Pharmaceutics Articles

SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF GLIMEPIRIDE, PIOGLITAZONE HYDROCHLORIDE AND METFORMIN HYDROCHLORIDE BY DERIVATIVE SPECTROPHOTOMETRY METHOD

About Authors:
Wagh Vinod. T.
Dept. of Pharmaceutics,
DCS’s. A.R.A. College of Pharmacy, Nagaon,
Dhule-424005 MH. India
wagh.vinod517@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The simple and accurate method of analysis to determine Glimepiride (GLM), Pioglitazone hydrochloride (PIO) and Metformin hydrochloride (MET) in combined dosage forms was developed using second-derivative spectrophotometry and. GLM, PIO and MET in combined preparations (tablets) were quantified using the second-derivative responses at 233.4 nm for GLM, 265.4 nm for PIO and 252.6 nm for MET in spectra of their solutions in methanol. The calibration curves were linear [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.9990 for GLM, 0.9990 for PIO and 0.9990 for MET] in the concentration range of 5-25 g/ml for GLM, 5- 25 g/ml for PIO and 2- 12 g/ml for MET. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, and specific. The method was successfully applied to the estimation of GLM, PIO and MET in combined tablet formulations.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF LORNOXICAM TRANSDERMAL PATCHES

About Authors:
Rathod Garuji*, G. Ganesh Kumar
Srikrupa Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Velikatta, Kondapak, Siddipet,
Dist: Medak.A.P.
*rathodpharma@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Transdermal drug delivery is an alternative route for systemic drug delivery which minimizes the absorption and increases the bioavailability. Orally lornoxicam has a short elimination half-life (3-4 hrs.), low oral bioavailability undergoes extensive first pass metabolism and frequent high doses are required to maintain the therapeutic level as a result, dose development toxic effect. The purpose of this research work was to formulation and evaluation of lornoxicam transdermal patches using various polymers such as HPMC, Eudragit RL 100 and Eudragit RS 100 by solvent evaporation technique for improvement of bioavailability of drug and reducing toxic effects. The prepared formulations were evaluated for different physicochemical characteristics like thickness, folding endurance, drug content, percentage moisture absorption, percentage moisture loss and weight uniformity. Drug-excipient interaction studies were carried out using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy technique.The diffusion studies were performed by using modified Franz diffusion cells. The result of diffusion study shows that formulation, F2 showed maximum release of 94.19 % in 24 h, whereas F5 showed minimum release of 51.59 % in 24 h. Based on the drug release and physicochemical values obtained the formulation F2 is considered as an optimized formulation which shows higher percentage of drug release of 94.19 % in 24 h. The developed transdermal patches increase the therapeutic efficacy and reduced toxic effect of lornoxicam.


NOOTROPICS- THE MEMORY INHANCEMENT DRUGS- A REVIEW

About Author:
Rahul Singh
M.PHARMA (Pharmaceutics)
Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institute Of Pharmacy
Kumhari, Distt-Durg , Chhatisgarh, India
rahulbaba92@yahoo.in

ABSTRACT-
This century will see the arrival of lifestyle drugs to enhance the power of our minds. These ‘smart’ drugs, or nootropics, will be substances that increase the speed of our learning and the capacity of our memory. Nootropics are thought to work by altering the availability of the brain's supply of neurochemicals (neurotransmitters, enzymes, and hormones), by improving the brain's oxygen supply, or by stimulating nerve growth. Nootropics has proved to be a very successful pharmacological means of raising academic performance in children with attention deficit disorder and it is therefore regarded as a nootropic. Motivation and attention are aspects of cognition that vary particularly with wakefulness. Research into learning and memory is yielding a wide range of targets for drug companies in search of the perfect nootropic.


ORAL MUCOADHESIVE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

About Authors:
Saumya Samanta1, Ranabir Chanda2, Jyotishman Bhattacharya3
Benagal School of Technology,
Chuchura, West Bengal, India
*samantasaumya7@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Formulations of mucoadhesive polymers are of current interest in the design of drug delivery systems. Current uses of mucoadhesive based preparations include ophthalmic solutions, local applications to treat diseases, protein and peptide delivery etc. Several synthetic polymers are used  for this purpose. Since the biodegradability of the synthetic polymers are questionable, so polymers and mucoadhesive materials obtained  from natural sources are used instead of synthetic polymers. The objective of this article is to review the mechanism of mucoadhesion, techniques that are frequently used to study the adhesion forces. This article also contains structure of G.I tract, types of synthetic and natural polymers, their classifications and method of evaluation of mucoadhesive materials.


COMPARATIVE DISSOLUTION STUDIES FOR ACECLOFENAC MARKETED DOSAGE FORMS

About Author:
Sowjanya.G
M.pharmacy II year
Annamacharya college of pharmacy,
Rajampet, kadapa dist, a.p, india
Sowji.ces@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION TO DISSOLUTION
A. DEFINITION1

"Dissolution is defined as the process by which solid substances enters in solvent to yield a solution. Stated simply, dissolution is the process by which a solid substance dissolves. Fundamentally, it is controlled by the affinity between the solid substance and the solvent.. "The physical characteristics of the dosage form, the wettability of the dosage unit, the penetration ability of the dissolution medium , the swelling process, the disintegration and the deaggregation of the dosage forms are few of the factors that influence the dissolution characteristics of drugs.


