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DIT Faculty of Pharmacy, Mussoorie Diversion Road, Dehradun 248009,
Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involves drug transport to viable epidermal and or dermal tissues of the skin for local therapeutic effect while a very major fraction of drug is transported into the systemic blood circulation. The adhesive of the transdermal drug delivery system is critical to the safety, efficacy and quality of the product. Topical administration of therapeutic agents offers many advantages over conventional oral and invasive methods of drug delivery. Several important advantages of transdermal drug delivery are limitation of hepatic first pass metabolism, enhancement of therapeutic efficiency and maintenance of steady plasma level of the drug. This review article provides an overview of TDDS, its advantages over conventional dosage forms, drug delivery routes across human skin, penetration enhancers, various components of Transdermal patches, types of Transdermal patches, methods of preparation and its physicochemical methods of evaluation.
*Sambhara Gayatri Deepti1, Aruna Ragidi1, A.M.S.Sudhakar Babu1, P.Venkateswara Rao2
1Department of Pharmaceutics
2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis
A.M.Reddy Memorial college of Pharmacy, Narasaraopet, Guntur Dist., Andhra Pradesh, India.
Liposomes are result of self assembly of phospholipid in an aqueous media resulting in closed bilayered structures. Liposomes are one of unique drug delivery system which can be use in controlling and targeting drug delivery system. Liposomes are generally classified based upon structure, method of preparation, composition and application, conventional liposome, and specialty liposome. Liposomes are formulated and processed to differ in size, composition, charge and lamellarity, depending upon method of preparation either active loading technique or passive loading technique. The prepared liposomes are characterized for visual appearance, liposomal size distribution, lamillarity, liposome stability, entrapped volume and surface charges. Different marketed formulations are available in market for liposomes. The liposomes have many applications which increase its importance over other formulations.
Hindu College of Pharmacy,
There was a need for delivery systems that could maintain a steady release of drug to the specific site of action. Therefore, drug delivery systems were developed to optimize the therapeutic properties of drug products and render them more safe, effective, and reliable. In comparison with many of the other drug delivery systems, implantable pumps and implants for variable rate delivery are at a crude stage of development. Although the typical implantable pump consists of different mechanisms to regulate drug delivery. The benefits most often provided by the dosage form are expected to be 1) Implantable devices allow site specific drug administration where the drug is needed most. Examples include implants used in the treatment of brain tumors or prostate cancer. This may also allow for significantly lower doses of the drug, which can minimize potential side effects. 2)Implantable devices allow for sustained releaseby the zero-order release rate of a therapeutic agent. The major advantages of these systems contain targeted local delivery of drugs at a constant rate, fewer drugs required to treat the disease state, minimization of probable side effects, and better efficacy of treatment. Due to the development of such sustained release formulations, it is now possible to administer unstable drugs once a week to once a year that in the past required frequent daily dosing.
IMPROVEMENT OF SOLUBILITY OF LOW SOLUBLE (BCS CLASS 2) DRUGS BY NOVEL DRUG SOLUTION DROPPED TECHNIQUE
Dr.Ambedkar Institute of Technology
The dissolution rate of drug from tablet is affected by its active ingredient’s surface area and consequently, affects in oral bioavailability of the product. The development of formulations containing poorly-water-soluble drugs for oral delivery can be achieved by improving their dissolution. It has been found that increasing the available surface area by reducing the particle size can often markedly improve dissolution rates and lead to dramatic improvements in bioavailability. In some cases, the decreasing drug particle through micronized powder by milling tends to agglomerate or accelerate the polymorphic conversion. According to the differences of solubility and dissolution rates of polymorphs, the bioavailability of pharmaceuticals depends on polymorphous crystals. It has been shown that the polymorph in amorphous form of drug usually dissolves more rapidly than the corresponding crystalline form. Therefore the dissolution and bioavailability of formulation containing active ingredient in amorphous form including pseudopolymorphs form such as solvates would be increased. On the other hand, the processes in making tablets, including blending, granulating, drying and especially compressing affected therapeutic property of the drug because polymorphic forms, crystal habit, size and surface area would be changed during these processes.1
N.V Sateesh Madhav, Abhijeet Ojha, *Dheeraj Fulara
DIT Faculty of Pharmacy,
Mussoorie Diversion Road, Dehradun248009,
Buccal drug delivery had lately become an important route of drug administration. The rich in vascularization of oral mucosa and its permeability too many drugs make this route an attractive alternative to the oral and parenteral routes for systemic drug delivery. Drug delivery via the oral mucous membrane was considered to be a promising alternative to the oral route. Sublingual route was a useful when rapid onset of action was desired with better patient compliance than orally ingested tablets. Absorption through the buccal mucosa overcomes premature drug degradation due to the enzyme activity and pH of gastrointestinal tract, avoids active drug loss due to presystemic metabolism (First-pass hepatic metabolism), acid hydrolysis and therapeutic plasma concentration of the drug can be rapidly achieved. In the present review, recent advancements and literature regarding mucoadhesivebuccal films is compiled and it suggests that this delivery system can be adopted by various pharmaceutical companies in the future at the large scale because it was the novel frontier in drug delivery technology that provides a very convenient means of takingmedication.
