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FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF PROLONGED RELEASE TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM OF ATENOLOL FOR THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Vijay Sarkar*, Kailash Chand Yadav
Regional College of Pharmacy, Sitapura,
Jaipur, Rajasthan 302022, India
vijaysarkarcipla@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The objective of the present study was to formulate and evaluate controlled and prolonged release transdermal drug delivery system of atenolol for effective management of hypertension. The administration of atenolol via transdermal patch facilitates a direct entry of drug molecules into the systemic circulation, avoiding the first-pass metabolism and drug degradation in the harsh gastrointestinal environment, which are often associated with oral administration.To fulfill above objective transdermal patches of atenolol were prepared by solvent evaporation method using combinations of Eudragit RL100, Ethyl cellulose and PVP in different proportions. Various physicomechanical parameters like weight variation, thickness, folding endurance, drug content, water vapour transmission and tensile strength were evaluated. In-vitro Diffusion Study, skin irritation test and stability studies were also performed. In PVA and Eudragit RL 100 patches the water vapor transmission rate was found to be higher at 75% RH, RT conditions. Therefore at both % RH, RT conditions the PVA and Eudragit RL 100 patches provide the best resistance to water vapor.


FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MICROEMULSION BASED GEL OF ANTIFUNGAL DRUG

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About Authors:
Patel Rahul R.*, Dr Kanu R Patel, Dr Mukesh R Patel
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Shri B.M.Shah College of Pharmaceutical Education and Research
Dhansura Road College campus Modasa,
Dist:- Arvali. Pin code:- 383315 Gujarat, (india)
rahulrpatel21089@yahoo.com

Abstract
Micro emulsion based Gel formulation provides better application property and stability & makes it dual control release system in comparison to cream and ointment. Topical Microemulsion based gel drug administration is a localized drug delivery system anywhere in the body through ophthalmic, rectal, vaginal and skin as topical routes. Many advantages of gels a major limitation is in the delivery of hydrophobic drugs. So to overcome this limitation an Microemulsion based approach is being used so that even a hydrophobic therapeutic moiety can enjoy the unique properties of gels. Whenever, it is used for fungal disease for topical delivery system soit is good for compare to oral delivery. When gels and Micro emulsions are used in combined form the dosage form are referred as Microemulsion based gel. Skin is one of the most extensive and readily accessible organs on human body for topical administration and is main route of topical drug delivery system. It is prepared by mixing an oil-in-water type or water-in-oil type emulsion with a gelling agent.The use of Micro emulsion based gels can be extended in analgesics and antifungal drugs.


NANOCOCHLEATE: NOVEL BYPASS OF CONVENTIONAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Harsh Vyas1*, Tulsi Upadhyay1, Nirali Thakkar1, Kruti Patel1, Umesh Upadhyay2,
1Students, 2Faculty of pharmacy
Sigma Institute of Pharmacy,
Bakrol, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
*vyas123harsh@gmail.com, tulsiupadhyay90@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Nanocochleate is a novel lipid based drug delivery system offering systemic and oral delivery of various charged drug molecules. It is formed by negatively charged lipid bilayer. Nanocochleate can encapsulate drugs which are hydrophobic, positively charged, negatively charged and poor orally bioavailable. It is also very much beneficial for oral absorption for peptide drugs that possess a net positive charge. Nanocochleate is beneficial for molecules having binding sites inside the cell. The property that nanocochleates can facilitate cross membrane diffusion for charged and impermeable molecules finds wide application in drug delivery. Nanocochleate have been proven better than liposomes and more compatible with body environment. They differ from liposomes by its structure and compatibility to the body. Liposomes are lipid bilayer with aqueous inner environment and unlike liposomes nanocochleates are having charged lipid bilayer without aqueous environment and are multilayer lipid matrix i.e. Cochleate.

Various methods of its formulation, structure, merits demerits and wide range of application are described in this article.


FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND IN VITRO CHARACTERIZATION OF SUSTAINED RELEASE PELLETS OF VENLAFAXINE HCl

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About Author:
Anitha Nidadavolu
Department of Industrial Pharmacy
Chalapathi Institute of Pharmceutical Sciences
Chalapathi Nagar, Lam, Guntur-522034,
Andhra Pradesh, India.
anitha058@gmail.com

Abstract:
In the present study, an attempt was made to develop and characterize once dailysustained release pellets of highly water soluble drug Venlafaxine Hydrochloride, which is an antidepressant of serotonin-nor epinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). Compatibility studies by FTIR spectroscopy observed Venlafaxine HCl was compatible with all the excipients used. These pellets were prepared in three stages. In drug loading stage (powder layering technique with pan coater), drug was loaded on non-pareil sugar spheres by using Mannitol, Microcrystalline powder (MCCP) as diluents and PVP K30 as binder. The concentration of Venlafaxine HCl was kept constant. Four preliminary batches of drug loaded pellets prepared by varying concentrations of disintegrant Crospovidone INF-10 (D1- D4) i.e. 1.5%, 3%, 4.5%, 6%. Optimized formulation was selected based on percentage yield, drug content (assay) and found D3- 4.5% as best. In barrier coating stage(wurster process with fluidized bed coater) drug loaded pellets of D3 were coated by different concentrations of film former HPMC E3 (B1- B3) i.e.4%, 6%, 8%. Among them, B2- 6% found as best. In SR coating stage (wurster process with fluidized bed coater) barrier pellets of B2 were coated by varying concentrations of release rate retarding polymer Ethyl cellulose EC 7 cps (S1- S4) i.e. 2%, 5%, 6%, 8%. These EC (S1- S4) formulations were characterized fordrug content (assay), particle size distribution, friability,flow properties, surface morphology (SEM) and dissolution profile.In vitro dissolution studies were carried out by USP dissolution apparatus Type-II and compared with innovator Effexor XR®. Among all formulations S4(8%) was best, followed first order kinetics and found to release the drug over a sustained period of time up to 24 hrs. The release exponent (n values) for all found in the range of n > 1, indicated that the drug transport mechanism by super case-II transport. The optimized S4 formulation was found as pharmaceutically equivalent to innovatordue to similarity (f2 =77.77) in drug release profile. As per ICH guidelines, accelerated stability studies conducted and there was no significant difference in physicochemical parameters (p < 0.05), indicated that the optimized S4 formulation was stable.


A PORTRAYAL OF A DRUG

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About Authors:
Ashish Chauhan*1, Pradeep Arora2, Nisha Thakur3
1,2Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, Sector-23, Raj Nagar, Ghaziabad, NCR-201002 (India).
3Abhilashi Institute of Life Sciences, Ner Chock, Mandi, Himachal Pradesh
*ashishchauhan.info@gmail.com

Abstract:
The review encompasses the comprehensive portfolio of a drug. It includes the characterization of drug by US-FDA, on the basis of quality, nature, pharmacology and botany.


POLYELECTROLYTES: AS A DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Surya Pratap Singh
*, Meenakshi Sahetya1, Mahaveer Prasad khichi1*, Yogesh Yaduwanshi2
1
Department of pharmaceutics, Kota college of pharmacy
2
Department of pharmacology, Kota college of pharmacy,
Rajasthan, India
*sp.kota91@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this paper is to focus on drug delivery system developing by such polyelectrolytes and most focused on targeting of  drugs to specific sites have aroused as revolution in pharmaceutical  field, thereby, giving rise to drug  delivery systems. Polymers have gained much importance indrug delivery especially those which respond in some desired way to change in pH, temperature, electric or magnetic field. For this reason they are very frequently and extensively used as excipients in design and advancement of controlled and/or sustained release products. The scope of polymers used in dosage form design can be increased by several approaches such as modification of their chemical structure, by combining different polymers in physical mixtures or by formation of polymer-polymer associations such as polyelectrolyte complexes.


FAST DISSOLVING TABLETS: A REVIEW

About Authors:
Kambham Venkateswarlu*, Kutagulla Ashna, Nandamuri Manideepika, Shaik Shaheena Parveen, M.G.Vasantharekha
M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
Beside Collector Office, Anantapur, Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India
k.v.reddy9441701016@gmail.com

Abstract:
A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form. It comprises a mixture of active substances and excipients, usually in powder form, pressed or compacted from a powder into a solid dose. The excipients can include diluents, binders or granulating agents, glidants (flow aids) and lubricants to ensure efficient tableting; disintegrants to promote tablet break-up in the digestive tract; sweeteners or flavors to enhance taste; pigments to make the tablets visually attractive. A polymer coating is often is often applied to make the tablet smoother and easier to swallow, to control the release rate of the active ingredients, to make it more resistant to the environment or to enhance the tablet’s appearance.

