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Purbajit Chetia*, Manash Pratim Pathak, Prerona Das
Deptt. of Pharmacology,
Himalayan Pharmacy Institute, Majhitar,
Rangpo, E- Sikkim(737132)
A free radical is an atom or group of atoms that contains at least one unpaired electron and can easily bond with another atom or molecule, causing a chemical reaction. Free radical is essential for body’s normal physiological functions. But when produced in excess quantities it can causes damage to the cells of the body. Human body generates pro-oxidants in the form of ROS and RNS which are effectively kept in check by the various levels of antioxidant defense. However, when it gets exposed to adverse physicochemical, environmental or pathological agents this delicately maintained balance is shifted in favor of pro-oxidants resulting in ‘oxidative stresses’. It has been implicated in the etiology of several human diseases including Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and in the process of ageing.At high concentrations, ROS can be important mediators of damage to cell structures, nucleic acids, lipids and proteins in case of the patients those who are suffering from RA. The hydroxyl radical is known to react with all components of the DNA molecule, damaging both the purine and pyrimidine bases and also the deoxyribose backbone. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the joints and tissue around the joints with infiltration of macrophages and activated T cells. The pathogenesis of this disease is linked predominantly with the formation of free radicals at the site of inflammation. The review is focusing the evidences concerning the involvement of free radicals in Rheumatoid Arthritis and their relationship to specific pathophysiological events.
ATUL KABRA*, NITIN PATEL
Department of Pharmacology
G.H.B Pharmacy college,
The antiulcer effect of aqueous fruit extract of Zizizphus jujuba was studied in ethanol induced ulcer model in rats. The extract dose of 50 mg/kg, 100mg/kg, 200 mg/kgproduced significant inhibition of gastric lesion induced by ethanol. The extarct reduced ulcerative lesion, gastric volume, total acidityin ethanol induced ulcer model.The result obtained suggesting that extract possesses significant antiulcer activity.
Patel Punita s*, Patel Brilina M, Arora Bhoomi
Institute of clinical research India
Bullous Pemphigoid (BP) is an autoimmune subepidermal blistering disease appearing predominantly in the elderly. Bullous Pemphigoidcharacterized by an autoimmune response to 2 hemidesmosomal proteins within the dermal–epidermal junction, These proteins, called BP antigen 1 (BPAG1 or AgBP230), and BPAG2 (or AgBP180 or collagen XVII) have respective molecular masses of 230 and 180. While BP180 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with an extracellular domain BP230 localizes intracellularly and associates with the hemidesmosomal plaque. The disease is characterized clinically by tight bullae, with clear content, often large, developing primarily on the edge of erythematous plaques. Intense itching is common. The disease is primarily treated with systemic corticosteroids. Now,The increased knowledge of the development of noveltherapeutic strategies for Bullous Pemphigoids.
Rawat Pinki1*, Rawat Preeti2, Kumar Piyush3 Kanoujia Jovita3, Singh Sangeeta 1
1. Institute of Pharmaceutical Science and Research, Unnao, U.P., India.
2. L.T.R. College Of Technology, Meerut, U.P., India.
3. Curadev Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Kanpur, U.P., India.
Selective estrogen receptor modulators, called SERMs for short, blocks the naturally circulating estrogen in breast tissues and other estrogen-sensitive tissues in the body. Each estrogen receptor has a slightly different structure, depending on the kind of cell it is in. If a SERM binds to a estrogen receptor, there is no site available for estrogen to bind and it can't attach to the cell. SERMs are called "selective" because they bind to particular estrogen receptors. This selective binding action is sometimes called estrogen inhibition, or estrogen suppression.
Anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic extract of Root of Cissampelos pareira on Carragenin induced rat paw edema
Gourab Saha*1, Pankaja Senapati1, Narahari Sahu2, Dr. Sambit Parida3
1. Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 2, Orissa, India.
2. Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur – 2, Orissa, India.
3. Department of Pharma analysis, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda, Berhampur–2, Orissa, India.
This study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira (Abuta) in male albino rats after intramuscular administration. This was done using the carragenin-induced paw edema method. Methanolic extract of Cissampelos pareira showed significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to ibuprofen and indomethacin.
Chauhan M.K., Kawadkar J., Kishore R.*, Pathak A.M.
Department of Pharmaceutics
DIPSAR, New Delhi
This paper discussed the problems associated with nasal drug delivery and how it is possible, sometimes by means of quite simple concepts, to improve transport across the nasal membrane. It also described the advantages, barriers, physicochemical factors, and formulation related parameters that affecting the nasal drug delivery and the applications of nasal route for delivery of peptides, proteins, non-peptide drugs, and vaccines. In this way it is feasible to deliver efficiently challenging drugs such as small polar molecules, peptides and proteins and even the large proteins and polysaccharides used in vaccines or DNA plasmids exploited for DNA vaccines. The transport of drugs from the nasal cavity directly to the brain is also described. Nasal vaccines offer several benefits, such as low enzymatic degradation compared to oral vaccines, and greater acceptability to patients. Nasal vaccines, however, have to overcome several limitations, including mucociliary clearance. Therefore, nasal vaccines require potent adjuvants and delivery systems to enhance their immunogenicity and to protect their antigens.
