You are herePharmacology Articles

Pharmacology Articles


About Authors:
Charu Pundir1, Prof.Veermaram2, Maroof Ali3, Abhishek Joshi4
1B.Pharm, S.B.S.P.G.I, Dehradun, Presently studying M.Pharm. Pharmacology & toxicology at KLE University’s college of pharmacy, Belgaum, Karnataka
2,H.O.D, Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, S.B.S.P.G.I, Dehradun
3B.Pharm, S.B.S.P.G.I, Dehradun
4M.Pharm, Pharmacology, Kumaon University

Neuro degenerative disease is the umbrella term for the gradual loss of brain parts, including death of neurons. This may lead to Parkinson- a gait disorder, Alzheimer, which is a common form of dementia and occurs with progressive increase in age. Genetic mutations, Protein misfolding, Oxidative stress, Excitotoxicity, Infectious Organism are the basic cause behind neuro degeneration. This can be estimated through Verticulography, CAT SCAN, MRI, Pneumoencephalography and Cerebral angiography. AD is the accumulation of β- amyloid plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles related to hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins. Treatment therapy includes medications, surgery, ayurveda, physiotherapy, yoga and stem cell therapy.


Dr. Balram Soni*
M.Pharm., Ph.D.
Psychiatric Centre, S.M.S. Medical College Jaipur, Rajasthan

A simple screening technique using an inexpensive agent dramatically reduced deaths related to cervical cancer in a population of Indian women. Visual inspection with acetic acid or vinegar (VIA), conducted by non medical personnel trained to deliver basic healthcare, cut the death rate by 31%. This strategy is effective and can be implemented on a broad scale in low-income countries. "There was almost no over diagnosis, it doesn't require a laboratory, and it can be widely implemented in the lowest-resource settings, such as India," If implemented nationally in India, it could prevent 22,000 cervical cancer deaths. If taken globally to the lowest-resource countries, it could prevent around 72,000 deaths in the developing world.


About Authors:
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Rakesh Thakur, Jayesh Patel
Department of Pharmaceutical analysis and chemistry (Gujarat technical university)
Department of Pharmacology (University of Bedfordshire)

Drug receptor interaction can generally be defined as specific, dose-related and saturable. These characteristics of a drug at a receptor are described by KD and ED50 and can be obtained from ligand binding and dose–response curves. The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship, describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time.


About Author:
Pooja Dhiman
Chitkara University, Solan [H.P]

The WHO defines drug abuse as “persistent or sporadic excessive drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice.” Barbiturates are the drugs which act on the central nervous system and produce depression.


Krishna J. Kathawala1*, Gaurav L. Ninama1, Ankitkumar Y. Parikh1, Krupali V. Upadhyay2
1A. R. College of Pharmacy & G. H. Patel Institute of Pharmacy B/H. B & B Polytechnic College, Vallabh Vidyanagar - 388 120, Gujarat, India.
2Shree Satsangi Saketdham “Ram Ashram” group of Institution, At. & Post. Vadasma, Tal. & Dist. Mehsana, Gujarat – 382708, India.

Nitric oxide (NO) and Carbon monoxide (CO) are the reputed neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of vascular tone. H2S, which synthesized from L-cysteine, can play more vital role as Gasotransmitters compare to NO and CO. H2S have a role as a stimulator of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP-channels) in the vascular smooth muscle cells, neurons, cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β-cells. H2S also minimize the toxic effect by reacting with reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species and attenuating their physiological functions. H2S have a unique feature of not to stimulate soluble guanylate-cyclase like other Gasotransmitters. H2S plays a critical role in the regulation of vascular tone, neurotransmission, insulin secretion, and myocardial contractility. Recent studies showed that, in various animal models of arterial and pulmonary hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, gastric mucosal injury and liver cirrhosis had H2S deficiency which defines the significance of H2S. Exogenous H2S alleviates myocardial dysfunction associated with the ischemia/reperfusion injury with reducing the damage of gastric mucosa generated by anti-inflammatory drugs. H2S had also some drawbacks like every coin has two sides. Excessive production of H2S may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, septic shock, cerebral stroke and mental retardation in patients with Down syndrome, and reduction of its production may be of potential therapeutic value in these states. Preclinical evidence is provided to show that H2S releasing derivatives of several NSAIDs, including Diclofenac and Indomethacin indeed represent excellent gastrointestinal safety and are more potent than the parent drugs as anti inflammatory agents. Derivatives of anti-inflammatory drugs other than NSAIDs (e.g. mesalamine) have also been shown to be significantly improved over the parent drug in many respects. So, H2S can be Revolutionary scientific miracle as a gasotransmitters  at maximum potential if the drawbacks are minimize by cutting edge solution.


About Authors:
Vivek P. Chavda
Department of Pharmaceutics, B.K. Mody Government Pharmacy College,
Rajkot – 360003, Gujarat (India)

Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. Ancient Chinese and Egyptian papyrus writings describe medicinal uses for plants as early as 3,000 BC. Indigenous cultures (such as African and Native American) used herbs in their healing rituals, while others developed traditional medical systems (such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine) in which herbal therapies were used. Researchers found that people in different parts of the world tended to use the same or similar plants for the same purposes. In the early 19th century, when chemical analysis first became available, scientists began to extract and modify the active ingredients from plants. Later, chemists began making their own version of plant compounds and, over time, the use of herbal medicines declined in favor of drugs. Almost one fourth of pharmaceutical drugs are derived from botanicals. Recently, the World Health Organization estimated that 80% of people worldwide rely on herbal medicines for some part of their primary health care. In Germany, about 600 - 700 plant based medicines are available and are prescribed by some 70% of German physicians. In the past 20 years in the United States, public dissatisfaction with the cost of prescription medications, combined with an interest in returning to natural or organic remedies, has led to an increase in herbal medicine use.[1] There are many herbal products proved to be having good antidiabetic potential. Coccinia indica (Bimba, kanduri, Cucurbitaceae) is famous for its hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties in Ayurvedic system of medicine. (See Fig. 1) Coccinia indica, the ivy gourd, also known as baby watermelon, little gourd, gentleman's toes, tindora or gherkin(inaccurately) is a tropical vine. It is also known as Cephalandra indica.[2] It is indigenous to Bengal and other parts of India. C. indicagrows abundantly all over India, Tropical Africa, Australia, Fiji and throughout the oriental countries. The plant has also been used extensively in Ayurvedic and Unani practice in the Indian subcontinent.[3] Seeds or fragments of the vine can be relocated and lead to viable offspring. This can occur when humans transport organic debris or equipment containing C. grandis. Once the ivy gourd is established, it is presumably spread by birds, rats, and other mammals. In Hawaii, it has been suggested that the fruit may be dispersed by pigs.[4]Long-distance dispersal is most commonly carried out by humans due to its culinary uses or by mistake. In certain parts of the U.S., the ivy gourd is known as Rashmato (singular) or Rashmati (plural). Some people have begun using the plural term Rashmatoes, since it is sounds more like potatoes or tomatoes. In parts of the Caribbean it is known as lizard food.


Jain Deepika*, Rathore Kamal Singh
BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Udaipur-Raj.313002 INDIA

Pharmacovigilance is particularly concerned with adverse drug reactions, or ADRs, which are officially described as: “A response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological function”. The mission of Pharmacovigilance is to contribute to the protection of public health in the regulation of the safety; quality and efficacy of medicines for human use and to ensure the healthcare professionals and patients have access to information about the safe and effective use of medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adverse drug reaction (ADR) as “Any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease or for modification of the physiological function”.

The discipline of pharmacovigilance has developed considerably since the 1972 WHO technical report, and it remains a dynamic clinical and scientific discipline. It has been essential to meet the challenges of the increasing range and potency of medicines (including vaccines), which carry with them an inevitable and sometimes unpredictable potential for harm. The following is a summary of some of the serious challenges facing pharmacovigilance programmes in the next ten years & the major challenges are:Globalization, Web-based sales and information, Broader safety concerns, Public health versus pharmaceutical industry economic growth , Monitoring of established products, Developing and emerging countries, Attitudes and perceptions to benefit and harm, Outcomes and Impact.


Raj Kishor
Avigna Clinical Research Institute

ABSTRACT: Gastroenteritis is a very common disease. Gastroenteritis is a condition that causes irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines. The most common symptoms of gastroenteritis are diarrhea, nausea, crampy abdominal pain and vomiting. Also refer to gastroenteritis as "stomach flu." The term stomach flu presumes a viral infection, even though there may be other causes of infection. It causes significant mortality in developing countries and significant economic burden to developed countries. Viruses are responsible for approximately 70% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis in children and rotavirus is one of the best studied of these viruses. Oral rehydration therapy is as effective as intravenous therapy in treating mild to moderate dehydration in acute gastroenteritis and is strongly recommended as the first line therapy. However, the oral rehydration solution is described as an under used simple solution. Vomiting is one of the main reasons to explain the under use of oral rehydration therapy. Antiemetics are not routinely recommended in treating acute gastroenteritis, though they are still commonly prescribed. Ondansetron is one of the best studied antiemetic and its role in enhancing the compliance of oral rehydration therapy and decreasing the rate of hospitalization has been proved recently.


Bhale Shweta*, Saxena Vaishali, Bhandari Govind, Mahajan S.C.
Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical studies,
Ujjain (m.p)

Connective tissue disease include the following state: rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, gout, rheumatic fever and osteoarthritis, with the most  common forms of which are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and gout. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, nonsuppurative inflammatory disease  of unknown cause affecting primarily peripheral synovial joint. the onset  is usually insidious, with  immunological reaction playing a major role. Common  medications for arthritis include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs decrease pain, inflammation, and fever by blocking cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes. Understanding of the pharmacology of NSAIDs continues to evolve, but it is now thought that most NSAIDs block three different COX isoenzymes, known as COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3. COX-1 protects the lining of the stomach from acid. COX-2 is found in joint and muscle, and mediates effects on pain and inflammation. By blocking COX-2, NSAIDs reduce pain compared to placebo in patients with arthritis, low back pain, minor injuries, and soft tissue rheumatism. selective NSAIDs or “COX-2 selective NSAIDs” as drugs in the “coxib” class (celecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib, etoricoxib, lumiracoxib). “partially selective NSAIDs” as other drugs shown to have partial in vitro COX-2 selectivity (etodolac, nabumetone, meloxicam).


Dengue fever is a viral caused disease that is spread by the bite of mosquito Aedes aegypti. There are 4 distinct, but closely related, serotypes of the virus that cause dengue (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4)


  • Sudden high fever (104-105 degree, 4 to 7 days after the infection)
  • A flat red rash may appear over most of the body 2-5 days after the fever starts.
  • Fatigue, headache, joint aches, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes, dehydration, thrombocytopenia.
  • Dengue causes liver involvement in a number of patients. Hepatomegaly and elevations in aspartate(AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are common. Postulated mechanisms for liver injury includes direct damage or various immune mediated effects mainly through cytokines, T cells, apoptosis or free radicals[1].


Subscribe to RSS headline updates from:
Powered by FeedBurner