CURRENT CHALLENGES AND FACTORS AFFECTING PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY-A REVIEW

About Authors:
Birajdar Shivprasad M.*, Mulaje S.S., Patil B.R., Sorde M.B., Dr.Bhusnure O.G.
*Maharashtra College of Pharmacy, Department of Quality Assurance, Nilanga-413521,
Dist. Latur (Maharashtra) India
*birajdar100@gmail.com

Abstract:
Production Planning & Control is an important aspect & separate department for any production oriented pharmaceutical industry. The basic objective of the manufacturing organization is to make the products. Thus the production is the nucleus or the centre of entire business operations. It must be emphasized, however, that on signal system of forecasting, preplanning, planning and control is suited to all industrial enterprises, no matter how well it may meet the needs of this on that special company. PPC functions look after the manufacturing activities.


APPROACH OF PRODRUG ON DRUG DESIGN

About Authors:
Mayure Vijay kumar*, V. Sravanthi Yadav, C.P.Meher
Department of Pharmacology,
Maheshwara College of Pharmacy, Chitkul (v), Isnapur “X” Road,
Patancheru, Hyderabad-502307

*mayurevijaykumar@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
A prodrug is a pharmacological substance that is administered in an inactive (or less than fully active) form, and is subsequently converted to an active pharmacological agent (drug) through normal metabolic processes (bioactivation). A prodrug serves as a type of 'precursor' to the intended drug.Prodrugs can be used to improve how the intended drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized and excreted (ADME). Prodrugs are often designed to improve oral bioavailability in cases where the intended drug is poorly absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract. A prodrug may also be used to improve how selectively the intended drug interacts with cells or processes that are not its intended target. This reduces the adverse or unintended effects of the intended drug, especially important in treatments like chemotherapy, which can have severe unintended and undesirable side effects. This review explains about the prodrug.


SOLUBILITY DETERMINATION IN DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT

About Author:
Dhananjay S Jadhav
*M Tech (Pharmaceutical Technology) Department of Pharmaceutical Technology,  
University Institute  of Chemical Technology,
North Maharashtra University,
Jalgaon -425001. Maharashtra, India.
dhananjaysjadhav@hotmail.com

Abstract
Solubility of drug candidate plays a vital role in selection of lead compound in early stage of drug development and discovery. Biopharmaceutical classification system distributes the drug candidate into different bins depending on the solubility and permeability. Two type of solubility determined at different stages of drug discovery, kinetic solubility and thermodynamic solubility. It is useful in deciding development plan and option of formulation development and to confirm result obtained from kinetic solubility data. Different problem encounter while determining the solubility, most of characteristics usually pH dependent, such as multiple and often overlapping ionization, complexation, aggregation, micelle formation, and “common ion” effect, incubation time, adsorption to micro porous filters, plastic or glass surfaces, polymorph interconversion. Above parameter should be considered while determining solubility. Different method available for measurement of the different solubility, conventional shake flask method now a day’s replaced by the high throughout solubility assay technique which considerably reduces the incubation time increased accuracy of result. Solubility determination can be done by ultraviolet absorption, nephlometry, Nuclear magnetic resonance and Potentiometric in drug discovery. The present review attempts to give a brief account of solubility and it’s importance, process of solubilisation, problems that occur while determining solubility, different types of solubility and there application, parameter to be considered while measuring solubility, different method to measure solubility, application in drug discovery in development, recent advances in solubility measurement.


NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

About Authors:
Aruna Rastogi
Roorkee College of Pharmacy and UTU
Patanjali Ayurved Ltd, Sr. Chemist
arunarastogi10@gmail.com

1.   INTRODUCTION
1.1 NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM:
The method by which a drug is delivered can have a significant effect on its efficacy. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range within which maximum benefit is derived, and concentrations above or below this range can be toxic or produce no therapeutic benefit at all. On the other hand, the very slow progress in the efficacy of the treatment of severe diseases, has suggested a growing need for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to targets in tissues. From this, new ideas on controlling the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, non-specific toxicity, immunogenicity, biorecognition, and efficacy of drugs were generated. These new strategies, often called drug delivery systems (DDS), are based on interdisciplinary approaches that combine polymer science, pharmaceutics, bioconjugate chemistry, and molecular biology.


“QUALITY-CONTROL”WITH “QUALITY PREMISES” IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

About Authors:
Sharma Monish*, Kumar Bhupender
Seth G.L Bihani S. D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research. Sri Ganganagar,
Rajasthan (INDIA)
*monish28sharma@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION1:  GMP emphasis on the Quality Control on environment and facilities, testing of the materials, components and Product in accordance with the standard.

As Per INDIAN GMP2  :  Following Five elements in the schedule M are  inter-related and these are:
i)       
Factory Premises(location& surrounding, building& premises)
ii)     
Warehousing area;
iii)   
Production area;
iv)   
Ancillary area;
v)     
Quality control area.

WHO Provides Guidelines for Quality Premises who fulfill the following Objectives :-
i)      Suitability of premises to carryout intended operations.
ii)     Minimizing risk of errors.
iii)    Permitting effective cleaning & maintenance.
iv)    Minimizing contamination.


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