You are herePharmacology Articles

Pharmacology Articles


A REVIEW: ATHEROSCLEROSIS & ITS TREATMENT

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Author:
Mr. Yogesh K. Patil
Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology,
Shree Mahavir Institute of Pharmacy,
Nashik.
yogesh_kpatil85@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:
Atherosclerosis is deposition of fatty substances into the inner wall of blood vessels. Due to deposition of lipid material into blood vessels there is restricted flow to blood to various organs like kidney, heart, lungs etc. To overcome this effect various drugs available in market like statins, fibrates etc. There is also way to clean lipid from inner lining of blood vessels through surgery which is last step of treatment. There are mainly two surgeries available that is bypass surgery of heart and angioplasty.


ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF GOSSYPIUM HERBACEUM BY ALLOXAN INDUCED MODEL IN RATS

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

ABOUT AUTHORS:
C Velmurugan*1, Anurag Bhargava2
1Department of Pharmacology, Research scholar, Institute of Pharmaceutical sciences and Research center, Bhagwant University, Sikar road, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India-305004.
2Department of Pharmacognosy, CH. Devi lal College of Pharmacy, Bhagwangarh, jagadhri, Haryana-135003.
velu0906@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethyl ether and ethanol extracts of Gossypium Herbaceum (200mg/kg) leaves was evaluated with measurements including, blood glucose level and biochemical parameters. The extracts of the leaves was tested for its efficacy in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Animals were induced for diabetes with Alloxan (150 mg/kg of body weight- i.p.). The extracts of Gossypium Herbaceum administered daily. The extracts were also evaluated for acute oral toxicity studies and its effect on different biochemical parameters. The extracts showed significant (p<0.01) antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity as compared to diabetic control. The extracts show beneficial effects on blood glucose level in alloxan model. It also reduces the elevated biochemical parameters such as triglycerides (TGL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), Total Cholesterol (TC) and increased the reduced level of high density lipoprotein (HDL), which might be due to presence of flavanoids, tannins, alkaloids and phenolic compound present in that extract. Thus extracts of Gossypium Herbaceum could serve as good oral hypoglycemic agents and seems to be promising for the development of phytomedicines for diabetes mellitus associated cardiac disorders.


SEX DETERMINATION USING THE ADVANCED OMIC TECHNIQUES: POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION AND SDS PAGE GEL ELECTROPHORESIS

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Emma Spiking
Department of Pharmacology,
University of Bedfordshire, England,
United Kingdom, LU1 3JU
ricky.emanual@gmail.com

Abstract:
The polymerase chain reaction is widely used technique for the amplification of target nucleotides for the gene of interest. Amplification of the SRY gene on the Y chromosome by PCR and the identification by electrophoresis has a major role in sex determination. In the proposed method, the house keeping primer glyceraldehydes phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as a marker of both total and DNA and mitochondrial RNA and SRY gene should be used for the identification of the unknown samples. In the SDS PAGE gel electrophoresis, two bands are noticeable; first band at 218 bp for GAPDH and second band at 741 bp for SRY gene. The sex chromosomes has a important role in the etiology of normal sexual development. Biopotential gonal needs two chromosomes to the development of ovary. The existence of SRY gene located on the Y chromosome, a testis is developed. The sex ambiguity can be developed by the discodance between chromosomal sex and appearance of the external genitalies.


PROBIOTICS - A REVIEW

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
V.Sankar1*, Akash kurian2
*1Department of Pharmacy Practice, PSG College of Pharmacy, Coimbatore.
2PHARM.D Intern, PSG College of Pharmcy, Coimbatore.
*akash.kurian8@gmail.com

Abstract:
The objective of review is to outline the probiotics use in medicine and to give insight in to the field for different applications. The use of probiotics in treatment regimen is increasing. Probiotics are live organisms and prebiotics are components of food that are not otherwise easily digested by humans and these food components essentially feed beneficial bacteria in the gut. Probiotics can be formulated to many different types of products including drugs, foods and dietary supplements. Species of lactobacillus and bifidobacterium are most commonly used as probiotics. Probiotics are intended to assist the body’s naturally occurring gut mitochondria. Some probiotic preparations have been used to prevent diarrhea caused by antibiotics or as part of treatment for antibiotic related dysbiosis. This article focus on the probiotics use,  clinical trials and its future.