These FDTs will give the better merits when compared to existing conventional dosage forms. This system has a better compliance in the case of geriatrics and pediatrics.


FORMULATION OF DOXYCYCLINE LOADED FLOATING FILM USING BIO-MATERIAL EXTRACTED FROM TAGETES erecta

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About Authors:
Prof. (Dr.) N.V.Satheesh madhav, Rohit Singh Negi, *Vikash kumar
DIT-Faculty of Pharmacy,
Dehradun Institute of Technology,
Mussoorie Diversion Road,
Makkawala, P.O. Bhagwantpur,
Dehradun, Uttrakhand
*vikashmalik81@gmail.com, satheesh_madhav@yahoo.com

Abstract:
The aim of research work was to isolate novel biopolymer from the seeds of Tagetes erecta and to characterize its physicochemical properties along with the acute toxicity. The isolated polymer was subjected for screening its retard ability by using as a bio nano carrier for formulating Doxycycline (model drug) loaded floating films. Tagetes is a genus of 56 species of annual and perennial mostly herbaceous plants in the sunflower family. The genus is native to North and South America, but some species have become naturalized around the world. Tagetes species vary in size from 0.01 to 2.2m tall. They have pinnate green leaves blooms are naturally in golden, orange, yellow and white colors, often with maroon highlights. Tagetes grow well in almost any sort of soil. It contains essentials oils, fatty acids, carotenoids and lutein. Tagetes erecta has long been known for its medicinal use, especially for strengthening the heart, and for treating ailments like headaches, swellings and tooth aches.  Tagetes erecta seeds were soaked in water and then washed with chloroform and ethyl acetate. Obtained 100 gm of fine powder was soaked in 100ml boiled water for 24 hours. The mixture was filtered and methanol was added in double. The solution was refrigerated for 24 hours and then centrifuged. Precipitate was collected as biopolymer and was dried. The separated biopolymer was subjected for various physicochemical parameters like color, texture, particle size, solubility, colour changing point. Spectral analysis such as IRspectroscopy was done to check the polymeric nature of biopolymers. Drug–polymer interaction and skin irritancy studies are also done to check the polymer safety.


DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS OF FUROSEMIDE

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ABOUT AUTHORS:
Dr. D. Nagendrakumar, Reddy VM, Keshavshetti G G, Shardor A G*
Department of Pharmaceutics, SVET’s College of Pharmacy,
Humnabad- 585 330 (Karnataka).
ambarish.pharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Sustained release matrix system are favored because of their simplicity, patient compliance etc, than traditional drug delivery which have many drawbacks like repeated administration, fluctuation in blood concentration level etc. For the purpose of enhancement the bioavailability of furosemide, a dosage form with sustained release of furosemide was designed in this study.
Sustained release tablets of furosemide were fabricated using xanthan gum(13.33 % to 66.67 %). Thepreparedtablets were evaluated for pre compression and post compression studies likeangle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, hardness, weight variation, fraibilty, drug content, in-vitro releaseof drugetc. among the five formulations A better controlled drug release (85 %) was obtained with the matrix tablet SX5 containingxanthan gum66.67%. Short-term stability studies of all formulations indicates that there were no significant changes in drug content and dissolution parameter values after 3 month storage at 40° ± 2°C/75 ± 5% RH.


A MINI REVIEW ON NANOSPONGE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

ABOUT AUTHOR:
Surya Prakash Singh*
Vaagdevi College of Pharmacy,
Dept. of Pharmaceutics, Warangal,
pin:506001, Warangal, A.P, India

surya.prakashsingh@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT:
Nanotechnology, a multi disciplinary science has received considerable attention in the recent times in the discovery of new chemical entities, diagnosis and treatment of several ailments[1]. It has created a remarkable impact on healthcare sector as an offshoot called nanomedicine. Many newer drugs show promising invitro effect but lack invivo effect due to decreased bioavailability. Nanomedicine has developed many drug delivering systems like nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, nanosuspensions, nanosponges etc., to overcome the problems of bioavailability out of which nanosponge is an advanced drug delivery system which offers diverse advantages than the other available systems. In this review, an attempt is made to summarize the methods of development, evaluation techniques and possible areas of applications and future of nanosponge drug delivery systems.


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