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Pharmacology Articles


BARBITURATES – AN ABUSE

About Author:
Pooja Dhiman
Lecturer
Chitkara University, Solan [H.P]
Pooja.dhiman@chitkarauniversity.edu.in

The WHO defines drug abuse as “persistent or sporadic excessive drug use inconsistent with or unrelated to acceptable medical practice.” Barbiturates are the drugs which act on the central nervous system and produce depression.


H2S : REVOLUTIONARY SCIENTIFIC MIRACLE AS A GASOTRANSMITTER AT MAXIMUM POTENTIAL IF USED WISELY

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Krishna J. Kathawala1*, Gaurav L. Ninama1, Ankitkumar Y. Parikh1, Krupali V. Upadhyay2
1A. R. College of Pharmacy & G. H. Patel Institute of Pharmacy B/H. B & B Polytechnic College, Vallabh Vidyanagar - 388 120, Gujarat, India.
2Shree Satsangi Saketdham “Ram Ashram” group of Institution, At. & Post. Vadasma, Tal. & Dist. Mehsana, Gujarat – 382708, India.
*krishna.kathawala@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Nitric oxide (NO) and Carbon monoxide (CO) are the reputed neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of vascular tone. H2S, which synthesized from L-cysteine, can play more vital role as Gasotransmitters compare to NO and CO. H2S have a role as a stimulator of ATP-sensitive potassium channels (KATP-channels) in the vascular smooth muscle cells, neurons, cardiomyocytes and pancreatic β-cells. H2S also minimize the toxic effect by reacting with reactive oxygen and/or nitrogen species and attenuating their physiological functions. H2S have a unique feature of not to stimulate soluble guanylate-cyclase like other Gasotransmitters. H2S plays a critical role in the regulation of vascular tone, neurotransmission, insulin secretion, and myocardial contractility. Recent studies showed that, in various animal models of arterial and pulmonary hypertension, Alzheimer’s disease, gastric mucosal injury and liver cirrhosis had H2S deficiency which defines the significance of H2S. Exogenous H2S alleviates myocardial dysfunction associated with the ischemia/reperfusion injury with reducing the damage of gastric mucosa generated by anti-inflammatory drugs. H2S had also some drawbacks like every coin has two sides. Excessive production of H2S may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, septic shock, cerebral stroke and mental retardation in patients with Down syndrome, and reduction of its production may be of potential therapeutic value in these states. Preclinical evidence is provided to show that H2S releasing derivatives of several NSAIDs, including Diclofenac and Indomethacin indeed represent excellent gastrointestinal safety and are more potent than the parent drugs as anti inflammatory agents. Derivatives of anti-inflammatory drugs other than NSAIDs (e.g. mesalamine) have also been shown to be significantly improved over the parent drug in many respects. So, H2S can be Revolutionary scientific miracle as a gasotransmitters  at maximum potential if the drawbacks are minimize by cutting edge solution.


ALL ABOUT ANTIDIABETIC PLANT: COCCINIA INDICA

About Authors:
Vivek P. Chavda
Department of Pharmaceutics, B.K. Mody Government Pharmacy College,
Rajkot – 360003, Gujarat (India)
vivek7chavda@gmail.com

Introduction
Plants had been used for medicinal purposes long before recorded history. Ancient Chinese and Egyptian papyrus writings describe medicinal uses for plants as early as 3,000 BC. Indigenous cultures (such as African and Native American) used herbs in their healing rituals, while others developed traditional medical systems (such as Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine) in which herbal therapies were used. Researchers found that people in different parts of the world tended to use the same or similar plants for the same purposes. In the early 19th century, when chemical analysis first became available, scientists began to extract and modify the active ingredients from plants. Later, chemists began making their own version of plant compounds and, over time, the use of herbal medicines declined in favor of drugs. Almost one fourth of pharmaceutical drugs are derived from botanicals. Recently, the World Health Organization estimated that 80% of people worldwide rely on herbal medicines for some part of their primary health care. In Germany, about 600 - 700 plant based medicines are available and are prescribed by some 70% of German physicians. In the past 20 years in the United States, public dissatisfaction with the cost of prescription medications, combined with an interest in returning to natural or organic remedies, has led to an increase in herbal medicine use.[1] There are many herbal products proved to be having good antidiabetic potential. Coccinia indica (Bimba, kanduri, Cucurbitaceae) is famous for its hypoglycemic and antidiabetic properties in Ayurvedic system of medicine. (See Fig. 1) Coccinia indica, the ivy gourd, also known as baby watermelon, little gourd, gentleman's toes, tindora or gherkin(inaccurately) is a tropical vine. It is also known as Cephalandra indica.[2] It is indigenous to Bengal and other parts of India. C. indicagrows abundantly all over India, Tropical Africa, Australia, Fiji and throughout the oriental countries. The plant has also been used extensively in Ayurvedic and Unani practice in the Indian subcontinent.[3] Seeds or fragments of the vine can be relocated and lead to viable offspring. This can occur when humans transport organic debris or equipment containing C. grandis. Once the ivy gourd is established, it is presumably spread by birds, rats, and other mammals. In Hawaii, it has been suggested that the fruit may be dispersed by pigs.[4]Long-distance dispersal is most commonly carried out by humans due to its culinary uses or by mistake. In certain parts of the U.S., the ivy gourd is known as Rashmato (singular) or Rashmati (plural). Some people have begun using the plural term Rashmatoes, since it is sounds more like potatoes or tomatoes. In parts of the Caribbean it is known as lizard food.


