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*Rakesh Gupta, Hemant Kumar Sharma, Manvendra Jaiswal, Rajeev Sharma, Narendra Nyola, Dr. Rajesh Yadav
Alwar Pharmacy College, M.I.A. Alwar,
Rajasthan, India 301001
Experimental design is a planned interference in the natural order of events by the researcher. A selected condition or a change (treatment) is introduced. Observations or measurements are planned to illuminate the effect of any change in conditions. Complex designs, usually involving a number of "control groups," offer more information than a simple group design. It involves the Experimental Design and Data Analysis. The various type of experimental design, e.g. Statistical(Randomized Blocks, Latin Square, Factorial Design), Quasi Experimental (Time Series, Multiple Time Series), True Experimental(Pretest-Posttest Control Group, Post-test: Only Control Group, Solomon Four-Group), Pre-experimental (Static Group, One Group Pretest-Posttest, Experimental One-Shot Case Study).Process Models for DOE is common to begin with a process model of the `black box' type (Quadratic model & Linear model).Full factorial designs in two levels, Full factorial designs not recommended for 5 or more factors. Replication provides information on variability, Factor settings in standard order with replication, No randomization and no center points; Randomization provides protection against extraneous factors affecting the results. Contour plot Display 3-d surface on 2-d plot Vertical axis, Horizontal axis, Lines CCD designs start with a factorial or fractional factorial design (with centre points) and add "star" points to estimate curvature; A CCD design with k factors has 2k star points, 3 types of CCD designs, which depend on where the star points are placed Circumscribed (CCC), Inscribed (CCI), Face Cantered (CCF); the value of α is chosen to maintain rotatability.
Pranita T. Gaikwad*, Reshma R.Patil, Mr M.M.Nitalikar, Dr.S.S.Patil, Dr.S.K.Mohite
Rajarambapu college of pharmacy,
The main objective of the present work was to formulate sustained release matrix tablets of Quetiapine fumarate using different polymers viz. Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) and Locust Bean Gum (LBG). Varying ratios of drug and polymer like were selected for the study. After fixing the ratio of drug and polymer for Sustain the release of drug up to desired time, the release rates were modulated by combination of two different rates controlling material and triple mixture of two different rate controlling material. After evaluation of physical properties of tablet, the in vitro release study was performed in 0.1 N HCl pH 1.2 for 2 hrs and in phosphate buffer pH 6.8 up to 24 hrs. The effect of polymer concentration and polymer blend concentration were studied. Dissolution data was analyzed by Higuchi expression. It was observed that matrix tablets contained polymer blend of HPMC and LBG were successfully sustained the release of drug up to 24 hrs. Among all the formulations, formulation P3 which contains 15 % HPMC K4M and % 25 of LBG release the drug which follow Higuchi kinetics via, diffusion and erosion and the release profile of formulation P3 was comparable with the prepared batch products. Stability studies (40±2ºC/75±5%RH) for 3 months indicated that Quetiapine fumarate was stable in the matrix tablets. The DSC and FTIR study revealed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients.
*1MR.B.Ashok, 2Dr.K.S.Manjunatha Shetty, 3Dr. Manikanta kumar, Chandra Shekar
1Master of Pharmacy in Pharmaceutics
2Ph.D Professor and Principal
3Ph.D, Associate Professor
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad
Srinivasa Pharmaceutical Institute And Center For Research Burugupally, Vikarabad, R.R Dist, A.P.
The present study was an attempt to formulate and evaluate enteric coated tablets for esomeprazole magnesium dihydrate. Different core tablets were prepared and formulation was selected for further enteric coating, based on the disintegration time. Seal coating was applied to achieve 3% weight gain. Enteric coating was carried out using different polymers like hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose phthalate to achieve 5% weight gain. Disintegration studies showed that the formulations failed in 0.1 N HCl media. Hence the quantity of enteric coating was increased to 8% w/w. In vitro analysis of the developed tablets was carried out. Results from disintegration time and dissolution rate studies indicate that all the esomeprazole enteric tablets prepared possess good integrity, desirable for enteric coated tablets.
Himanshi Tanwar*, Ruchika Sachdeva, Manish Garg
Lord Shiva College of Pharmacy,
Delivery of the drug via skin would provide a useful alternative to oral route and important site of drug application for local and systemic effects with minimum undesirable side effects. Skin penetration techniques have been developed to improve bioavailability and enhance the range of drugs for which transdermal delivery is a viable option. The permeation of drug through skin can be enhanced by chemical penetration enhancers. The present review article includes the classification of permeation enhancers and their mechanism of action; thus it will help in the selection of suitable penetration enhancer for improving the permeation of poorly absorbed drugs via transdermal route.
