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PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF BENZIMIDAZOLE- A REVIEW

About Authors:
Narinderpal Kaur*, Annapurna Negi, Jyotsna
Assistant Professor
School of Pharmacy and emerging Sciences
Baddi University of Emerging sciences and Technology
Baddi, Himachal Pradesh
*narinder.sonia@gmail.com

Abstract
In recent years the synthesis of benzimidazole and its derivatives has attracted the attention of many organic chemists because of the compounds' interesting biological activity and the crucial importance of the benzimidazole unit in the function of these biologically important molecules. Benzimidazole and its derivatives play an important role in medical field with large number of Pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antiviral, antidiabetic and anticancer activity. This review is summarized to know about the chemistry of different derivatives of benzimidazoles along with their biological actions such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, analgesic, antiprotozoal, antiulcer, antiviral, anticancer, antihypertensive, antineoplastic, antiinflammatory, antifungal and anticonvulsant activity.


ANTI-HISTAMINIC AND ANTI-SPASMODIC POTENTIAL OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF TEPHROSIA PURPUREA (Linn.) PERS. AERIAL PARTS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Paresh Lallubhai Gajera*, Dalal Mittal V.
Department of Pharmacology, ROFEL,
Shri G. M. Bilakhia College of Pharmacy,
Vapi (Gujarat)
*paresh.gajera@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The aim of present study was to evaluate anti-histaminic and anti-spasmodic potential of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea (Linn.) against experimental animal models. In this study ethanolic extract of aerial parts of Tephrosia purpurea (L.) was prepared and anti-histaminic and anti-spasmodic activity evaluated on isolated goat tracheal chain and rat ileum preparation by dose response curve of histamine and acetylcholine in absence and in presence of ethanolic extract was plotted respectively. The results of present study revealed that EETP inhibits moderately significant (*p <0.05) percentage contraction at 50µg/ml while EETP inhibits significantly (**p<0.01) percentage contraction at 100µg/ml induced by histamine (10µg/ml) and acetylcholine (1µg/ml) in isolated goat tracheal chain and rat ileum preparation respectively. To, concluded, EETP possesses dose dependent antihistaminic and antispasmodic potential. However, future studies are required to focus on the molecular mechanism of responsible phytochemical constituents and establish exact mode of action involved in it.


AN OVERVIEW ON DYSLEXIA: DEVELOPMENTAL READING DISORDER

About Author:
Snigdha Mishra
Department of Pharmacology, Sunder Deep Pharmacy College,
NH-24 Dasna, Sunder Deep Nagar Ghaziabad,
U.P., India-201001
snigdha2112@gmail.com

Abstract
Dyslexia is a neurological condition manifesting in children, who typically are average in intelligence, struggling academically. This tends to be confounding for parents who, based on their child's aptitude and general abilities in regard to problem solving, and should be able to read without too much difficulty but, nonetheless, they tend to struggle. Unfortunately, sometimes these children are labeled as "lazy" when, in fact, they tend to be working more diligently than other children to "keep up." Here we are having a brief about cause, symptoms, classification, positive aspects and management strategy to cope up with the children bearing this disorder.


SEMICARBAZONE: A VERSATILE THERAPEUTIC ANALOGUE AND IT`S PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Tripti Verma*, Chandra Shekhar Sharma, HemendraPratap Singh
Bhupal Nobles’ College of Pharmacy,
Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
triptiphsoni22@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Semicarbazones are compounds which are synthesized by a condensation reaction between a ketone or aldehyde and semicarbazide. Semicarbazone have biological activity against many of the most common species of bacteria. The biological properties of semicarbazonesare often related to metal ion coordination. The literature survey revealed that semicarbazones had been emerged as a compound with broad range of activities including anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anticonvulsant, anticancer, antimicrobial activity and anti-inflammatory activity. Semicarbazone also used as ligand as the cytotoxic agent, spectrophotometric agents as well for the analysis of metal ions and in qualitative organic analysis of carbonyl compounds. In the present study we have focused on the Pharmacological evaluation of semicarbazone analogues. As per activity there are different Pharmacological evaluation methods of synthesized compound.


NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES- A REVIEW

About Authors:
Charu Pundir1, Prof.Veermaram2, Maroof Ali3, Abhishek Joshi4
1B.Pharm, S.B.S.P.G.I, Dehradun, Presently studying M.Pharm. Pharmacology & toxicology at KLE University’s college of pharmacy, Belgaum, Karnataka
2,H.O.D, Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, S.B.S.P.G.I, Dehradun
3B.Pharm, S.B.S.P.G.I, Dehradun
4M.Pharm, Pharmacology, Kumaon University
pundir.charu1313@gmail.com

Absract:
Neuro degenerative disease is the umbrella term for the gradual loss of brain parts, including death of neurons. This may lead to Parkinson- a gait disorder, Alzheimer, which is a common form of dementia and occurs with progressive increase in age. Genetic mutations, Protein misfolding, Oxidative stress, Excitotoxicity, Infectious Organism are the basic cause behind neuro degeneration. This can be estimated through Verticulography, CAT SCAN, MRI, Pneumoencephalography and Cerebral angiography. AD is the accumulation of β- amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles related to hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins. Treatment therapy includes medications, surgery, ayurveda, physiotherapy, yoga and stem cell therapy.


VISUAL INSPECTION WITH ACETIC ACID FOR CERVICAL CANCER SCREENING- AN EFFECTIVE STRATEGY IN LOW-RESOURCE SETTINGS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Dr. Balram Soni*
M.Pharm., Ph.D.
Psychiatric Centre, S.M.S. Medical College Jaipur, Rajasthan
brpharma@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT:
A simple screening technique using an inexpensive agent dramatically reduced deaths related to cervical cancer in a population of Indian women. Visual inspection with acetic acid or vinegar (VIA), conducted by non medical personnel trained to deliver basic healthcare, cut the death rate by 31%. This strategy is effective and can be implemented on a broad scale in low-income countries. "There was almost no over diagnosis, it doesn't require a laboratory, and it can be widely implemented in the lowest-resource settings, such as India," If implemented nationally in India, it could prevent 22,000 cervical cancer deaths. If taken globally to the lowest-resource countries, it could prevent around 72,000 deaths in the developing world.


DRUG-RECEPTOR INTERACTION AND DATA ANALYSIS OF DOSE RESPONSE CURVES

About Authors:
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Rakesh Thakur, Jayesh Patel
Department of Pharmaceutical analysis and chemistry (Gujarat technical university)
Department of Pharmacology (University of Bedfordshire)
*ricky.emanual@gmail.com

Abstract:
Drug receptor interaction can generally be defined as specific, dose-related and saturable. These characteristics of a drug at a receptor are described by KD and ED50 and can be obtained from ligand binding and dose–response curves. The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time.


BARBITURATES – AN ABUSE

About Author:
Pooja Dhiman
Lecturer
Chitkara University, Solan [H.P]
Pooja.dhiman@chitkarauniversity.edu.in

The WHO defines drug abuse as “persistent or sporadic excessive drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice.” Barbiturates are the drugs which act on the central nervous system and produce depression.