EVALUATION OF THE ASSOCIATION OF rs8052394 OF METALOTHIONEIN-1A GENE WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS IN NEPALESE POPULATION
Bishal Khatiwada1,2, Binita Dhakal1,2, Surya Prasad Sharma1,2, Uddhav Timilsina1
1. Department of Biotechnology,
College for Professional Studies, Kathmandu, Nepal
2. Department of Biotechnology,
Sikkim Manipal University, Gangtok, Sikkim, India
Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1310
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder in which person is characterized by the high blood sugar either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not use the insulin that is produced. The classical symptoms of diabetes are polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). Almost one in 10 of the world population already has this condition, or can be expected to develop it during their lifetime, with prevalence rates forecast to double within the next 15 years. According to WHO(2000A.D.), at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, or 2.8% of the population.
Richa Thakur*, Gaurav Swami, M.S. Rathore, A.K. Sharma
CT Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Jalandhar, Punjab, India
The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye render this organ exquisitely impervious to foreign substances. The main challenge to the formulator is to circumvent the protective barriers of the eye without causing permanent tissue damage. The newly developed particulate and vesicular systems like liposomes, pharmacosomes and discosomes are useful in delivering the drug for a longer extent and helpful in reaching the systemic circulation. The most recent advancements of the ocular delivery systems provide the delivery of the genes and proteins to the internal structures which were once inaccessible and thus are of great importance in treating the diseases which are caused due to genetic mutation, failure in normal homeostasis, malignancy but also maintaining the physiological function of eye. The review focuses on the developments achieved in this mode of delivery of the drugs along with the pros and cons associated with greater focus on the advanced delivery systems.
Renu Singh*, Saumya Das, Sanjita Das
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, NIET,
Greater Noida, U.P., 201306.
Cognitive deficits have long been recognized as severe and consistent neurological disorders associated with numerous psychiatric and neurodegenerative states such as Alzheimer’s disease. Dementia is one of the age-related mental problems, and a characteristic symptom of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegerative disorder which affects older individuals and may progress to a totally vegetative state. Atrophy of cortical and sub-cortical areas is associated with deposition of β-amyloid protein in the form of senile plaques and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. There is marked cholinergic deficiency in the brain, though other neurotransmitter systems are also affected. Various measures to augement cholinergic transmitter in the brain have been tried. The relatively cerebroselective anti-ChEs have been approved for clinical use. Nootropic agents are clinically used in situations where there is organic disorder in learning abilities and for improving memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side-effects associated with these agents have made their utility limited. Many experimental models are currently available for the evaluation of agents that affect learning and memory processes. In-vitro methods inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity is measured by determining IC50 with the help of Log probit analysis. In ex-vivo cholinesterase inhibition method the dose response relationship determined for drugs such as physostigmine and tacrine Agents which are H3 receptor agonist are evaluated for [3H] Ach release activity in rat using rat brain slices. The binding affinity of potential nicotinic cholinergic agonist in brain using agonist ligand is determined by [3H]-N- methyl carbamylcholine binding nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat frontal cortex. In In-vivo methods the inhibitory passive avoidance the test are carried on animals to test the learning and memory capacity of animal by suppressing a particular behavior. It includes step down, step through, two compartment test, up-hill avoidance, scopolamine induced test, and ischemia induced amnesia, memory impairments in basal forebrain. In active avoidance conditioned stimulus is given to the animal, which gives noxious stimulus as a result. It includes runway avoidance, shuttle box avoidance, jumping avoidance. In discrimination learning animals have no choice between the conditioned stimuli. Studies on aged monkeys provides additional advantage for neurobehavioral animal model of aging in that many of behavioral processes thought to be affected by aging.
M.Sc in Clinical Research Management,
Prist University, Thanjavur,
Diabetes a chronic (lifelong) disease marked by high levels of sugar in the blood. Diabetes is a common disease in older age, affecting about one in five individuals. In 2000, according to the World Health Organization, at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from diabetes, or 2.8% of the population. Its incidence is increasing rapidly, and it is estimated that by 2030, this number will almost double. Diabetes is also associated with mortality and significant morbidity, including neurological disability. Diabetes affects both peripheral nervous system and central nervous system. Neuropathy along with retinopathy and nephropathy appears in late stage of diabetes but effect on cognition starts in early stage of diabetes. Although the effects of diabetes on the peripheral nervous system are well established, the effects of diabetes on the central nervous system have been less clear. Several studies have found that diabetes is related to dementia and cognitive function. It is unclear in which stage of diabetes the cognitive decrements become manifest and how they progress over time. Study is conducted to confirm the association of cognitive function with diabetes.
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