DIT Faculty of Pharmacy
Transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) is topically administered dosage form in the form of patches which deliver drugs for systemic effects at a predetermined and controlled rate. This review focuses towards the basic facts about the transdermal drug delivery system including the methods of their preparation and some of the recent advancements that have in achieved in this field.
FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF RALOXIFENE BETA-CYCLODEXTRINE INCLUSION COMPLEX FOR SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT
Gazi Juned M.*1, Javia A.R1, Sheth A.K1, Sachinkumar P. Chauhan, Nirmal Shah
1Department of Pharmacy, Sumandeep Vidyapeeth University,
At & Po Pipariya, Ta.- Waghodia, Dist. Vadodara-391760.
Raloxifene is a second genaration selective estrogen receptor modulator used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. which is insoluble in water and half life is 27.7 hr. it has estrogen effect on bone and cholesterol metabolism but behaves as a complete estrogen antagonist on mammary gland and uterine tissue. raloxifene needs enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate to improve its oral bipavailability and therapeutic efficasy. among the various approaches to enhance solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble drugs complexation with cyclodextrine is an effective and indutrially accepted technique. In the present investigation complexation of raloxifene with β-CD was carried out by using various technique like physical blending method, kneading method, solvent evaporation method and co-precipitation method. From the various characterization studies like solubility determination, drug content determination, production yield & in vitro dissolution study, it was observed that there was a significant rise in the aqueous solubility and dissolution rate of the raloxifene from the β-cd incusion complex. from the result of statistical analysis, batch RLX-6 by kneading method was found to be optimised batch, because of the maximum enhancement in solubility and rate of dissolution. Optimised batch was also studied for compatibility by FTIR studies, and also it was found to be stable for the period of 90 days as per the ICH guidelines.
Dr. D.k. Sanghi, Rakesh Tiwle*, Puja Karanjekar, Priyanka Hemne, Dileshwari Madavi, Padma Tembhre
Shri Laxmanrao Mankar Institute of Pharmacy,
Amgoan, Gondia, Maharashtra, India- 441902.
A pharmaceutical formulation and its research invasis play important role in the young generation of the pharmacy students because without seeing the process we don’t know about the formulation and development of any medicine because of that a industrial visit should be compulsory to the pharmacy students. Pharmaceutical industry is a most diverse, R&D oriented, hypercompetitive and knowledge sensitive industry. Competitive intelligence (CI) is a process of ethically and systemic data gathering from operating system to draw important business conclusions. Use of CI for drawing important conclusions regarding present scenario and future forecasting is very important and growth determining practice of pharmaceutical industries. Intellectual property rights (IPR) is an integral part of the industry and IPR related information is freely available in public patent databases. By analyzing patents company can derive important conclusion regarding competitor’s R&D activities, quality of research, collaboration and alliance and can convert this information to knowledge which can play important role in taking future decisions. Present review is fully focused on advent of IPR in getting very good information regarding competitor’s strategies and tactics.
M.V. Chavan1*, T.T.Mahajan2, M.B. Chaudhari1, N.N.Chavan1
1H. R. Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, District-Dhule (M.S), India.
2R.C.Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, District-Dhule (M.S), India
In present work mixed solvency concept was used for solubility enhancement of poorly water soluble drug. Aqueous blends of hydrotropes, cosolvents and water soluble solids were used as solvent for poorly water soluble model drug zaltoprofen. In mixing solvency above additives are mixed in different ratio and their aqueous solution served as solvent for water insoluble drug. These solvent systems have extreme potential of increasing solubility of poorly water soluble drugs. In this research work standard curve of drug in different individual aqueous solution of above mentioned type of substances as well as in their blend were plotted and from the curve, solubility of drug in that solvent system is estimated using excess solute addition method. The results obtained shows that solubility of drug in mixed blend is more as compared to their individual solvent systems.
G. Sowjanya*, P. Ramaa Bharathi, Dr.A.M.S.Sudhakar Babu
A.M.Reddy memorial college of pharmacy,
Film coating technology is now a days very important in the field of pharmacy particularly in formulation development. In the last 25 years tablet coating has undergone several fundamental changes. Many modifications were advocated to improve the basic process and film coating chosen in place of sugar coating. Film coating is the process whereby a tablet, capsule, or pellet is surrounded by a thin layer of polymeric material. Tablet film coating is performed by two types, one is aqueous film coating (generally water is used as a solvent) and non aqueous film coating (generally organic solvent are used). Film coating formulations usually contain Polymer, Plasticizer, Colourants / Opacifiers, Solvent / Vehicle. Many film coating materials have functional properties which enable the creation of sustained or delayed (enteric) release dosage forms. Coating solution composition may affect the quality of final coated tablets. Optimization of composition of film coating solution is also required. This article discusses tablet coating process, film coating, process parameters, film coating advantages and applications, components of film coating, evaluation of film coated tablets, film defects etc.