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Pharmaceutics Articles


FORMULATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THEOPHYLLINE MICROSPHERE

About Authors:
Sofiya Verma*, Dipak V, Ashok A, Neha C, Jagruti R, Ashutosh. M
Shri ram institute of pharmacy
Jabalpur M.P
*sofiyavermamph@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
The purpose of this research was to prepare and characterize theophylline microsphere of guar gum polymer for the application of nocturnal asthma. The microsphere were prepared by using emulsification method using sodium borate as a cross linking agent and coating was done by solvent evaporation method with the pH sensitive eudragit S-100 polymers. The prepared microsphere were white, free flowing and spherical in shape. The drug-loaded microsphere showed entrapment efficiency and   drug release was extended upto 6 to 8 h. The infrared spectra, differential scanning calorimetry thermographs and XRD spectra all showed the stable character of both the drugs in the drug-loaded microspheres and revealed the absence of drug-polymer interactions. Scanning electron microscopy study revealed that the microspheres were spherical and porous in nature. The prepared theopylline microsphere has the potential for delaying the release of drug.


QUALITY CONTROL TESTING OF PACKAGING MATERIALS

About Author:
Sahil Jasuja1*, Mahesh Kumar Kataria2
1Department of Quality Assurance,
2Assistant Professor
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical education (Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research),
Sri Ganganagar, (Raj.), India.
*sahiljasuja@rediffmail.com

ABSTRACT
Packaging of materials is an integral part of any pharmaceutical industry. Packaging affects the quality stability and identification of drug product. Packaging provide an adequate degree of protection, minimize the loss of constituents and should not interact physically or chemically with the contents in a way that will alter their quality to an extent beyond the limits given in the individual monograph, or present a risk of toxicity. Pharmaceutical packaging is the means of providing protection, presentation, identification, information and convenience to encourage compliance with a course of therapy. The commonly used packaging materials are Container, Closure, Carton or Outer and Box. The containers may be made of glass, plastic, matel or paper. The material for closure may include Cork, Glass, Plastic, Metal or rubber. There are various tests for determination of quality, integrity and compatibility of packaging materials. The specification and requirement of quality testing depends on type of pharmaceutical materials used. Containers are tested by many methods of which commonly used test for glass are Crushed glass test, Whole-Container test, Chemical resistance of test, Water Attack Test etc. Similarly test. Closure materials are tested by Transparency test Penetrability Fragmentation test Self seal ability test, Extractive test etc. The requirement of packaging material testing is set according to specification of regulatory agencies like WHO GMP, USFDA and ICH guidelines.


SMEDDS A NOVEL APPROACH TO IMPROVE BIOAVAILABILITY: A REVIEW

About Authors:
Anoop Patel*1, Anoop Kumar1, Neha Sharma1, Monika Prajapati2
1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, Meerut, U.P., India
2Raj Kumar Goel institute of technology, 5th K.M. Stone Delhi Meerut Road, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh- 201003
*anoop.p.2007@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Oral route still remains the favorite route of drug administration in many diseases because it is very suitable for drug delivery and non invasive. Till today it attracts to many researchers for investigation in the development of new dosage forms. The major problem in oral drug formulations is low and erratic bio-availability due to less water solubility and permeability of the drug across the biological membrane. This may arise high inter and intra subject variability due to lack of dose proportionality and therapeutic failure. It is estimated that 40% of new active constituents which are investigated recently show poor water solubility due to their lipophilic nature. The improvement of bio-availability of these drugs with such properties presents one of the greatest challenges in drug formulations. Several technologies are used for overcome these problems including micronization, solid dispersions, cyclodextrins complex formation and different lipid based drug delivery systems. Self-emulsifying drug delivery system is one the most important and advanced technology for enhancing the oral bio-availability as well reducing in dose. This system also gained attraction for enabling more consistent drug absorption, selective targeting of drugs in GIT, and protection of drugs from the inner environment of gut.


DISCUSSION ON NOVEL VAGINAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS – A RECENT REVIEW

About Authors:
Lohithasu Duppala1*, Anil kumar vadda2
1GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Pharmaceutics, visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India-530045.
2AVANTHI Institute of pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacology, visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India-530045.
1lohithasu@gmail.com, 2anilkumar.vadda@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION:
Commonly, the olden days ,vaginal drug delivery systems are used to deliver vaginal infections treatment drugs  and contraceptives.1
The advantage of intra-vaginal controlled drug administration over conventional/traditional oral administration is the drug absorbed systemically because due to the presence of dense network of blood vessels in vaginal wall The vaginal cavity is also an effective site for the uterine targeting of various therapeutic agents such as terbutaline, progesterone and danazol.2   But now-a-days ,the poorly absorbed oral drugs to be formulated as targeted vaginal drug delivery system to treat vaginal infections. In 1970, the first vaginal ring was used for delivery of medroxyprogesterone acetate for contraception.3 Vaginal drug delivery systems are traditionally used to deliver contraceptive and drugs to treat vaginal infections.


