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Pharmaceutics Articles


RECENT TRENDS IN ORAL DRUG DELIVERY: MOUTH DISSOLVING TABLETS

About Authors:
Soniya1*, Tarun Parashar1, Satyanand Tyagi2, Patel Chirag J3, Rishikesh Gupta4
1*Department of Pharmaceutics, Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Rajawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India-248002.
2President, Tyagi Pharmacy Association & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
4Institute of Pharmacy, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi, Uttar Pradesh, India-284128.
*soniyarani487@gmail.com 08006939832/09999261031

ABSTRACT:
To obviate the problems associated with conventional dosage forms, mouth dissolving tablets have been developed having good hardness, dose uniformity, easy administration, faster disintegration without water and serves as the first choice of dosage form for pediatrics, geriatrics and traveling patients. Mouth dissolving tablets (MDTs) are also known as fast melting tablets, fast disintegrating tablets, fast dissolving/dispersing tablets or melt in mouth tablets.This article gives a brief review of mechanism of action, technologies used now a day for MDTs,Some of promising drug candidates for MDT and evaluation parameters MDTs.Due to wide significance of MDT, this drug delivery system may lead to better patient compliance and ultimate clinical output.


RECENT ADVANCES IN FLOATING MICROSPHERES AS NOVEL APPROACHES: A REVIEW

About Authors:
Manish Jaimini*, Vishal Joshi
Dept. Of Pharmaceutics, Jaipur college of Pharmacy,
Sitapura, Jaipur (Raj.) 302022
*manishjaimini@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Novel drug delivery system as a major advance to solving the problems related to the release of the drug at specific site. These systems have several advantages over conventional multi dose therapy. There are various approaches in delivering a therapeutic substance to the target site in a sustained release fashion. One such approach is using microspheres as carriers for drugs. Microencapsulation is used to modify and delay drug release from pharmaceutical dosage forms.  Microspheres efficiently utilized in controlled delivery of many drugs but wastage of drug due to low drug entrapment efficiency is the major drawback of such micro-particulate system. This review provides brief information about floating microspheres, method of preparations, evaluation and application of microspheres for sustained drug delivery.


TASTE MASKING TECHNOLOGIES: A NOVEL APPROACH FOR THE BETTER PATIENT COMPLIANCE

About Authors:
Dhananjay S. Jadhav
M. Tech (Pharmaceutical Technology) Division of Pharmaceutical Technology,
School of Chemical Technology, North Maharashtra University,
Jalgaon- 425001, India
dhananjaysjadhav@hotmail.com

ABSTRACT
Oral administration of pharmaceuticals is one of the most popular method of drug dilevery.Taste is an important factor in the development of dosage form. “The worse the taste of the medication, the better the cure” was once the prevailing attitude. Many orally administered drugs elicite bitter taste. Undesirable and particularly bitter taste is one of the important formulation problems that are encountered with many drugs. Administration of bitter drugs orally with acceptable level of palatability is a key issue for health care providers. Proven methods for bitterness reduction and inhibition have resulted in improved palatability of oral pharmaceuticals. Several approaches like adding flavors and sweeteners, use of lipoproteins for inhibiting bitterness, coating of drug with inert agents, microencapsulation, multiple emulsion, viscosity modifiers, vesicles and liposomes, prodrug formation, salt formation, formation of inclusion and molecular complexes, solid dispersion system and application of ion exchange resins have been tried by the formulators to mask the unpleasant taste of the bitter drugs. The present review attempts to give a brief account of different technologies of taste masking with respect to dosage form and novel methods of evaluation of taste masking effect.