DIT Faculty of Pharmacy, Mussoorie Diversion Road, Dehradun 248009,
Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involves drug transport to viable epidermal and or dermal tissues of the skin for local therapeutic effect while a very major fraction of drug is transported into the systemic blood circulation. The adhesive of the transdermal drug delivery system is critical to the safety, efficacy and quality of the product. Topical administration of therapeutic agents offers many advantages over conventional oral and invasive methods of drug delivery. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are limitation of hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug. This review article provides an overview of TDDS, its advantages over conventional dosage forms, drug delivery routes across human skin, penetration enhancers, various components of Transdermal patches, types of Transdermal patches, methods of preparation and its physicochemical methods of evaluation.
*Sambhara Gayatri Deepti1, Aruna Ragidi1, A.M.S.Sudhakar Babu1, P.Venkateswara Rao2
1Department of Pharmaceutics
2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis
A.M.Reddy Memorial college of Pharmacy, Narasaraopet, Guntur Dist., Andhra Pradesh, India.
Liposomes are result of self assembly of phospholipid in an aqueous media resulting in closed bilayered structures. Liposomes are one of unique drug delivery system which can be use in controlling and targeting drug delivery system. Liposomes are generally classified based upon structure, method of preparation, composition and application, conventional liposome, and specialty liposome. Liposomes are formulated and processed to differ in size, composition, charge and lamellarity, depending upon method of preparation either active loading technique or passive loading technique. The prepared liposomes are characterized for visual appearance, liposomal size distribution, lamillarity, liposome stability, entrapped volume and surface charges. Different marketed formulations are available in market for liposomes. The liposomes have many applications which increase its importance over other formulations.
Hindu College of Pharmacy,
There was a need for delivery systems that could maintain a steady release of drug to the specific site of action. Therefore, drug delivery systems were developed to optimize the therapeutic properties of drug products and render them more safe, effective, and reliable. In comparison with many of the other drug delivery systems, implantable pumps and implants for variable rate delivery are at a crude stage of development. Although the typical implantable pump consists of different mechanisms to regulate drug delivery. The benefits most often provided by the dosage form are expected to be 1) Implantable devices allow site specific drug administration where the drug is needed most. Examples include implants used in the treatment of brain tumors or prostate cancer. This may also allow for significantly lower doses of the drug, which can minimize potential side effects. 2)Implantable devices allow for sustained releaseby the zero-order release rate of a therapeutic agent. The major advantages of these systems contain targeted local delivery of drugs at a constant rate, fewer drugs required to treat the disease state, minimization of probable side effects, and better efficacy of treatment. Due to the development of such sustained release formulations, it is now possible to administer unstable drugs once a week to once a year that in the past required frequent daily dosing.
IMPROVEMENT OF SOLUBILITY OF LOW SOLUBLE (BCS CLASS 2) DRUGS BY NOVEL DRUG SOLUTION DROPPED TECHNIQUE
Dr.Ambedkar Institute of Technology
The dissolution rate of drug from tablet is affected by its active ingredient’s surface area and consequently, affects in oral bioavailability of the product. The development of formulations containing poorly-water-soluble drugs for oral delivery can be achieved by improving their dissolution. It has been found that increasing the available surface area by reducing the particle size can often markedly improve dissolution rates and lead to dramatic improvements in bioavailability. In some cases, the decreasing drug particle through micronized powder by milling tends to agglomerate or accelerate the polymorphic conversion. According to the differences of solubility and dissolution rates of polymorphs, the bioavailability of pharmaceuticals depends on polymorphous crystals. It has been shown that the polymorph in amorphous form of drug usually dissolves more rapidly than the corresponding crystalline form. Therefore the dissolution and bioavailability of formulation containing active ingredient in amorphous form including pseudopolymorphs form such as solvates would be increased. On the other hand, the processes in making tablets, including blending, granulating, drying and especially compressing affected therapeutic property of the drug because polymorphic forms, crystal habit, size and surface area would be changed during these processes.1
N.V Sateesh Madhav, Abhijeet Ojha, *Dheeraj Fulara
DIT Faculty of Pharmacy,
Mussoorie Diversion Road, Dehradun248009,
Buccal drug delivery had lately become an important route of drug administration. The rich in vascularization of oral mucosa and its permeability too many drugs make this route an attractive alternative to the oral and parenteral routes for systemic drug delivery. Drug delivery via the oral mucous membrane was considered to be a promising alternative to the oral route. Sublingual route was a useful when rapid onset of action was desired with better patient compliance than orally ingested tablets. Absorption through the buccal mucosa overcomes premature drug degradation due to the enzyme activity and pH of gastrointestinal tract, avoids active drug loss due to presystemic metabolism (First-pass hepatic metabolism), acid hydrolysis and therapeutic plasma concentration of the drug can be rapidly achieved. In the present review, recent advancements and literature regarding mucoadhesivebuccal films is compiled and it suggests that this delivery system can be adopted by various pharmaceutical companies in the future at the large scale because it was the novel frontier in drug delivery technology that provides a very convenient means of takingmedication.
DIT Faculty of Pharmacy
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) is topically administered dosage form in the form of patches which deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. This review focuses towards the basic facts about the transdermal drug delivery system including the methods of their preparation and some of the recent advancements that have in achieved in this field.