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Dadhichi College of Pharmacy, BPUT, Orissa
The aim of this reviewis to introduce the basic principles of drug targeting as they have evolved over previous decades. The most important chemical features and biological behavioural characteristics of the carrier molecules exploited for drug targeting purposes will be addressed. Furthermore, a selection of drug targeting preparations that are either in the stage of clinical testing or have been approved for application in the clinic is discussed. As the basis of drug development lies in the understanding of the molecular basis of diseases, selective interference with regulatory processes in health and disease by drug targeting will become a powerful technology. Drug targeting can, in this respect, serve both as a therapeutic approach and as a research tool in unravelling the functions of these processes in normal physiology and under patho-physiological conditions.
*C.P.Meher, S.P.Sethy, S. M Ahmed
Department of pharmaceutical Chemistry, Maheshwara college of Pharmacy,
chitkul (V), Isnapur “X” Road, patancheru, Hyderabad.
Heterocyclic chemistry is vastly expanding because of the enormous amount of research work being done in this area. Heterocyclic compound are very widely distributed in nature and are particularly important because of the wide variety of physiological activities associated with this class of substances . A great deal of research is carried out to prepare new heterocyclic molecules having therapeutic uses. and also so many heterocyclic derivative are synthesized till now having desired pharmacological effect. Out of them oxazole & isoxazole derivatives are catagorised in a higher position as the other heterocyclic compound possess in the hetero-chemistry. The present review is concern with the comparative study of the derivative of oxazole & isoxazole derivatives along with their pharmacological effects.
Patel Chirag J1*, Satyanand Tyagi2, Patel Jaimin1
1Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
2President, Tyagi Pharmacy Association & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India.
Now a day about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired either due to bioavailability problems or degradation of drug in acidic pH of stomach. To resolve such problems, transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS) was emerged. Transdermal drug delivery systems are dosage forms involves drug transport to viable epidermal and dermal tissues of the skin for local therapeutic effect while a very major fraction of drug is transported into the systemic blood circulation. Transdermal drug delivery systems, also known as ‘‘patches,’’ are dosage forms designed to deliver a therapeutically effective amount of drug across a patient’s skin. This review article provides an overview of TDDS, advantages, limitations, various components of TDDS, methods of preparation, types of transdermal patches, factors affecting transdermal permeation, evaluation parameters and new approaches in TDDS.
*Kalpesh Ashara, Jignesh Solanki
B.K.Mody Govt.Pharmacy College Rajkot,
Department of Pharmaceutics,GTU, Gujarat, India.
Microspheres are solid spherical particles containing a dispersed drug in organic solution fall in a range of 1-1000mm. Microspheres or micro particles are monolithinic device refer to a rate controlling matrix throughout the drug is dissolved or dispersed, while microcapsules are device which consists of cell-like dosage forms with the drug contain within the rate controlling membrane. Microspheres are prepared by several methods. Here Microspheres are prepared using a surface active agent SLS. Then Evaluation of Microspheres is carried out by means of several parameters. Then concluded that the diclofenac: polymer ratio of 1:2 & organic solvent (MeOH: DCM) ratio of 1:4 was found to be optimum for spherical shape of microspheres as well as Practical Yield.
PREPARATION OF VILOXAZINE SUSTAINED RELEASE DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM BY USING ETHYLCELLULOSE, CARBOPOL, SODIUM ALGINATE, HYDROXY PROPYL METHYL CELLULOSE & GUAR GUM
D. HariHaran*, M. Senthil kumar, M. Ashok Kumar, S. Dinesh & R.Jenish.
Annai Veilankanni’s College of Pharmacy,
81, V.G.P. Salai, Saidapet, Chennai-600015.
The present study behind this work is to find to prepare sustained release tablets of Viloxazine by compression method. First of all to formulate Viloxazine sustained release tablets using the Ethylcellulose, Carbopol, Sodium Alginate, Hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose & Guar gum under ratio’s like 1:1, 1:1, 1:1,1:1,1:1 . Five batches were made in various polymers of ethylcellulose, carbopol, sodium alginate,hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose & guar gum is used by keeping the drug as constant. Then evaluation of Viloxazine sustained release tablets was carried out for characteristics like drug content in tablet, UV analysis. In vitro release starts from 1hr and up to 24hrs. It shows the percentage of gradual drug release as 17.80%, 27.65%, 35.12%, 45.16%, 51.20%, 57.42%, 61.30%, 66.32%, 72.08%, 77.15%, 81.32%, 84.48% & 98.20% against the label claim as 40mg.
Patel Chirag J1*, Satyanand Tyagi2
1Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Jaipur, Rajasthan.
2President, Tyagi Pharmacy Association & Scientific Writer (pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India.
The basic rationale of sustained release drug delivery system optimizes the biopharmaceutical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a drug in such a way that its utility is maximized, side-effects are reduced and cure of the disease is achieved. There are several advantages of sustained release drug delivery over conventional dosage forms like improved patient compliance due to less frequent drug administration, maximum utilization of the drug, increased safety margin of potent drug, reduction of fluctuation in steady-state drug levels, reduction in healthcare costs through improved therapy and shorter treatment period.Presently pharmaceutical industries are focusing on development of sustained release formulations due to its inherent boons.Wide varieties of polymers are available for retarding the release rate of drugs hence sustains the action of drugs. This article contains the basic information regarding sustained-release formulation, its advantages, different types, and characteristics involved in oral sustained-release dosage form design.