A REVIEW: EFFECT OF DIABETES ON VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Yogesh K. Patil
Lecturer, Department of Pharmacology,
Shree Mahavir Institute of Pharmacy,
Nashik.
yogesh_kpatil85@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:
Endothelial dysfunction is mainly observed in diabetics. The main role of endothelium is to control the tone of the vascular smooth muscle through the production of vasodilator mediators like nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation has been observed in vascular beds of different animal models of diabetes and in humans with type 1 and 2 diabetes. Hyperglycaemia causes repeated acute changes in intracellular metabolism and causes activation of polyol pathway, activation of protein kinase C, advanced glycation end product and increased oxidative stress.


MENSTRUAL BLOOD-EMBRACING SCENARIO OF FUTURISTIC REGENERATIVE MEDICINE

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Languluri Reddenna1*, Sree Nagavalli K2, Kummara Naga Pujitha3
1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
2Department of Pharmacy Practice, S.J.M College of Pharmacy, Chitradurga, Karnataka, India-577502
3Department of Medicine, Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
reddennapharmd@gmail.com

Abstract
Women produce natural life; but now they will add medically to save lives through the Endometrial Regenerative Cells (ERC) or stem cells reaped from unwanted menstrual fluid, recognized to be the most revolting stage of woman's life. Menstrual blood, as researchers said that, is found to be the most potent source of stem cells so far. Discovering curative power of stem cells has been a revolutionary break through in the field of surgery and medicine till date, which has actually given many the precious gift of life. The uterine endometrial lining, aannoying source of stem cells, is shed in menstrual process every month. In the rebuilding process that ranges over seven days, billions of cells develop creating almost 5 millimeter-thick lining. These self-renewing cells, also called Endometrial Regenerative Cells, can be developed into other tissues under controlled laboratory conditions and have multipotent markers analogous to stem cells from other sources. The requirement for regenerative therapies incorporating cells that have the ability to engraft and differentiate is vast. Mesenchymal stem cells resulting from bone marrow are presently in clinical trialsafter demonstrating safety and efficacy in animal modelsfor allogeneic use due to their immunosuppressive proper-ties. Due to their simplicity of collection and isolation, MenSCs would be a great impending basis of multipotent cells if they also showed these properties.


MEDICATION SAFETY IN CHILDREN

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Languluri Reddenna
Pharm-D, Department of Pharmacy Practice,
Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa, Andhra Pradesh, India-516003
reddennapharmd@gmail.com

Abstract
Objective
Monitoring the safety of medicine use in children is of superlative prominence, on the other hand only limited data on this aspect. In-between 1979 and 2006, the poisoning death rate cut in half, declining from 0.35 to 0.17 per 100,000 children. Therefore, the main aim of the study was to evaluate the medication safety in children’s.
Methods
A prospective observationalstudy was conducted in thePICU, NICU, IP and OP department of Paediatricsat Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences overa 6-months period(fromaugust 2012 toJanuary 2013). The Institutional Ethics and Research Committee of Rajiv Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa (Rc.No.413/Acad./2011-12), approved the study. All patients under 12 year of age were included in the study. Patients referred from another health facility or hospital to collect their medications from the pharmacy of the respective health clinics were excluded from the study. All documented medication orders monitored for any drug misadventures and recommended to the pediatricians.
Results
Drug misadventures include medication errors 588 (84%), ADEs 27 (3.8%), ADRs 33 (4.8%) and drug interactions 52 (7.4%).
Conclusion
Prescriber’s workload, lack of sufficient knowledge and time spent with one patient are restrains that lead to most of the mistakes. Recognition of these errors is the first step in their prevention. There is a crucial need to develop methods to reduce medication errors in children should be the major priority. It can be concluded that drug misadventures are common in children.


A REVIEW ON ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL POTENTIAL OF RICINUS COMMUNIS LINN.

