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FUTURISTIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM MICROEMULSIONS : A REVIEW

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Shingitha K.P
Department of Pharmacy
Noida Institute Of Engineering And Technology Greater NOIDA, G.B Nagar
shingithanair@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Recently microemulsion have attracted great attention as they help to optimize efficiency of wide range of products and processes. Microemulsion are isotropic, thermodynamically stable multicomponent fluids which is composed of water, oil, surfactant or cosurfactant where the diameter of the droplet of the microemulsion is in the range of 100 Å TO 1000 Å. Microemulsion are unique class of optically transparent (translucent) solution which comprises of the colloidal system that are attracting many scientific and technological interest past few decades.This interest is due to their properties like ultra low interfacial tension, large interfacial tension and solubilization capacity of both oil and water soluble drugs.


BRIEF CONCEPT OF VALIDATION & CALIBRATION

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About Authors:
Nirav.R. Soni
M.Pharm, A-One Pharmacy College,
Anasan, Ahmedabad-382330, India
nirav_sonic@yahoo.com

Abstract:
Validation is a important part of Analytical as well as Bio-Analytical Method. The procedures involved in checking data or programs for correctness, compliance with standards and conformance with the requirement specifications. It  is establishing documented evidence, which provides high degree assurance that a specific process will consistently produce a product meeting its predetermined specification and quality characteristics. Calibration is totally differ from Validation But it is an integral part of validation.


MICROSPHERES AS HYDRODYNAMICALLY BALANCE SYSTEM

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About Authors:
Rohit Kumar Ahuja*1, Surendra Singh Saurabh1, Poonam Choudhary1, Aniket Singh Chouhan1, Kamal Singh Rathore2
1 Lachoo Memorial College of Science and Technology (Pharmacy Wing) Sector-A, Shastrinagar, Jodhpur (Raj.) 342003, IND.
2 BN Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Udaipur (Raj.) 313002, India
rohitahuja1111@gmail.com

Abstract:
To build up an oral drug delivery system, it is essential to optimize both release rate of drug and residence time of system within gastrointestinal tract. In oral path difference in gastric physiology such as gastric pH and motility display variability on gastric residence time (GRT) and drug delivery actions. Several approaches are currently utilized in the prolongation of the GRT including hydrodynamic balance systems (HBS), swelling and expanding systems, polymeric bioadhesive systems, high-density systems, modified-shape systems and other delayed gastric emptying devices.One such approach is Floating Microspheres (Hollow Microspheres). Floating microspheres are gastro-retentive drug delivery systems based on non-effervescent approach. These microspheres are characteristically free flowing powders made of proteins or synthetic polymers, ideally having a size less than 200 micrometer. Gastro-retentive floating microspheres are low-density systems that have sufficient buoyancy to float over gastric contents and remain in stomach for prolonged period. The drug is released slowly at desired rate resulting in increased gastric retention with reduced fluctuations in plasma drug concentration. Floating microspheres improve patient compliance by decreasing dosing frequency and better therapeutic effect of short half-life drugs can be achieved. Floating microspheres are characterized by their micromeritic properties such as particle size, tapped density, compressibility index, true density and flow properties including angle of repose, scanning electron microscopy, in vitro floatability studies, in vitro drug release studies and stability studies etc.