AN OVERVIEW ON PHARMACOVIGILANCE

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jain Deepika*, Rathore Kamal Singh
BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Udaipur-Raj.313002 INDIA
*dpka88jain@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Pharmacovigilance is particularly concerned with adverse drug reactions, or ADRs, which are officially described as: “A response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used for the prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease, or for the modification of physiological function”. The mission of Pharmacovigilance is to contribute to the protection of public health in the regulation of the safety; quality and efficacy of medicines for human use and to ensure the healthcare professionals and patients have access to information about the safe and effective use of medicine. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adverse drug reaction (ADR) as “Any response to a drug which is noxious and unintended, and which occurs at doses normally used in man for prophylaxis, diagnosis or therapy of disease or for modification of the physiological function”.

The discipline of pharmacovigilance has developed considerably since the 1972 WHO technical report, and it remains a dynamic clinical and scientific discipline. It has been essential to meet the challenges of the increasing range and potency of medicines (including vaccines), which carry with them an inevitable and sometimes unpredictable potential for harm. The following is a summary of some of the serious challenges facing pharmacovigilance programmes in the next ten years & the major challenges are:Globalization, Web-based sales and information, Broader safety concerns, Public health versus pharmaceutical industry economic growth , Monitoring of established products, Developing and emerging countries, Attitudes and perceptions to benefit and harm, Outcomes and Impact.


GASTROENTERITIS: NATURE AND PREVENTION

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Raj Kishor
Avigna Clinical Research Institute
Bangalore
raryan859@gmail.com

ABSTRACT: Gastroenteritis is a very common disease. Gastroenteritis is a condition that causes irritation and inflammation of the stomach and intestines. The most common symptoms of gastroenteritis are diarrhea, nausea, crampy abdominal pain and vomiting. Also refer to gastroenteritis as "stomach flu." The term stomach flu presumes a viral infection, even though there may be other causes of infection. It causes significant mortality in developing countries and significant economic burden to developed countries. Viruses are responsible for approximately 70% of episodes of acute gastroenteritis in children and rotavirus is one of the best studied of these viruses. Oral rehydration therapy is as effective as intravenous therapy in treating mild to moderate dehydration in acute gastroenteritis and is strongly recommended as the first line therapy. However, the oral rehydration solution is described as an under used simple solution. Vomiting is one of the main reasons to explain the under use of oral rehydration therapy. Antiemetics are not routinely recommended in treating acute gastroenteritis, though they are still commonly prescribed. Ondansetron is one of the best studied antiemetic and its role in enhancing the compliance of oral rehydration therapy and decreasing the rate of hospitalization has been proved recently.