H2S : REVOLUTIONARY SCIENTIFIC MIRACLE AS A GASOTRANSMITTER AT MAXIMUM POTENTIAL IF USED WISELY

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Krishna J. Kathawala1*, Gaurav L. Ninama1, Ankitkumar Y. Parikh1, Krupali V. Upadhyay2
1A. R. College of Pharmacy & G. H. Patel Institute of Pharmacy B/H. B & B Polytechnic College, Vallabh Vidyanagar - 388 120, Gujarat, India.
2Shree Satsangi Saketdham “Ram Ashram” group of Institution, At. & Post. Vadasma, Tal. & Dist. Mehsana, Gujarat – 382708, India.
*krishna.kathawala@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Nitric oxide (NO) and Carbon monoxide (CO) are the reputed neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of vascular tone. H2S, which synthesized from L-cysteine, can play more vital role as Gasotransmitters compare to NO and CO. H2S have a role as a stimulator of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP-channels) in the vascular smooth muscle cells, neurons, cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β-cells. H2S also minimize the toxic effect by reacting with reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species and attenuating their physiological functions. H2S have a unique feature of not to stimulate soluble guanylate-cyclase like other Gasotransmitters. H2S plays a critical role in the regulation of vascular tone, neurotransmission, insulin secretion, and myocardial contractility. Recent studies showed that, in various animal models of arterial and pulmonary hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, gastric mucosal injury and liver cirrhosis had H2S deficiency which defines the significance of H2S. Exogenous H2S alleviates myocardial dysfunction associated with the ischemia/reperfusion injury with reducing the damage of gastric mucosa generated by anti-inflammatory drugs. H2S had also some drawbacks like every coin has two sides. Excessive production of H2S may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, septic shock, cerebral stroke and mental retardation in patients with Down syndrome, and reduction of its production may be of potential therapeutic value in these states. Preclinical evidence is provided to show that H2S releasing derivatives of several NSAIDs, including Diclofenac and Indomethacin indeed represent excellent gastrointestinal safety and are more potent than the parent drugs as anti inflammatory agents. Derivatives of anti-inflammatory drugs other than NSAIDs (e.g. mesalamine) have also been shown to be significantly improved over the parent drug in many respects. So, H2S can be Revolutionary scientific miracle as a gasotransmitters  at maximum potential if the drawbacks are minimize by cutting edge solution.


ALL ABOUT ANTIDIABETIC PLANT: COCCINIA INDICA

About Authors:
Vivek P. Chavda
Department of Pharmaceutics, B.K. Mody Government Pharmacy College,
Rajkot – 360003, Gujarat (India)
vivek7chavda@gmail.com

Introduction
Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. Ancient Chinese and Egyptian papyrus writings describe medicinal uses for plants as early as 3,000 BC. Indigenous cultures (such as African and Native American) used herbs in their healing rituals, while others developed traditional medical systems (such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine) in which herbal therapies were used. Researchers found that people in different parts of the world tended to use the same or similar plants for the same purposes. In the early 19th century, when chemical analysis first became available, scientists began to extract and modify the active ingredients from plants. Later, chemists began making their own version of plant compounds and, over time, the use of herbal medicines declined in favor of drugs. Almost one fourth of pharmaceutical drugs are derived from botanicals. Recently, the World Health Organization estimated that 80% of people worldwide rely on herbal medicines for some part of their primary health care. In Germany, about 600 - 700 plant based medicines are available and are prescribed by some 70% of German physicians. In the past 20 years in the United States, public dissatisfaction with the cost of prescription medications, combined with an interest in returning to natural or organic remedies, has led to an increase in herbal medicine use.[1] There are many herbal products proved to be having good antidiabetic potential. Coccinia indica (Bimba, kanduri, Cucurbitaceae) is famous for its hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties in Ayurvedic system of medicine. (See Fig. 1) Coccinia indica, the ivy gourd, also known as baby watermelon, little gourd, gentleman's toes, tindora or gherkin(inaccurately) is a tropical vine. It is also known as Cephalandra indica.[2] It is indigenous to Bengal and other parts of India. C. indicagrows abundantly all over India, Tropical Africa, Australia, Fiji and throughout the oriental countries. The plant has also been used extensively in Ayurvedic and Unani practice in the Indian subcontinent.[3] Seeds or fragments of the vine can be relocated and lead to viable offspring. This can occur when humans transport organic debris or equipment containing C. grandis. Once the ivy gourd is established, it is presumably spread by birds, rats, and other mammals. In Hawaii, it has been suggested that the fruit may be dispersed by pigs.[4]Long-distance dispersal is most commonly carried out by humans due to its culinary uses or by mistake. In certain parts of the U.S., the ivy gourd is known as Rashmato (singular) or Rashmati (plural). Some people have begun using the plural term Rashmatoes, since it is sounds more like potatoes or tomatoes. In parts of the Caribbean it is known as lizard food.


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