NANOTECHNOLOGY IN MEDICINE

About Authors:
P.Ramanujaiah*, Dr M.Purushothaman, Hemalatha
Vasavi institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Kadapa
*rama.mpharm@gmail.com

Abstract:
The application of nanotechnology to drug delivery has currently more than 20 Nanoparticles therapeutics are in clinical use, validating the ability of Nanoparticles to improve the therapeutic index of drugs. In addition to the already approved Nanoparticles, numerous other Nanoparticles platforms are currently under various stages of preclinical and clinical development, including various liposomes, polymeric micelles, dendrimers, quantum dots, gold Nanoparticles, and ceramic Nanoparticles. With continued research and development efforts, nanotechnology is expected to have a tremendous impact on medicine for decades to come.


Microencapsulation : a rapidly expanding technology

About Authors:
Mortoza Rahaman
B.Pharm, BCDA College of Pharmacy & Technology (WBUT), WB
M.Pharm, Dadhichi College of Pharmacy, (BPUT), Orissa
mortozarahaman970@gmail.com

Abstract:
Novel drug delivery systems have several advantages over conventional multi dose therapy. Recent trends indicate that microparticulate drug delivery systems are especially suitable for achieving controlled or delayed release oral formulations with low risk of dose dumping, flexibility of blending to attain different release patterns as well as reproducible and short gastric residence time. The release of drug from microparticles depends on a variety of factors including the carrier used to form the microparticles and the amount of drug contained in them. Consequently, microparticulate drug delivery systems provide tremendous opportunities for designing new controlled and delayed release oral formulations, thus extending the frontier of future pharmaceutical development. One such approach is using microspheres as carriers for drugs. Microencapsulation is a process where by small discrete solid particles or small liquid droplets are surrounded and enclosed by an intact shell. Microencapsulation is used to modify and delayed drug release form pharmaceutical dosage forms. A well designed controlled drug delivery system can overcome some of the problems of conventional therapy and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of a particular drug. It is the reliable means to deliver the drug to the target site with specificity, if modified, and to maintain the desired concentration at the site of interest without untoward effects. Microspheres received much attention not only for prolonged release, but also for targeting of anticancer drugs to the tumor. The intent of the paper is to highlight the potential of microencapsulation technique as a vital technique in novel drug delivery.


JAPANESE PATENT CLASSIFICATION: AN AUXILIARY TOOL IN PATENT ANALYTICS

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About Authors:
Arun Kumar
Department of Intellectual Property Management,
Nectar Lifesciences Limited, Punjab, India
feedback2arun@gmail.com

Abstract
With advancements in technology, new inventions are emerging day-by-day, resulting in more number of patent filings all over the globe. The analysis of existing patents to analyze novelty or patentability of upcoming inventions and to check the non-infringing process of the patented technology, there is need to analyze patents of targeted domain technology. The analysis of patents is done not only to analyze novelty or infringement but also to explore the undiscovered innovative knowledge covered in patents. Patent searching using keywords, sometimes, gives very broad results. The analysis of thousands of patents becomes difficult for patent analyst. The methodology used with IPC (International Patent Classification) codes helps to reduce the result of patent search and helps patent analyst in targeted search. But in case of Japanese patent search, IPC alone unable to give targeted results. Then it becomes important to understand the concept of JPC (Japanese Patent Classification) codes and their use to make the Japanese patent search easy. The Japanese Patent Classification includes File Index, Facets and F-term. In this article, Japanese Patent Classification codes are explained in details with their consequences, applications, constructions and search methodology using them.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF CINITAPRIDE TABLETS AS FLOATING DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