ETODOLAC: A PHARMACOECONOMIC AND CLINICALLY EFFECTIVE NSAID FOR ARTHRITIS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Bhale Shweta*, Saxena Vaishali, Bhandari Govind, Mahajan S.C.
Mahakal Institute of Pharmaceutical studies,
Ujjain (m.p)
*bhaleshweta11@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Connective tissue disease include the following state: rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, polyarteritis nodosa, gout, rheumatic fever and osteoarthritis, with the most  common forms of which are rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis and gout. Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, nonsuppurative inflammatory disease  of unknown cause affecting primarily peripheral synovial joint. the onset  is usually insidious, with  immunological reaction playing a major role. Common  medications for arthritis include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). NSAIDs decrease pain, inflammation, and fever by blocking cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzymes. Understanding of the pharmacology of NSAIDs continues to evolve, but it is now thought that most NSAIDs block three different COX isoenzymes, known as COX-1, COX-2, and COX-3. COX-1 protects the lining of the stomach from acid. COX-2 is found in joint and muscle, and mediates effects on pain and inflammation. By blocking COX-2, NSAIDs reduce pain compared to placebo in patients with arthritis, low back pain, minor injuries, and soft tissue rheumatism. selective NSAIDs or “COX-2 selective NSAIDs” as drugs in the “coxib” class (celecoxib, rofecoxib, valdecoxib, etoricoxib, lumiracoxib). “partially selective NSAIDs” as other drugs shown to have partial in vitro COX-2 selectivity (etodolac, nabumetone, meloxicam).


FUTURE ASPECTS IN DENGUE FEVER THERAPY

Dengue fever is a viral caused disease that is spread by the bite of mosquito Aedes aegypti. There are 4 distinct, but closely related, serotypes of the virus that cause dengue (DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4)

Symptoms

  • Sudden high fever (104-105 degree, 4 to 7 days after the infection)
  • A flat red rash may appear over most of the body 2-5 days after the fever starts.
  • Fatigue, headache, joint aches, muscle aches, nausea, vomiting, swollen lymph nodes, dehydration, thrombocytopenia.
  • Dengue causes liver involvement in a number of patients. Hepatomegaly and elevations in aspartate(AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) are common. Postulated mechanisms for liver injury includes direct damage or various immune mediated effects mainly through cytokines, T cells, apoptosis or free radicals[1].


CARCINOGENICITY TESTING

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Jitendra kumar
M.S. Pharmacology & Toxicology
NIPER raebareli
jkumar.kumar382@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
This chapter presents an historical overview of cancer, carcinogenicity testing, and human cancer causes. Cancer has been known for a very long time, but the awareness of human carcinogenicity caused by chemicals is a phenomenon of the 20th century. This in turn has produced legislation that prohibits the use of carcinogens in the food chain and has provided guidelines for carcinogenicity testing in animals. Lifetime studies (18–24 months) in two main rodent species (rat and mouse), also known as the “Standard Chronic Bioassay,” have been conducted since the 1960s


CERVICAL CANCER VACCINE- A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Mamta Yadav
M.Pharm
Sagar Institute of Research Technical And Science-pharmacy
Bhopal (M.P)
mamtayadav811@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Cancer is the uncontrollable growth of cells.  Exponential growth and doubling times of cell is 2 times or 3 times than normal cell growth, doubling times is varies among various kind of tumour’s:

  • in acute leukemia (2 week)
  • in multiple myeloma (6 to 12 hour)

Tumour detected when the no. of cells reaches approximately 109 to 1010 cells. Cancer vaccines that boost the immune system’s natural ability to protect body against foreign invaders that causes disease. Vaccines are 2 types: prophylactic and therapeutic. Cancer preventive vaccine target infectious agents that cause cancer and prevent cancer in healthy people and therapeutic vaccines treat cancer in cancer suffering patients.


BIPOLAR DISORDER – AN OVERVIEW

About Authors:
Dipal Patel*1, Dr. Kamal Singh Rathore1, Twinkal Patel2
Department of Pharmacology
1B.N. Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, Udaipur (Rajasthan), 313001
2Shri Sarvajanik college of Pharmacy, Mehsana (Gujarat).
*dipalpatel786@gmail.com

Abstract:
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic-depressive illness, is a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in mood, energy, activity levels and the ability to carry out day-to-day tasks. Symptoms of bipolar disorder are severe. They are different from the normal ups and downs that everyone goes through from time to time. Bipolar disorder symptoms can result in damaged relationships, poor job or school performance, and even suicide. But bipolar disorder can be treated, and people with this illness can lead full and productive lives. Bipolar disorder often develops in a person’s late teens or early adult years. At least half of all cases start before age 25.Some people have their first symptoms during childhood, while others may develop symptoms late in life. Bipolar disorder is not easy to spot when it starts. The symptoms may seem like separate problems, not recognized as parts of a larger problem. Some people suffer for years before they are properly diagnosed and treated. Like diabetes or heart disease, bipolar disorder is a long-term illness that must be carefully managed throughout a person’s life.


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