmacology Unit, Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd, India.
2Department of Medical Affairs & Clinical Research, Ranbaxy Laboratories Ltd, India.
3Ph.D, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard, India.
The principle for the treatment of hypertension as per JNC-7 guideline is ‘treat to blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mmHg’ but in common clinical practice it is often difficult to lower the BP below 140/90 mmHg with monotherapy. While majority of patients requires two or more drugs to achieve target BP, this finally calls for comparative clinical evaluation of antihypertensive drugs as co-administration verses monotherapy.
METHOD: This study was randomized, single-blind, double-dummy, three-treatment, crossover study includednewly diagnosed treatment naive essential hypertensive patients; aged 20-45 years with sitting office BP ranged 140-159/94-104 mmHg. After 4 weeks of regular measurements of BP, all subjects received each treatment in randomized order for 1 week: imidapril 5 mg and placebo (I/P), lercanidipine 10 mg and placebo (L/P) or imidapril 5 mg and lercanidipine 10 mg (I/L). Prior to dosing and at the end of each treatment period, 24-hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was performed. Recorded data was analyzed for the evaluation of pharmacodynamic potential of each treatment.Beside this time-effect profile was also evaluated in terms of trough-to-peak (T/P) ratio.
SRF, Departmnet of Pharmacology Division,
NRI-Panchakarma, Cheruthuruthy Post, Thrissur, Kerala
Multiple sclerosis(MS), also known as disseminated sclerosis or encephalomyelitis disseminata, is an inflammatory disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. This damage disrupts the ability of parts of the nervous system to communicate, resulting in a wide range of signs and symptoms, including physical, mental and sometimes psychiatric problems. Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system characterized by clinical attacks (relapses) correlated with lesions separated in time and space. MS is a severe inflammatory disease in which the myelin (insulator for electrical signalling in NS) breakdown and causes severe deficits in brain and nerve function. Much like rubber insulation on an electrical cord, myelin surrounds long projections from the body of neurron and allows signal to travel down the cell with sreed and efficacy Therefore patients suffers deficits in balance, coordination, moments as well sensory disturbances from the loss of this neuronal insulation. MS is one of the most common neurological causes of long term disability, the myelin producing oligodendrocytes of the CNS are the target of recurrent cell mediated autoimmune attack. MS is a episodic & progressive disease occurs in early to 35 years & then declining. MS occurs with male:female ratio of 2:1 The incidence is higher in temperature climate and in northen europeans.
Department of Pharmacy
Bengal School Of Technology, Hooghly, India
Plant materials have been used as medicine for a wide varity of human ailments due to increase cost of treatments, side effects of several allopathic drug and development of resistance to currently used drug for infectious disease. Cornsilk (Zea mays) is an herbal remedy made from stigmas, the yellowish thread-like strands found inside the husks of corn. Cornsilk is used to treat urinary tract infections and kidney stones in adults. Cornsilk also served as a remedy for heart trouble, jaundice, malaria, and obesity.
Ms. Kanika Soni, Ms. Pooja Dhiman*, Mr. Sandeep Singh
Chitkara University, Kalujhanda, Atal Shiksha Kunj,
Barotiwala, Solan [H.P], INDIA
Alzheimer's disease, the commonest cause of dementia in older people which causes immense distress to patients, their caregivers and families. The aetiology of Alzheimer's disease remains unknown, and no treatments reverse or stabilise the disease. Current management focuses on establishing an accurate clinical diagnosis, ensuring appropriate services are provided, supporting caregivers and treating associated non-cognitive problems because Alzheimer’s disease is the main cause of dementia. Dementia affects memory, thinking, language, judgment, behaviour, and a person’s ability to perform normal daily activities. Dementia is a word that describes symptoms of the gradual deterioration of mental functioning that cannot be explained by normal aging. Dementia occurs primarily in people who are over the age of 65, or in those with an injury or disease that affects brain function. While dementia is most commonly seen in the elderly, it is not a normal consequence of the aging process.
Narinderpal Kaur*, Annapurna Negi, Jyotsna
School of Pharmacy and emerging Sciences
Baddi University of Emerging sciences and Technology
Baddi, Himachal Pradesh
In recent years the synthesis of benzimidazole and its derivatives has attracted the attention of many organic chemists because of the compounds' interesting biological activity and the crucial importance of the benzimidazole unit in the function of these biologically important molecules. Benzimidazole and its derivatives play an important role in medical field with large number of Pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic and anticancer activity. This review is summarized to know about the chemistry of different derivatives of benzimidazoles along with their biological actions such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, analgesic, antiprotozoal, antiulcer, antiviral, anticancer, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antiinflammatory, antifungal and anticonvulsant activity.
ANTI-HISTAMINIC AND ANTI-SPASMODIC POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA (Linn.) PERS. AERIAL PARTS
Paresh Lallubhai Gajera*, Dalal Mittal V.
Department of Pharmacology, ROFEL,
Shri G. M. Bilakhia College of Pharmacy,
The aim of present study was to evaluate anti-histaminic and anti-spasmodic potential of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) against experimental animal models. In this study ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) was prepared and anti-histaminic and anti-spasmodic activity evaluated on isolated goat tracheal chain and rat ileum preparation by dose response curve of histamine and acetylcholine in absence and in presence of ethanolic extract was plotted respectively. The results of present study revealed that EETP inhibits moderately significant (*p <0.05) percentage contraction at 50µg/ml while EETP inhibits significantly (**p<0.01) percentage contraction at 100µg/ml induced by histamine (10µg/ml) and acetylcholine (1µg/ml) in isolated goat tracheal chain and rat ileum preparation respectively. To, concluded, EETP possesses dose dependent antihistaminic and antispasmodic potential. However, future studies are required to focus on the molecular mechanism of responsible phytochemical constituents and establish exact mode of action involved in it.