Mr. Satyanand Tyagi*, Patel Chirag J1, Asheesh Singh2
*President, Tyagi Pharmacy Association & Scientific Writer (pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
Prof. Satyanand Tyagi is a life time member of various pharmacy professional bodies like IPA, APTI and IPGA. He has published various research papers and review articles. His academic works include 52 Publications (44 Review Articles and 08 Research Articles of Pharmaceutical, Medicinal and Clinical Importance, published in standard and reputed National and International Pharmacy journals; Out of 52 publications, 11 are International Publications).
He has published his papers almost in different specialization of Pharmacy field...His research topics of interest are neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes mellitus, cancer, rare genetic disorders, psycho-pharmacological agents as well as epilepsy.
1Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
2Research Associate, Center for Research and Development, Ipca Laboratories Ltd Ratlam, Madhya Pradesh, India-457114.
*sntyagi9 @yahoo.com, +91-9871111375 / 9582025220
Prior studies have suggested that depressed people with evidence of high inflammation are less likely to respond to traditional treatments for the disorder, including anti-depressant medications and psychotherapy. This study was designed to see whether blocking inflammation would be a useful treatment for either a wide range of people with difficult-to-treat depression or only those with high levels of inflammation. The study employed infliximab, one of the new biologic drugs used to treat autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. A biologic drug copies the effects of substances naturally made by the body's immune system. In this case, the drug was an antibody that blocks tumour necrosis factor (TNF), a key molecule in inflammation that has been shown to be elevated in some depressed individuals. Study participants all had major depression and were moderately resistant to conventional antidepressant treatment. Each participant was assigned either to infliximab or to a non-active placebo treatment. When investigators looked at the results for the group as a whole, no significant differences were found in the improvement of depression symptoms between the drug and placebo groups. However, when the subjects with high inflammation were examined separately, they exhibited a much better response to infliximab than to placebo.
A.S.B.A.S.J.S.M. College Of Pharmacy Bela Ropar.
The first and the second generation type of dosage forms had been found to have lower efficacy of drug reaching to the targeted tissue this lead to need for third generation drug delivery system which contains the liposomes, microspheres, microcapsules, nanodiamonds etc. with these type of drug delivery system it had been found to have better patient compliance and reduced side effects. The present paper deals with the same as there is first formation of Metformin double emulsion and then precipitation of the drug from the polymeric solution. In this study challenge was to encapsulate Metformin with high entrapment efficiency by w/o/o double emulsion solvent diffusion technique using non-aqueous processing media. The primary requirement of this method to obtain microsphere is that selected solvent for polymer must be immiscible with non aqueous processing media, so to fulfill the requirement.
Sahil Jasuja1*, Mahesh Kumar Kataria1
1 Department of Quality Assurance,
Seth G.L. Bihani S.D. College of Technical education (Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research),
Sri Ganganagar, (Raj.), India.
Regulatory involvement and environmental concerns are causing pharmacists to take a closer look at how their organizations are managing pharmaceutical waste. Each organization should evaluate its current waste management practices in comparison with state regulatory guidelines. Organizations must then develop a comprehensive plan for full compliance through segregation of waste into the appropriate waste streams. The discovery of a variety of pharmaceuticals in surface, ground, and drinking waters around the country is raising concerns about the potentially adverse environmental consequences of these contaminants. Pharmaceutical waste is not one single waste stream, but many distinct waste streams that reflect the complexity and diversity of the chemicals that comprise pharmaceuticals. Pharmaceutical waste is potentially generated through a wide variety of activities in a health care facility, including but not limited to intravenous (IV) preparation, general compounding, spills/breakage, partially used vials, syringes, and IVs, discontinued, unused preparations, unused unit dose repacks, patients’ personal medications and outdated pharmaceuticals. The consistent increase in the use of potent pharmaceuticals, driven by both drug development and our aging population, is creating a corresponding increase in the amount of pharmaceutical waste generated.
Maharshi Dayanand University,
The word “Dossier” has its English meaning as - a collection or file of documents on the same subject, especially a file containing detailed information about a person or a topic. Any preparation for human use that is intended to modify or explore physiological systems or pathological states for the benefit of the recipient is called as “pharmaceutical product for human use”. Process of reviewing and assessing the dossier of a pharmaceutical product containing its detailed data (administrative, chemistry, pre-clinical and clinical) and the permission granted by the Regulatory Agencies of a country with a view to support its marketing / approval in a country is called as the “Marketing Approval or the “Registration” “Marketing Authorization” or the “Product Licensing”.
“Registration Dossier” of the pharmaceutical product is a document that contains all the technical data (administrative, quality, nonclinical and clinical) of a pharmaceutical product to be approved / registered / marketed in a country. It is more commonly called as the New Drug Application (NDA) in the USA or Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) in the European Union (EU) and other countries, or simply Registration Dossier. Basically, this consists of data proving that the drug has quality, efficacy and safety properties suitable for the intended use, additional administrative documents, samples of finished product or related substances and reagents necessary to perform analyzes of finished product. Therefore, they are the vehicle in a country through which drug sponsors formally propose that the Regulatory Agencies approve a new pharmaceutical for sale and marketing.