Pharmaceutics Articles

SOLUBILITY DETERMINATION IN DRUG DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT

About Author:
Dhananjay S Jadhav
*M Tech (Pharmaceutical Technology) Department of Pharmaceutical Technology,  
University Institute  of Chemical Technology,
North Maharashtra University,
Jalgaon -425001. Maharashtra, India.
dhananjaysjadhav@hotmail.com

Abstract
Solubility of drug candidate plays a vital role in selection of lead compound in early stage of drug development and discovery. Biopharmaceutical classification system distributes the drug candidate into different bins depending on the solubility and permeability. Two type of solubility determined at different stages of drug discovery, kinetic solubility and thermodynamic solubility. It is useful in deciding development plan and option of formulation development and to confirm result obtained from kinetic solubility data. Different problem encounter while determining the solubility, most of characteristics usually pH dependent, such as multiple and often overlapping ionization, complexation, aggregation, micelle formation, and “common ion” effect, incubation time, adsorption to micro porous filters, plastic or glass surfaces, polymorph interconversion. Above parameter should be considered while determining solubility. Different method available for measurement of the different solubility, conventional shake flask method now a day’s replaced by the high throughout solubility assay technique which considerably reduces the incubation time increased accuracy of result. Solubility determination can be done by ultraviolet absorption, nephlometry, Nuclear magnetic resonance and Potentiometric in drug discovery. The present review attempts to give a brief account of solubility and it’s importance, process of solubilisation, problems that occur while determining solubility, different types of solubility and there application, parameter to be considered while measuring solubility, different method to measure solubility, application in drug discovery in development, recent advances in solubility measurement.


NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

About Authors:
Aruna Rastogi
Roorkee College of Pharmacy and UTU
Patanjali Ayurved Ltd, Sr. Chemist
arunarastogi10@gmail.com

1.   INTRODUCTION
1.1 NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM:
The method by which a drug is delivered can have a significant effect on its efficacy. Some drugs have an optimum concentration range within which maximum benefit is derived, and concentrations above or below this range can be toxic or produce no therapeutic benefit at all. On the other hand, the very slow progress in the efficacy of the treatment of severe diseases, has suggested a growing need for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to targets in tissues. From this, new ideas on controlling the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, non-specific toxicity, immunogenicity, biorecognition, and efficacy of drugs were generated. These new strategies, often called drug delivery systems (DDS), are based on interdisciplinary approaches that combine polymer science, pharmaceutics, bioconjugate chemistry, and molecular biology.


“QUALITY-CONTROL”WITH “QUALITY PREMISES” IN PHARMACEUTICAL INDUSTRY

About Authors:
Sharma Monish*, Kumar Bhupender
Seth G.L Bihani S. D. College of Technical Education,
Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research. Sri Ganganagar,
Rajasthan (INDIA)
*monish28sharma@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION1:  GMP emphasis on the Quality Control on environment and facilities, testing of the materials, components and Product in accordance with the standard.

As Per INDIAN GMP2  :  Following Five elements in the schedule M are  inter-related and these are:
i)       
Factory Premises(location& surrounding, building& premises)
ii)     
Warehousing area;
iii)   
Production area;
iv)   
Ancillary area;
v)     
Quality control area.

WHO Provides Guidelines for Quality Premises who fulfill the following Objectives :-
i)      Suitability of premises to carryout intended operations.
ii)     Minimizing risk of errors.
iii)    Permitting effective cleaning & maintenance.
iv)    Minimizing contamination.


Pulsatile Drug Delivery System: An Approach for Attaining Time Programmed Release

About Authors:
Pratapwar A.S1*, Agrawal V.A2
S.N.Institute of Pharmacy Pusad, Yewatmal
Corresponding Author: Agrawal V.A
vijayagrawal499@gmail.com

Abstract:
Out of all the routs of drug administration oral is the most convenient and better for self administration from the patient point of view and suitable for the release controlled delivery systems from the formulators view. In the today’s field of modern drug therapy much more attention is given on the development of oral release modified delivery systems such as programmed release, gastro retentive, floating and most important pulsatile or time programmed release systems. The chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems are designed to maintain the adequate drug concentration according to the needs of the physiological states of patient’s body and the cardian rhythm. Pulsatile release systems are designed to deliver the drug at the right site, at right time and in right concentration after a predetermined lag time. To achieve the desired pulse release pattern, many technological approaches have been investigated like Single unit system,Tablet-Time clocks system, Capsule- Pulsincap system and multiple unit system, Pellets,Time controlled explosion system,Multi-layered Tablet,Chemical stimuli induced pulsatile systems like Glucose-responsive insulin release devices, Inflammation-induced release, intelligent gels responding to antibody concentration, release control by use of the soluble, rupturable, swelling and erodible polymers in the formulation. The present article focus on the basics of chronotherapeutic drug delivery systems, diseases with cardian rethyms, need, advantages, types and approaches for the development of Pulsatile drug delivery systems.


DISCUSSION ON NOVEL RECTAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS –A RECENT REVIEW

About Authors:
Anil kumar vadda1, Lohithasu Duppala2
1AVANTHI Institute of pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacology,
2GITAM Institute of Pharmacy, GITAM University, Pharmaceutics,
visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India-530045
2lohithasu@gmail.com, 1anilkumar.vadda@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Rectal drug delivery is an efficient alternate to oral and parenteral route of administration in partial avoidance of first pass metabolism and protein peptide drug delivery. This route allows both local and systemic therapy of drugs. Controlled absorption enhancement of drugs can be achieved by the rectal route because of the constant conditions in the rectal environment. In the present review presents various dosage forms used in rectal route, factors related recatal route of absorption ,fate of drug  absorption. This review also presents polymers in rectal route of drug delivery.


FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF DRY POWDER INHALERS OF BUDESONIDE FOR PULMONARY DELIVERY

About Authors:
Neethu.R.R
Uthradam
Kannayamkodu
Chenkikunnu
Kilimanoor.P.O, Trivandrum dist, Kerala 695601
neethalekshmi87@gmail.com

Abstract:
Budesonide is a corticosteroid, used in the treatment of inflammatory conditions such as asthma and COPD. The present study was undertaken with the aim to formulate and evaluate dry powder inhalers of Budesonide for pulmonary delivery. Dry powder inhalers of Budesonide were prepared using different concentrations of fine lactose and magnesium stearate by Geometric dilution method. The drug-carrrier compatibility study was carried out by FT-IR studies. A total of eleven batches were formulated and evaluated for physical appearance, average fill weight, flow properties, particle size analysis, content uniformity, moisture content and assay. In-vitro drug deposition studies were carried out by using Modified Twin Stage Impinger (TSI) apparatus. Of all eleven batches, the formulation F4, comprising of fine lactose 30% was found to be the best having comparatively higher fine particle fraction (FPF) of 25.32%. The result indicated that the amount of drug that reaches in the lung was higher for formulation F4. Further invivo safety and deposition studies on suitable animal models and human volunteers will give better insight for clinical applications of the Budesonide DPI.


A REVIEW ON: FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF FAST DISSOLVING TABLET

About Authors:
Nishtha Tiwari
Department of pharmacy,
b.u Bhopal (m.p.), India
Nishthatiwari.18@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
The oral route of drug administration is the most important method for administering drugs for systemic effects. Except in certain cases the parenteral route is not routinely used for self administration, e.g. insulin. The topical route of administration has only recently been employed to deliver drugs to the body for systemic effects. The parenteral route of administration is important in treating medical emergencies in which the subject is comatose or cannot swallow. Nevertheless it is probable that at least 90% of all drugs used to provide systemic effects are administered by the oral route.


INSIGNIFICANT EFFECT OF SUPERPOROUS HYDROGEL PARTICLES AS A SUPERDISINTEGRANTS IN FAST DISPERSIBLE TABLETS OF ACECLOFENAC

About Authors:
Dr. HV Chavda1*, Ms. SK Patel1,
Dr. CN Patel1,
1Shri Sarvajanik Pharmacy College,
Nr. Arvind Baug, Mehsana, Gujarat-384001, India.
*hvchavda@sspcmsn.org

ABSTRACT
Background:
In present investigation an attempt has been made to formulate a fast dispersible formulation of aceclofenac using three different superdisintegrants. The role of superporous hydrogel particle as a superdisintegrant was checked for its further future applications. Materials and Methods: The selection of superdisintegrants viz. poly (Acrylamide-co-Acrylic acid) superporous hydrogel particles, cross carmellose sodium and starch 1500 were done using the simplex lattice design. Tablet formulations were prepared using direct compression technique and evaluated for hardness, weight variation, friability, drug content, dispersion time, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro drug release studies. Results and Discussion: The dispersion time of all formulation showed less than 21 second. Superporous hydrogel particles did not showed significant improvement in dispersion time compared cross carmellose sodium and starch 1500. The in vitro drug release from batch F7, tablets containing equal proportions of superdisintegrants showed fast dispersion and fast release compared to other batches. Batch F7 was stable for the period of six months at 40 oC / 75 %RH. Conclusions: Combination of three superdisintegrants was more suitable in fast dispersible tablet formulation of aceclofenac. The superporous hydrogel particles showed equivalent effect as a superdisintegrant, however process complexity of its preparation suspects its role or an option as a superdisintegrant in fast dispersible or immediate release formulations.


BUCCAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM

About Author:
Prathipati padmaja
vathsalya college of pharmacy, JNTU
prathipatipadmaja@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Buccal drug delivery was introduced by Orabase1 in 1947, when gum tragacanth was mixed with dental adhesive powder to supply penicillin to the oral mucosa (Sudhakar et al., 2006). In recent years, delivery of therapeutic agents through various transmucosal routes has gained significant attention.
Buccal delivery of drugs provides an attractive alternative to the oral route of drug administration, particularly in overcoming deficiencies associated with the latter mode of dosing.  Buccal mucosa consist of stratified squamous epithelium supported by a connective tissue lamina propia (Squire and Wertz, 1996) was investigated as a site for drug delivery several decades ago and the interest in this area for the trasmucosal drug administration is still growing.



MAGNETIC MICROSPHERE

About Author:
Dipak Kumar Dash
M Pharm pharmaceutics
Production officer -Akorn india pvt ltd
dipak.dipak.dash@gmail.com

INTRODUCTION
Introduction In recent years, polymeric controlled drug delivery systems have evolved as one of the most attractive areas in drug delivery research. The drug release is controlled by properties of the polymer-drug system and also by other factors like pH, enzymes etc. Despite several advantages offered by the controlled drug release, one important problem pertinent to the entire field is that all the systems so far developed give release rates that are constant or decrease with time.Increased delivery on demand will be very beneficial in situations like, delivery of insulin for patients with diabetes mellitus, antiarrythmics in case of heart disorders and nitrates in case of angina pectoris. This increased delivery on demand can be achieved by using external feed back control systems such as magnetic control. The concept of magnetically controlled drug delivery for the first time was proposed be Tyle in 1988. A system has been developed to magnetize the carriers so that these particles can be retained on the target site by the application of an external magnetic field of appropriate strength. Magnetic fields are believed to be harmless to biological systems and adaptable to any part of the body.


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