AN INSIGHT TO IN-SITU GEL FORMING STOMACH SPECIFIC DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Deepak Kumar*, Palak Kapoor
Shoolini University,
Solan, Himachal Pradesh
deepakkaushik354@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The oral delivery of drugs having narrow absorption window in the gastro-intestinal tract is limited by poor bioavailability with conventional dosage forms due to incomplete drug release and short residence time at the time of absorption. To provide controlled delivery of drugs novel drug delivery systems have been developed. Different systems have been developed to increase the gastric residence time viz. floating system, mucoadhesive, high density, expandable. Among all oral dosage forms, liquid orals are more prone to low bioavailability due to fast transit time from stomach to duodenum. Sustained/Controlled delivery can be achieved by decrease in the transit time of the dosage form. This can be augmented by an approach of liquid in-situ gelling system. These in-situ formulations are the drug delivery systems that are in sol form before administration in the body, but when administered, undergo gelation, in-situ, to form a gel. Formation of gel depends on various factors viz. temperature modulation, pH change, presence of ions, ultra-violet irradiation, from which drug releases in a sustained and controlled fashion. Different polymers which can be used for formation of in-situ gel include gellan gum, alginic acid, xyloglucan, pectin, chitosan, poly-caprolactone, poly-lactic acid, poly-lactic-co-glycolide. This article presents a detailed review of introduction, approaches to achieve in situ gelling system, polymers used, evaluation parameters, advantages of in situ gelling system.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PROLONGED RELEASE TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF ATENOLOL FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vijay Sarkar*, Kailash Chand Yadav
Regional College of Pharmacy, Sitapura,
Jaipur, Rajasthan 302022, India
vijaysarkarcipla@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate controlled and prolonged release transdermal drug delivery system of atenolol for effective management of hypertension. The administration of atenolol via transdermal patch facilitates a direct entry of drug molecules into the systemic circulation, avoiding the first-pass metabolism and drug degradation in the harsh gastrointestinal environment, which are often associated with oral administration.To fulfill above objective transdermal patches of atenolol were prepared by solvent evaporation method using combinations of Eudragit RL100, Ethyl cellulose and PVP in different proportions. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, water vapour transmission and tensile strength were evaluated. In-vitro Diffusion Study, skin irritation test and stability studies were also performed. In PVA and Eudragit RL 100 patches the water vapor transmission rate was found to be higher at 75% RH, RT conditions. Therefore at both % RH, RT conditions the PVA and Eudragit RL 100 patches provide the best resistance to water vapor.


FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROEMULSION BASED GEL OF ANTIFUNGAL DRUG

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About Authors:
Patel Rahul R.*, Dr Kanu R Patel, Dr Mukesh R Patel
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Shri B.M.Shah College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Dhansura Road College campus Modasa,
Dist:- Arvali. Pin code:- 383315 Gujarat, (india)
rahulrpatel21089@yahoo.com

Abstract
Micro emulsion based Gel formulation provides better application property and stability & makes it dual control release system in comparison to cream and ointment. Topical Microemulsion based gel drug administration is a localized drug delivery system anywhere in the body through ophthalmic, rectal, vaginal and skin as topical routes. Many advantages of gels a major limitation is in the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. So to overcome this limitation an Microemulsion based approach is being used so that even a hydrophobic therapeutic moiety can enjoy the unique properties of gels. Whenever, it is used for fungal disease for topical delivery system soit is good for compare to oral delivery. When gels and Micro emulsions are used in combined form the dosage form are referred as Microemulsion based gel. Skin is one of the most extensive and readily accessible organs on human body for topical administration and is main route of topical drug delivery system. It is prepared by mixing an oil-in-water type or water-in-oil type emulsion with a gelling agent.The use of Micro emulsion based gels can be extended in analgesics and antifungal drugs.


NANOCOCHLEATE: NOVEL BYPASS OF CONVENTIONAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Harsh Vyas1*, Tulsi Upadhyay1, Nirali Thakkar1, Kruti Patel1, Umesh Upadhyay2,
1Students, 2Faculty of pharmacy
Sigma Institute of Pharmacy,
Bakrol, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
*vyas123harsh@gmail.com, tulsiupadhyay90@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Nanocochleate is a novel lipid based drug delivery system offering systemic and oral delivery of various charged drug molecules. It is formed by negatively charged lipid bilayer. Nanocochleate can encapsulate drugs which are hydrophobic, positively charged, negatively charged and poor orally bioavailable. It is also very much beneficial for oral absorption for peptide drugs that possess a net positive charge. Nanocochleate is beneficial for molecules having binding sites inside the cell. The property that nanocochleates can facilitate cross membrane diffusion for charged and impermeable molecules finds wide application in drug delivery. Nanocochleate have been proven better than liposomes and more compatible with body environment. They differ from liposomes by its structure and compatibility to the body. Liposomes are lipid bilayer with aqueous inner environment and unlike liposomes nanocochleates are having charged lipid bilayer without aqueous environment and are multilayer lipid matrix i.e. Cochleate.