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
KM. Preeti*, Ansu Bala Verma
Department of Pharmacology, Rameshwaram institute of technology and management,
Lucknow- 227202,  India
preeti30sept@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In recent years, Ricinus communis Linn. has become a subject of interest because of its beneficial effects on human health. The present ethnopharmacological review was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic properties of  Ricinus communis by scientific evidences. It belongs to the family Euphobiaceae, which is commonly known as castor. Ricinus communis is found thoughout the hotter parts of India. This plant is extensively used in Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homeopathic and Allopathic system of medicine as cathartic. Traditionally  this plant is used as laxative, purgative, fertilizer and fungicides etc. whereas the plant possess beneficial effects as antioxidant, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, CNS stimulant, antidiabetic, insecticidal, larvicidal, antinociceptive, antiasthmatic, antiulcer, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective, lipolytic, wound healing and central analgesic and many other medicinal properties. The extracts or the isolated compounds of this plant have been found to have potent activity against various ailments. The aim of present article is to explore the pharmacological or medicinal importance of the plant Ricinus communis linn.


VON HIPPEL-LINDAU (VHL) SYNDROME: A CRITICAL INSIGHT

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Tapan Behl*, Ishneet Kaur, Puneet Sudan, Monika Sharma, Dr. Heena Goel
Assistant Professor, Department of Pharmacology,
Doaba Group of Colleges, Kharar, Mohali
tapanbehl31@gmail.com

Abstract:
Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome is a rare genetic neoplastic disorder, arising from germline mutations in the VHL gene, characterized by the development of visceral cysts, specific benign and malignant tumors in multiple organ systems that have subsequent potential for spiteful change. It is caused by point mutations or deletions in a tumor suppressor gene. A tumor suppressor gene is the one which keeps cells from growing and dividing too rapidly in an uncontrolled way. Mutations in this gene prevent production of the VHL protein or lead to the production of an abnormal version of the protein. An altered or missing VHL protein cannot effectively regulate cell survival and division. As a result, cells grow and divide uncontrollably to form tumors and cysts that are characteristic of Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. Although there is great variation in the clinical presentation, those who have a mutated gene are at greatly increased risk of developing spinal hemangioblastoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), retinal hemangioblastoma, cerebellar  hemangioblastoma, pheochromocytoma, pancreatic and renal cysts, endolymphatic  sac tumors, hemangiomas of the adrenals, liver and lungs, and papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis or broad ligament. The age at which the tumors present ranges from early childhood to the seventh decade of life. Early diagnosis, screening of family members and lifelong surveillance of VHL patients is recommended.


SMOKING-HAZARDOUS TO OUR HEALTH: ‘AN OVERVIEW’

{ DOWNLOAD AS PDF }

About Authors:
Babu Lal
Department of Pharmacy,
Tirupati College of Polytechnic & Pharmacy,
Sardulgarh Road, Ratia, Dist. Fatehabad (Haryana), Pin-125051
lab_85@rediffmail.com

Abstract:
The word of smoking, drinking smoke is very famous all over the globe. The practice of Dhumrapana is commonin human beings from the last two thousand year’s to induce consciousness. Soon, the recreational use of tobacco became a part of the elite culture throughout the world and shows remarkable value in large scale productivity (multibillion dollar business)[1]. Botanically, tobacco is achieved from the dried leaves of Nicotiana tobacum Linn (var.macrophyll, N. chinensis Fisch), commercially cultivated on small scale tolarge extent in China, United States and India. The tobacco contains pyridine-piperidine type of alkaloids, among which the most prominent is nicotine. Nicotine, well known as natural botanical insecticide weighs 0.6-3.0% of dried leaves which is synthesized in roots and accumulated in the leaves. Smoking was practiced by early priests to diagnose, heal the bizarrepersons and to fend off evil spirits. As time passes, smoking tobacco becomes more than just a ritualistic comportment. However, the pattern has now been endorsed to the growing numbers of ailments, birth defects, and deaths. Worldwide, approximate 4.9 million and alone in United State (US), smoking is the reason for 434,000 deaths per year [2] and every day14,000 peoples diebecause of smoking-related diseases. Today, medical studies have proven that smoking tobacco is among the leading sources of lung cancer, heart attacks, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD), and erectile dysfunctionand can also lead to teratogenic effect. Moreover, active smokers are not the only ones in severe danger but people lives around them, bystander’s or passive smoker affected much more accumulating the health-related effect brought about by the emitted dangerous chemicals (smoke) from a cigar or cigarettes. In fact, 33 percent of the nonsmoker population in the US is exposed with environmental cocktail of tobacco smoke [3].


FIND MORE ARTICLES

Subscribe to RSS headline updates from:
Powered by FeedBurner