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THE ROLE OF SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEM IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION

About Authors:
Mr. Salahuddin Mohammed
Associate Professor of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences,
Department of Pharmacy, Mizan Tepi University,
Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia.
salahuddin_pharma48@yahoo.com

Introduction
Secondary messenger system is a part of cellular signaling process in which proteins of different kind are activated through generation of diffusible signaling molecules. The activated proteins then participate in a cellular response.
Second messengers are produced catalytically in response to the extracellular signals (primary messengers) and amplify their response, thus second messengers are a part of signal transduction cascades.


ESTIMATION OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS IN TYPE II DIABETIC PATIENTS

About Authors:
Samudrala Lahari

St.Peters Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Kakatiya University
plushylahari@gmail.com

Abstract
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by hyperglycemia and abnormalities in carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism. It results from defects in insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity or both. Oxidative stress may play an important role in the itiology of diabetes and Diabetic complications. So, during Diabetes hyperglycemia causes increased production of free radical especially reactive oxygen species(ROS) for all tissues from glucose auto-oxidation and protein glycosylation.


BE AWARE OF ROHYPNOL: A SHORT COMMUNICATION

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Tahseen Sameena*1, S.P.Sethy, Prathima Patil, G.Naresh, Md.Owais Ashraf, Radhika
Department Of Pharmaceutics.
Sushrut Institute of Pharmacy
Taddanpally (V), Pulkal (M), Medak-502293
tahseensameena1992@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Scientific research on drug abuse indicates this as being a rising trend among the youth around the globe. An investigation into the experimentation with drugs among the youth showed a rate of increase of 8%. The study also revealed an 85.9% increase in alcohol use and 35.2% increase in tobacco use.  Furthermore, the study also suggests an increase in the rate of ecstasy and alcohol usage coupled with drugs and opiates such as heroin.  This article will thus endeavour to form a network of Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) whose purpose will be the development and implementation of a joint action plan to prevent substance abuse in around the world, in order to promote active engagement of civil society in this field.


OVERVIEW: LYME DISEASE

About Author:
P. Bharath
Department of pharmacology
Teegala Ram Reddy College of Pharmacy
Hyderabad (AP), 500097.
pbharath760@gmail.com

Abstract:
Lyme disease
 (Lyme borreliosis) is an infectious disease caused by at least three species of bacteria belonging to the genus Borrelia. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu strictois the main cause of Lyme disease in North America, whereas Borrelia afzelii and Borrelia garinii cause most European cases. The disease is named after the towns of Lyme and Old Lyme, Connecticut, US, where a number of cases were identified in 1975. Although it was known that Lyme disease was a tick-borne disease as far back as 1978, the cause of the disease remained a mystery until 1981, when B. burgdorferi was identified by Willy Burgdorfer.

Lyme disease is the most common tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. Borrelia is transmitted to humans by the bite of infected ticks belonging to a few species of the genus Ixodes ("hard ticks"). Early symptoms may include fever, headache, fatigue, depression, and a characteristic circular skin rash called erythema migrans (EM). Left untreated, later symptoms may involve the joints, heart, and central nervous system. In most cases, the infection and its symptoms are eliminated by antibiotics, especially if the illness is treated early. Delayed or inadequate treatment can lead to more serious symptoms, which can be disabling and difficult to treat.


ANDROPAUSE-MALE MENOPAUSE

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Akshay Rajgaria
Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Rourkela, Orissa
akshaykrish2007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Andropause is an age-related decline of testosterone in men that is gaining recognition as the world population becomes more aged. The diagnosis is based on clinical signs and symptoms supported with laboratory confirmation of low serum testosterone levels. The benefit of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for andropause has been well documented, but it requires careful monitoring.