Various methods of its formulation, structure, merits demerits and wide range of application are described in this article.


FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE PELLETS OF VENLAFAXINE HCl

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About Author:
Anitha Nidadavolu
Department of Industrial Pharmacy
Chalapathi Institute of Pharmceutical Sciences
Chalapathi Nagar, Lam, Guntur-522034,
Andhra Pradesh, India.
anitha058@gmail.com

Abstract:
In the present study, an attempt was made to develop and characterize once dailysustained release pellets of highly water soluble drug Venlafaxine Hydrochloride, which is an antidepressant of serotonin-nor epinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Compatibility studies by FTIR spectroscopy observed Venlafaxine HCl was compatible with all the excipients used. These pellets were prepared in three stages. In drug loading stage (powder layering technique with pan coater), drug was loaded on non-pareil sugar spheres by using Mannitol, Microcrystalline powder (MCCP) as diluents and PVP K30 as binder. The concentration of Venlafaxine HCl was kept constant. Four preliminary batches of drug loaded pellets prepared by varying concentrations of disintegrant Crospovidone INF-10 (D1- D4) i.e. 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%. Optimized formulation was selected based on percentage yield, drug content (assay) and found D3- 4.5% as best. In barrier coating stage(wurster process with fluidized bed coater) drug loaded pellets of D3 were coated by different concentrations of film former HPMC E3 (B1- B3) i.e.4%, 6%, 8%. Among them, B2- 6% found as best. In SR coating stage (wurster process with fluidized bed coater) barrier pellets of B2 were coated by varying concentrations of release rate retarding polymer Ethyl cellulose EC 7 cps (S1- S4) i.e. 2%, 5%, 6%, 8%. These EC (S1- S4) formulations were characterized fordrug content (assay), particle size distribution, friability,flow properties, surface morphology (SEM) and dissolution profile.In vitro dissolution studies were carried out by USP dissolution apparatus Type-II and compared with innovator Effexor XR®. Among all formulations S4(8%) was best, followed first order kinetics and found to release the drug over a sustained period of time up to 24 hrs. The release exponent (n values) for all found in the range of n > 1, indicated that the drug transport mechanism by super case-II transport. The optimized S4 formulation was found as pharmaceutically equivalent to innovatordue to similarity (f2 =77.77) in drug release profile. As per ICH guidelines, accelerated stability studies conducted and there was no significant difference in physicochemical parameters (p < 0.05), indicated that the optimized S4 formulation was stable.


A PORTRAYAL OF A DRUG

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About Authors:
Ashish Chauhan*1, Pradeep Arora2, Nisha Thakur3
1,2Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, Sector-23, Raj Nagar, Ghaziabad, NCR-201002 (India).
3Abhilashi Institute of Life Sciences, Ner Chock, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh
*ashishchauhan.info@gmail.com

Abstract:
The review encompasses the comprehensive portfolio of a drug. It includes the characterization of drug by US-FDA, on the basis of quality, nature, pharmacology and botany.


POLYELECTROLYTES: AS A DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Surya Pratap Singh
*, Meenakshi Sahetya1, Mahaveer Prasad khichi1*, Yogesh Yaduwanshi2
1
Department of pharmaceutics, Kota college of pharmacy
2
Department of pharmacology, Kota college of pharmacy,
Rajasthan, India
*sp.kota91@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this paper is to focus on drug delivery system developing by such polyelectrolytes and most focused on targeting of  drugs to specific sites have aroused as revolution in pharmaceutical  field, thereby, giving rise to drug  delivery systems. Polymers have gained much importance indrug delivery especially those which respond in some desired way to change in pH, temperature, electric or magnetic field. For this reason they are very frequently and extensively used as excipients in design and advancement of controlled and/or sustained release products. The scope of polymers used in dosage form design can be increased by several approaches such as modification of their chemical structure, by combining different polymers in physical mixtures or by formation of polymer-polymer associations such as polyelectrolyte complexes.


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