CROSSOVER DESIGNS AND BIOAVAILABILITY STUDY WITH STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: A REVIEW

About Authors:
Bhupender Kumar*, Prof. Sudeep Bhardwaj, Monish Sharma, Ramchandra
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical Education (Institute Of Pharmaceutical Sciences
And Drug Research), Sri Ganganagar, Rajasthan, 335001
*bhupendra.nimiwal@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In a typical crossover design, each subject takes each of the treatments under investigation on different occasions. Comparative bioavailability or bioequivalence studies, in which two or more formulations of the same drug are compared, are usually designed as crossover studies. Perhaps the greatest appeal of the crossover design is that each patient acts as his or her own control. This feature allows for the direct comparison of treatments, and is particularly efficient in the presence of large inter individual variation. However, caution should be used when considering this design in studies where carryover effects or other interactions are anticipated. Under these circumstances, a parallel design may be more appropriate.


LIQUISOLID COMPACT: A NEW APPROACH TO ENHANCEMENT OF DISSOLUTION OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS

About Authors:
Nareshkumar. G1*, A.Eashwar rao2, Ch.Ganga prasad3.
1*Center for Pharmaceutical Sciences, IST, JNTU Hyderabad, India,
2Talla Padmavathi College of Pharmacy, Warangal, India,
3National College of Pharmacy, Shimoga, Karnataka, India.
*nareshkumar62@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Liquisolid technique is a new and propitious method that can change the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. According to the new formulation method of liquisolid compacts, liquid medications such as solutions or suspensions of water insoluble drugs in suitable non-volatile liquid vehicles can be converted into acceptably flowing and compressible powders by blending with selected powder excipients. It has been speculated that such systems exhibit enhanced release profiles. In this case, even though the drug is in a solid dosage form, it is held within the powder substrate in solution or, in a solubilized, almost molecularly dispersed state, which contributes to the enhanced drug dissolution properties. Successful liquisolid tablet is a determination of optimal flowable liquid retention.


NASAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: A COMPLETE REVIEW

About Authors:
Dharmendra Kumar*1, Sumedha Bansal1
1Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology,
Meerut, Uttar Pardesh, India, 250005
*rvnimiet@gmail.com

Abstract:
In present era, nasal drug delivery system has been considered as potential and favourable route of drug delivery because it provides patient compliance, easy to administration, bypass first pass metabolism, excellent penetration, low dose required, rapid absorption and gives desirable effects. So many times nasal drug delivery has been considered as alternative of parenteral route. The purpose of this review, to provide a complete information about nasal drug delivery system such as advantage, limitations, anatomy of nose, mechanism of drug absorption, factors affecting of nasal drug delivery, absorption improvement aspects, novel drug formulations, types of nasal drug delivery system with uses of nasal drug delivery in various disease. So we have expectation, that researches and others cited person get benefitted from this review.


MODIFIED LIPID VESICLES, ETHOSOMES AND INVASOMES: POTENTIAL CARRIERS FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY

About Authors:
Ravindra K. Kamble, Priyadarshani R. Kamble*
Department of Pharmaceutics and Quality Assurance,
Bhupal Nobles’ College of Pharmacy, Udaipur, Rajasthan, INDIA.
*priya.s.bansode@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Recent studies reported approval of lipid vesicles as drug carriers for chemotherapeutic agents and bio-actives which have been revealed in a number of lipid vesicles based formulations, which are commercially available or are currently undergoing clinical trials. This review is mainly focused on effectiveness and permeation enhancing controversy of lipid vesicles as dermal and transdermal drug delivery with special emphasis on recent advances in this field, including the development of deformable vesicles, ethosomes and invasomes. Only specially designed lipid vesicles have been shown to be capable of achieving enhanced delivery. The incorporation of additives, such as anionic surfactants and ethanol, fluidize the phospholipid bilayers, thus can penetrate the intercellular pathways of the skin.


DISCUSSION ON RADIOISOTOPE & RADIOPHARMACEUTICAL: IT’S USES

About Authors:
C.P.Meher*, S.P.Sethy, B.Pochaiah
Asst. Professor
Maheshwara Institute of  Pharmacy,
Department Of Pharmaceutical Chemistry
Chitkul, Patancheru, Medak, A.P
*chaitanyameher84@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Radioactive isotope, also called radioisotope,  any of several species of the same chemical element with different masses whose nuclei are unstable and dissipate excess energy by spontaneously emitting radiation in the form of alpha, beta, and gamma rays. Radioisotopes are elements that are atomically unstable and radioactive. Radioisotopes stabilize by releasing energy and matter. Natural radioisotopes, which have relatively low radioactive energy, have been largely replaced by artificially produced radioisotopes. Artificially produced radioisotopes are widely utilized as sources of radiation for radiography, gauging, and as tracers for a multitude of measurements that are not easily made by other methods. Radiopharmaceuticals are drugs containing a radionuclide and are used routinely in nuclear medicine for the diagnosis and therapy of various diseases. Presented article is concerned with brief discussion about the radioisotope & Radiopharmaceuticals.


BIODEGRADABLE POLYMERS AND THEIR ROLE IN DRUG DELIVERY

About Authors:
Kotta Kranthi kumar1, V Bhargava Reddy2

Sku college of pharmaceutical sciences S.K.University Anantapur
*kranthikumarkotta@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In the nature so many polymers are available. With this natural polymers will not shows any interactions with the api. In the drug delivery systems the polymers are plays an important role for the delivery of the drugs. By using the polymers we will deliver the drugs in the targeting points. Now a day this polymers science is the emerging field for the development and invention of new polymers. In the coming years  polymers will plays a vital role in dug delivery.


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