Pharmacology Articles

PHARMACOLOGICAL UPDATES OF PISTIA STRATIOTES (WATER LETTUCE/ JALAKUMBHI): A MINI REVIEW

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About Authors:
Kuntal Pal1, Sampat Kumar Kundu2
1Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences, Rajiv Gandhi South Campus,
Banaras Hindu University, Barkachha, Mirzapur-231001
2Gurunanak Institute of Pharmaceutical Science & Technology
Sodepur, West Bengal.
sampatkundu001@gmail.com

Abstract
World is running so first, at this moment medicines have to work to maintain the health of the people to give them power to stabilize them. Modern medicine is working from a decades or so, but many traditional systems of medicines also show some beneficial effects in that era. Likewise Kampo, Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM), Ayurveda & Herbal Medicines. Those kind of medicines can give a patient resistant to protect the disease without less side effects. Pistia stratiotes is a plant which plays a commendable role in that era. It is used in different kind of disease which are described in this mini review.


TO STUDY THE EFFICACY AND EFFECTS ON LIPID METABOLISM, ANTHROPOMETRY AND BLOOD PRESSURE OF COMBINATION TREATMENT WITH ARB+HCTZ AND ACES+HCTZ IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENT

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About Authors:
Rajak Sandeep1, Kothiyal Preeti2, Mathur Prashant1
1Department of clinical pharmacy,
2Department of pharmacology,
Division of Pharmaceutical sciences,
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology And Sciences, Patel Nagar, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, India
sandeep.rajak1886@gmail.com

Abstract
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely prescribed for the treatment of hypertension and heart failure, as well as for kidney disease prevention in patients with diabetes mellitus and the management of patients after myocardial infarction.Both combination therapies of an Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) with the thiazide hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and an Angiotensin converting enzymes (ACEs) with HCTZ are recommended to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals in antihypertensive treatment. However, although HCTZ is known to have unfavorable effects on lipid metabolism, the effects of HCTZ in the ARB+HCTZ and ACEs+HCTZ combination on lipid metabolism have not been fully elucidated. The objective of present study was “To study the Efficacy and Effects on Lipid Metabolism, anthropometry and blood pressure of Combination Treatment With ARB+HCTZ and ACEs+HCTZ in hypertensive patient.”

All prescription of hypertensive patients coming to the medicine OPD and IPD would be screened and those prescribed with  ACE-inhibitors+HCTZ and ARBs+HCTZ combination of  drugs will be selected for this study.


DIABETES MELLITUS : MANAGEMENT

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Duganath2, Rubesh Kumar Sadasivam3, N.Devanna4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Faculty Of Pharmacy, Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry,
3Faculty Of Pharmacy, Department Of Pharmaceutical Analysis,
4Director of JNTUA-OTRI,
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001

k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Diabetes mellitus is a complex metabolic syndrome that results from a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by chronic hyperglycemia, with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from the improper insulin secretion and/or inefficient insulin action and possibly by abnormally high amounts of other counter regulatory hormones such as growth hormone, sympathomimetic amines and corticosteroids.

This chronic hyperglycemia is associated with long term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs (Multi Organ Dysfunction Synrome) leading to diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and macrovascular diseases.


REVIEW ON ATHEROSCLEROSIS

About Authors:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1*, N.Devanna2, C.Vanajakshi3, Kottamasi Vijaya Bhaskar4
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director Of Jntua-Otri,
3M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
4M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmacology,
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Pin Code: 515001
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

Abstract:
This review gives the information about what are the causes, symptoms and treatment of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis is a slow and progressive building up of plaque, fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waste products, calcium and fibrin in the inner lining of an artery. This building up of plaque may lead to thickening of the arteries, subsequently blocking the blood flow either partially of totally in an artery.


REITERS SYNDROME- A FORM OF REACTIVE ARTHRITIS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Jyotirmoyee Patnaik
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences.
Rourkela, Orissa
patnaik.jyotirmoyee@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Reactive arthritis, formerly referred to as Reiter's syndrome, is a form of arthritis that affects the joints, eyes, urethra and skin. The disease is recognized by various symptoms in different organs of the body that may or may not appear at the same time. Also one form of reactive arthritis is characterized by a triad of arthritis, nongonococcal urethritis, and conjunctivitis, and by lesions of the skin and mucosal surfaces.


