Pharmaceutics Articles

REGULATORY ISSUES AND NATURAL PRODUCTS

About Authors:
Sapna Phadtare,* Vaibhav Shinde, Kakasaheb Mahadik
Department of Pharmacognosy, Poona College of Pharmacy,
Bharati Vidyapeeth University, Erandwane,
Maharashtra, Pune-411038
*sapnaphadtare@gmail.com

Abstract
The world is gifted with wonderful and precious resources such as plants, animals and minerals that form the major part of our medical system. We as humans are so dependent on these natural sources that life without them is beyond imagination. Thus it is of prime importance that we look into the conservation and preservation of natural products. The Indian and international government bodies have developed various laws, rules and conventions to ensure sustainability of such natural products. This article reviews the general laws, rules and regulations developed globally for natural and traditional medicine. Various guidelines like WHO, EMEA, TGA guidelines are looked upon. Some difficulties that are faced regarding regulatory issues of herbal medicines are studied. The Acts like Indian patent Act, Plant Variety Protection Act, Farmer’s rights, terms like Biodiversity and Biopiracy are reviewed in this article.


DRAFTING OF PATENT CLAIMS AND NONOBVIOUSNESS IN PATENT

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mohit kumar*, Vishal Sachdeva,
Seth G. L. Bihani S. D. College of Technical Education,
Sri Ganganagar (RAJASTHAN) 335001, INDIA
*mohigarg30@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
A well drafted application decides the fate of an invention. Drafting plays a vital role in the success of an invention during its prosecution, management and maintenance during its tenure and turning it into cash. Drafting a patent application is one of the most important and at the same time one of the most difficult process. The applicant or his agent should so draft a patent application that it is granted with an adequate scope or ambit so as to fully serve the business purpose(s) for which the patent is meant to be used. It is here that the importance of drafting the claims in a patent must be fully appreciated, as the drafting of claims must always be done with a clear focus on the exact business needs that are sought to be served by it. That is, a business strategy perspective must inform the thinking of the one who takes up the task of drafting the patent claims. The ultimate purpose of every business strategy is to ensure that a business makes the desired amount of profit to justify the risks taken in making the investments of resources and time. Similarly, the purpose of drafting claims should be to fully serve the business strategy at hand. Even so, only a small number of well drafted patents are actually used by businesses to help them to make or safeguard their profits. (Swarbrick James, 2007).


REVIEW - QUALITY CONTROL OF PARENTERAL PRODUCTS

About Authors:
Abhijeet Welankiwar*, Sushant Tope
Government college of pharmacy Amravati
Kathora naka, amravati (maharashtra) 44460

*abhi123welankiwar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
In a pharmaceutical organization a quality control is a fundamental segment that refers to a process of striving to produce a product by a series of measures requiring an organized effort by entire company to eliminate or prevent error at any stage of production. Quality control deals with testing, sampling, specification, documentation, release procedure which ensure that all tests are actually carried out prior to release of material for sale or use. Until its quality judged to satisfactory. This article deals with quality control of parenteral preparation which have 4 basic area that are Sterility, Freedom form Pyrogens, Freedom from particulate matter and leakers. It gives details on each of these 4 Basic areas. The achievement of sterile, non pyrogenic and particulate free parenteral product provides a significant challenge to ingenuity and creativity of parenteral scientist and technologist.


Novel approach of Buccal Drug Delivery System: An Overview

About Authors:
Ranabir Chanda, Saumya Samanta*, Dilip De, Jyotishman Bhattacharya, Anurup Mandal
Bengal School of Technology, Hooghly, West Bengal, India
*samantasaumya7@gmail.com

Abstract
Buccoadhesives have long been employed to improve the bioavailability of drugs undergoing significant hepatic first pass metabolism. Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for systemic drug delivery. The mucosa has a rich blood supply and it is relatively permeable. It is the objective of this article to review buccal drug delivery by discussing the structure and environment of the oral mucosa, mechanism of buccoadhesion,  factors affecting buccoadhesion,  polymers used ,types of buccal dosage form and the experimental methods used in assessing buccal drug permeation/absorption.


ETHYL CELLULOSE BASED GLIBEMCLAMIDE CONTROLLED RELEASE MATRIX TABLETS

ABOUT AUTHORS:
P.PRATHYUSHA*
Department of Pharmaceutics,
Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical and Educational Research,
Anantapur, A.P, India.
* prathyusha2012@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
In the present investigation, an attempt was made to formulate the Oral Controlled Release Matrix Tablets of Glibenclamide in order to improve efficacy, reduce the frequency of administration, reduce dose related side effects and better patient compliance. Four formulations were prepared by wet granulation method using Ethyl cellulose and as a polymer in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:4 and Conventional Tablets by using  Starch mucilage as a granulating agent. The formulated granules showed satisfactory flow properties. All the tablets formulation showed acceptable pharmaco technical properties and complied with pharmacopoeial standards. The tablets were evaluated for weight variation, hardness, friability, drug content and invitro dissolution studies. In- vitro release studies were carried out at pH1.2 for first 2 hrs followed by phosphate buffer at pH7.4 over a period of 12hrs using USP dissolution apparatus. F3 shows good initial release of 25.2% in 1 hr and may extend release of 96.8% in 12 hrs. Different release models like zero order, first order, higuchi, Hixson-Crowell and krosmeyer-peppas were applied to invitro drug release data in order to evaluate the drug release mechanisms and kinetics. Formulated matrix tablets were compared with conventional and marketed (diaonil 5mg) formulations. Matrix tablets with optimum concentration of Ethyl cellulose were successfully developed and evaluated.