PRENATAL NUTRITION; NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS BEFORE, DURING & AFTER PREGNANCY

About Authors:
*Govind shukla1, Ms.Shivani prashar2, Ms. M.sarika3, Dr. Sunil Yadav4
1M.Pharm(Ph.D), Product Manager
2Sr. Product Executive, Shrey Nutraceuticals Pvt. Ltd. NewDelhi
3Product Analyst, Lactonova India Hyderabad
4Medical officer-in–charge, BPHC Bamore JHANSI  U.P.
*govindbbd@gmail.com

Abstract
Nutrition  before and during pregnancy has a profound effect on the development of infants. This is a rather critical time for healthy fetal development as infants rely heavily on maternal stores and nutrient for optimal growth and health outcome later in life. Prenatal nutrition addresses nutrient recommendations before and during pregnancy. Birth weight of the newborn at delivery reflects the sufficiency and the quality of maternal nutrient for the fetus during pregnancy. Prenatal nutrition has a strong influence on birth weight and further development of the infant.The present paper reviews the role of  prenatal nutrition in pregnancy.


DARIERS DISEASE-A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Akshay Rajgaria
Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
akshaykrish2007@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:
Darier’s disease, also known as keratosis follicularis or dyskeratosis follicularis, is a rare disorder of keratinization. It is an autosomal dominant genodermatosis with high penetrance and variable expressivity. Its manifestation appears as hyperkeratotic papules, primarily affecting seborrhea areas on the head, neck, and thorax and less frequently on the oral mucosa. When oral manifestations are present, the palatal and alveolar mucosas are primarily affected.


PROGERIA AND WERNER SYNDROME-DISEASE OF AGEING

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Akshay Rajgaria
Kanak Manjari Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
akshaykrish2007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Progeria is a rare and peculiar combination of dwarfism and premature ageing. The incidence is one in several million births. It occurs sporadically and is probably an autosomal recessive syndrome. Though the clinical presentation is usually typical, conventional radiological and biochemical investigations help in confirming the diagnosis.


EVALUATON OF ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF XANTHIUM INDICUM BY USING EXPERIMENTAL RATS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
P.Monica1*, DR.Nikunjal Mishra2
1Yalamarthy college of pharmacy, Visakhapatnam, A.P
2HOD. Department of pharmacology Yalamarthy College of pharmacy, Visakhapatnam, A.P
*monica_reddy2308@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
The cause of ulceration in patients is mainly due to hyper secretion of gastric juice and also due to hyper secretion of pepsin. In traditional system of medicine a number of herbal preparations have been used in the treatment of peptic ulcers. Xanthium Indicum have been extracted by methanol and evaluated for the antiulcer activity of NSAID’s induced and pylorus ligation of rats. The extract reduces ulcerative lesions, gastric volume, free and total acidity as well as gastric ulcers in the NSAID’s induced and pylorus ligated rats and the effects were compared with standard drug. The extract of xanthium indicum at a dose of 250mg/kg and 500 mg/kg produced significant inhibition of gastric lesion induced by NSAID’s induced and pylorus ligation in rats.


SYLIMARIN: A REVIEW ON THE PHARMACOLOGY AND BIOAVAILABILITY ENHANCEMENT WHACKS

About Authors:
Swati Yadav1*, Dr. S.K Prajapati1
1institute of pharmacy,
Bundelkhand University, Jhansi
*swati3231@gmail.com

Abstract:
Sylimarin is obtained from ‘milk thistle’ (Silybum marianum) plant it  is a hepatoprotective drug containing mixture of flavanolignan. The mechanism of action of sylimarin involves different biochemical event as well as it does not only show hepatoprotective action but also antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation, anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory. Major active constituent of sylimarin, silibinin is also known as silybin. Silibin is a mixture of diastereomers, it has hepatoprotective property. Sylimarin lacks good solubility property thus has bioavailability problem, different whacks have been taken to improve solubility of drug. Review delineated with special cogitation towards Chemistry, Pharmacology, safety, therapeutic efficacy and different combination of sylimarin.


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