NEUROFIBROMATOSIS

About Authors:
Tapan Behl*, Monika Sharma, Dr. Heena Goel
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology,  
Doaba Group of Colleges, Kharar, Mohali
tapanbehl31@gmail.com

Abstract:
Neurofibromatosis is genetic disease characterized by lesions mainly in brain region with a broad array of complications associated with it. The prime role of treatment is to obtain a relief from the symptoms associated this disease.


ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK: SHOCKING ERROR OF IMMUNE SYSTEM!

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About Author:
Arvind Negi
Centre for Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001
arvindnegi2301@gmail.com

Abstract
Activation of immune response is developed in respect to some xenobiotic sensitization, which is supposed to prevent and protect the body from sufferings induced by these xenobiotic. But unfortunately sometime body behaves in a paradoxical manner which misguides the immune system and ultimately turned into a bizarre situation of immune function. One of such response is anaphylactic shock, which is quite fatal if untreated. This review brings insights into the molecular physiology of anaphylactic shock and how some people elicit allergic response to certain substances but not the other. This major catastrophe of the body holds an error of immune system whereas this commentary based review disclosed the synchronization of the unfortunate lessons of the immune system, which makes it a cruel to cause DEATH!


THYROID DYSFUNCTIONS AND ITS MONITORING

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About Authors:
Pathak Namita*, Kothiyal Preeti, Dr. Prashant Mathur
Department of Clinical Pharmacy,
Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Sciences,
Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India, 248001
pathak_namita@ymail.com

Abstract
The prevalence of hypothyroidism is three times higher among women than men. The prevalence in an unselect­ed community population of young, middle aged and elderly individuals is about 1.4 percent and the estimated annual incidence rate is one to two per 1,000 women. Surveys of geriatric populations have yielded estimated prevalence rates for overt hypothyroidism of 0.2 percent to 3 percent. The presentation of symptoms in the elderly may be atypical or absent. The prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism is estimated to be between 4.0–8.5% of the adult US population without known thyroid disease, and the prevalence increases with age. Up to 20% of women over the age of 60 are estimated to have subclinical hypothyroidism. Caucasians are more likely to have subclinical hypothyroidism than non-Caucasians. The risk is highest in those with type I diabetes mellitus, a family history of thyroid disease or head/neck cancers treated with external beam radiation. Other risk factors include previous radioactive iodine treatment or thyroid surgery. Interestingly, about 20% of patients on thyroid medications are both over re­placed and under replaced. Because of the high incidence of thyroid disease, The American Thyroid Association recommends measuring thyroid function on all adults beginning at age 35 years and every 5 years thereafter noting that more frequent screening may be appropriate in high risk groups. The treatment of subclinical hypothyroidism has been controversial but more recent data suggest there are increased risks of ischemic heart disease in untreated patients and that a more aggressive approach to treat­ ment would be appropriate.7 In contrast, subclinical hyperthyroidism has more well understood risks of atrial fibrillation and flutter and so should be more ag­gressively treated.


ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME(ACS)-DETAILS REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Amitava Sinharay
B.Pharm
Dr.Reddy’s Laboratories Ltd.
India
a.amitava.s@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION:
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) refers to any group of symptoms attributed to obstruction of the coronary arteries. The most common symptom prompting diagnosis of ACS is chest pain, often radiating of the left arm or angle of the jaw, pressure-like in character, and associated with nausea and sweating. Acute coronary syndrome usually occurs as a result of one of three problems: ST elevation myocardial infarction (30%), non ST elevation myocardial infarction (25%), or unstable angina (38%)


FREGOLI SYNDROME

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Jyotirmoyee Patnaik
Kanak Manjari Institute of pharmaceutical Sciences
Rourkela, Orissa
patnaik.jyotirmoyee@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
During the past 80 years, delusional misidentification syndromes (DMS), especially the Fregoli a syndromes, have posed challenges to mental health professionals due to a lack of comprehensive understanding of the syndromes and a lack of effective treatment. During the past two decades, neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies have pointed to the presence of identifiable brain lesions, especially in the right front parietal and adjacent regions, in a considerable proportion of patients with DMS. Prior to the advent of such studies, DMS phenomena were explained predominantly from the psychodynamic point of view. Deficits in working memory due to abnormal brain function are considered to play causative roles in DMS.


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