About Authors:
S.Dinesh*, M.Senthil Kumar, Ashok kumar, Hariharan, jenish, Marshal joseph
Annai veilankanni’s pharmacy college
saidapet, chennai – 600 015.
Tamil nadu, pin:600015
*dinesh.pharmacy@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Cinitapride1-2, chemically4-amino-N[3-(Cyclohexan-1-yl-methyl)-4-piperidinyl]-2-ethoxy-5-nitrobenzamide has the molecular formula C21H30N4O4 and molecular weight 402.49 g.Cinitapride is a drug that has against action to the serotoninergic 5-HT2 and D2 dopaminergic receptors that has been indicated in the gastro esophageal reflux and in the functional disorders of gastrointestinal motility treatment, The present study was aimed to formulate and evaluvate the tablets containing Cinitapride based on floating  technique in order to increase gastric retention time, Total 9 formulation (F1-F9)were done using 3 different polymers like (HPMC k4m, HPMC e15m and HPMC k100m ). The formulations prepared were subjected to dissolution tests for 12 hrs, Among all the 9 formulation  formulation (F5) were able to efficiently control Cinitapride release over a time period of 12 hrs. Thus the results of the current study clearly indicate, a promising potential of the floating tablet as an alternative to conventional dosage form.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FLOATING TABLETS USING ALFUZOSIN HYDROCHLORIDE AS A MODEL DRUG

About Authors:
Jenish.R*, M.Senthil kumar, Dinesh, Ahokkumar, Marshel, Hariharan
Annai veilankanni’s college of pharmacy
Saidapet, Chennai-600015
Tamilnadu
*jenishnathan@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Alfuzosin is a non-subtype specific alpha(1)-adrenergic blocking agent that exhibits selectivity for alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors in the lower urinary tract. Inhibition of these adrenoreceptors leads to the relaxation of smooth muscle in the bladder neck and prostate, resulting in the improvement in urine flow and a reduction in symptoms in benign prostate hyperplasia. Alfuzosin also inhibits the vasoconstrictor effect of circulating and locally released catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine), resulting in peripheral vasodilation. The alfuzosin of the present investigation is designed to retain in the stomach and deliver the drug alfuzosin for longer periods of time. The developed floating provides increased absorption of the alfuzosin at a rate such that effective plasma levels can be achieved and maintained for a prolonged duration. Formulations 6 displayed drug release considered in 0.1N HCL and Formulation 6 shows better drug release in dissolution profile.


DETERMINATION OF PKA OF ACTIVE PHARMACEUTICAL INGREDIENT BY SPECTROMETRY

About Authors:
Kalpesh Ashara
Registered Pharmacist S.K.R.I.Medicines Centre, Rajkot, Gujarat, India,
M.Pharm Semester-I Student of B.K.Mody Govt.Pharmacy College Rajkot,
Department of Pharmaceutics GTU, Gujarat, India.
kalpeshashara@yahoo.com, kalpeshshr5@gmail.com*

Abstract:
Spectrophotometry is an attractive method for PKa determination in very diluted aqueous solution about 10-5 to 10-6M provided that the compound possesses PH dependent light absorption due to the presence of a chromospheres in proximity to the ionization centers. Traditionally 6 to 8 aliquot solutions of samples in identical concentrations but with different PH values are prepared & their absorption spectra are registered at single wavelength. This series of solutions can be generated by either preparing the sample in buffer solutions of known PH or titrating the sample solution e.g. alkalimetry. Then half the absorbance of maximum plotted on graph & interpolated on x-axis that will give value of PH is Pka  & negative Antilog of that value at base 10 give value of ka i.e. Dissociation Constant (Pka=-logka). This exercise is carrying out in below assignment.


ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF PATENT

About Authors:
Jatin  Patel1*, Prof. Rajesh Kumar Dholpuria2, Dhiren Shah1
2(Professor, Head of Department of pharmacognosy),
1Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research,
Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, INDIA
*Patelj313@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT
Patent Right varies from country to country. In India the law which govern patent right is "Indian Patent Act 1970". Indian Patent Act, 1970 grants exclusive right to the inventor for his invention for limited period of time. Generally 20 years time has been granted to the patent holder but in case of inventions relating to manufacturing of food or drugs or medicine it is for seven years from the date of patent. There is certain legal procedure which needs to be followed in order to register. There are several attorney helping inventor in patent registration by providing them best well informed knowledge. In India patent registration can be filed individually or jointly. In case of deceased inventor this can be done his legal representative on behalf of him. All the required documents need to be filed along with the application form. Only after verification registration certificate is provided to the applicant.


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