PERMEATION ENHANCERS - FULL INTRODUCTION: A REVIEW

ABOUT AUTHORS:
DEVENDRA SINGH1*, PANKAJ KUMAR SHARMA1, ROOHI KESHARWANI2, Dr. UDAI VIR SINGH SARA1

1Raj kumar goel institute of technology, Delhi-Meerut Road, Ghaziabad, India
2Chandra shekhar singh college of pharmacy, Kaushambi, Uttar Pradesh, India.

* devendrasingh.pisces@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Oral administration still dominates drug therapy and more than 60 % of marketed drugs are oral products. This type of drug administration is preferred due to its convenience, high patient compliance, less stringent production conditions and lower costs. Unfortunately, this traditional drug delivery method has its limitations, due to gastrointestinal permeability, metabolism and elimination of drugs by the liver or gastrointestinal mucosa (first-pass effect). The main drawback of the oral route is that only those compounds that are stable in the gastrointestinal tract can be administered in this way. For this reason, the oral route has been used for mainly non-peptide drugs. Delivery of a drug by oral route is predominantly restricted by pre-systemic degradation and poor penetration across the gut wall. The major challenge in the oral drug delivery is the development of novel dosage forms to endorse absorption of poorly permeable drugs across the intestinal epithelium. In this article we reviewed the various permeation enhancers, histology of small intestine, barriers, application, advantages, some basic permeability enhancement techniques which are useful for enhancing the permeability of poorly permeable drugs


SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GLIMEPIRIDE, PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE BY DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY METHOD

About Authors:
Wagh Vinod. T.
Dept. of Pharmaceutics,
DCS’s. A.R.A. College of Pharmacy, Nagaon,
Dhule-424005 MH. India
wagh.vinod517@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The simple and accurate method of analysis to determine Glimepiride (GLM), Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO) and Metformin hydrochloride (MET) in combined dosage forms was developed using second-derivative spectrophotometry and. GLM, PIO and MET in combined preparations (tablets) were quantified using the second-derivative responses at 233.4 nm for GLM, 265.4 nm for PIO and 252.6 nm for MET in spectra of their solutions in methanol. The calibration curves were linear [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.9990 for GLM, 0.9990 for PIO and 0.9990 for MET] in the concentration range of 5-25 g/ml for GLM, 5- 25 g/ml for PIO and 2- 12 g/ml for MET. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, and specific. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of GLM, PIO and MET in combined tablet formulations.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LORNOXICAM TRANSDERMAL PATCHES

About Authors:
Rathod Garuji*, G. Ganesh Kumar
Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Velikatta, Kondapak, Siddipet,
Dist: Medak.A.P.
*rathodpharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Transdermal drug delivery is an alternative route for systemic drug delivery which minimizes the absorption and increases the bioavailability. Orally lornoxicam has a short elimination half-life (3-4 hrs.), low oral bioavailability undergoes extensive first pass metabolism and frequent high doses are required to maintain the therapeutic level as a result, dose development toxic effect. The purpose of this research work was to formulation and evaluation of lornoxicam transdermal patches using various polymers such as HPMC, Eudragit RL 100 and Eudragit RS 100 by solvent evaporation technique for improvement of bioavailability of drug and reducing toxic effects. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss and weight uniformity. Drug-excipient interaction studies were carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique.The diffusion studies were performed by using modified Franz diffusion cells. The result of diffusion study shows that formulation, F2 showed maximum release of 94.19 % in 24 h, whereas F5 showed minimum release of 51.59 % in 24 h. Based on the drug release and physicochemical values obtained the formulation F2 is considered as an optimized formulation which shows higher percentage of drug release of 94.19 % in 24 h. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of lornoxicam.


NOOTROPICS- THE MEMORY INHANCEMENT DRUGS- A REVIEW

About Author:
Rahul Singh
M.PHARMA (Pharmaceutics)
Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institute Of Pharmacy
Kumhari, Distt-Durg , Chhatisgarh, India
rahulbaba92@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT-
This century will see the arrival of lifestyle drugs to enhance the power of our minds. These ‘smart’ drugs, or nootropics, will be substances that increase the speed of our learning and the capacity of our memory. Nootropics are thought to work by altering the availability of the brain's supply of neurochemicals (neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones), by improving the brain's oxygen supply, or by stimulating nerve growth. Nootropics has proved to be a very successful pharmacological means of raising academic performance in children with attention deficit disorder and it is therefore regarded as a nootropic. Motivation and attention are aspects of cognition that vary particularly with wakefulness. Research into learning and memory is yielding a wide range of targets for drug companies in search of the perfect nootropic.


ORAL MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

About Authors:
Saumya Samanta1, Ranabir Chanda2, Jyotishman Bhattacharya3
Benagal School of Technology,
Chuchura, West Bengal, India
*samantasaumya7@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Formulations of mucoadhesive polymers are of current interest in the design of drug delivery systems. Current uses of mucoadhesive based preparations include ophthalmic solutions, local applications to treat diseases, protein and peptide delivery etc. Several synthetic polymers are used  for this purpose. Since the biodegradability of the synthetic polymers are questionable, so polymers and mucoadhesive materials obtained  from natural sources are used instead of synthetic polymers. The objective of this article is to review the mechanism of mucoadhesion, techniques that are frequently used to study the adhesion forces. This article also contains structure of G.I tract, types of synthetic and natural polymers, their classifications and method of evaluation of mucoadhesive materials.


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