SCIENTIFIC APPROACH TO TREAT TOBACCO ADDICTION – A REVIEW

 

 

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ABOUT AUTHORS
Pooja A.M* . Apsari Anjum , Shashank Nayak N , Shwetha Kamath KS
Bapuji pharmacy college, Davangere, Karnataka

ABSTRACT
In this current review , we have gathered the information regarding the various aspects of tobacco. The propagation &  measures taken like the climatic condition for instance temperature ,soil texture are discussed in this review. The different methods of isolation using fungal pectinase to release mesophilic cells & its further process are reviewed in this work .Attempts have been made to gather information on the side effects of tobacco & the various measures to treat nicotine addiction are highlighted in this article.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2665

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 7, Issue 05

Received On: 04/04/2019; Accepted On: 20/04/2019; Published On: 01/05/2019

How to cite this article: Nayak, S., M, P., Anjum, A. and KS, S. 2019. Scientific Approach to Treat Tobacco Addiction – A review. PharmaTutor. 7, 5 (May 2019), 10-14

INTRODUCTION
Tobacco is a product prepared from leaves of the tobacco plant by curing them .Tobacco consists of dried leaves of ‘Nicotianatobacum‘, belonging to family’ Solanaceae’.while more than 70 species of tobacco are known ,the chief commercial crop is nicotianatobacum. The more potent variant Nicotinumrustica is also used around the world .(Kokatec.k 2017)

Tobacco is a plant grown for its leaves which are dried and fermented before being put in tobcco products. Tobacco contains nicotine an ingredient that can lead to addiction which is why so many people who use tobacco find it difficult to quit. There are also many other potentially harmful chemicals found in tobacco or created by burning it.

CLIMATIC CONDITION
• Climatic requirements for tobacco cultivation is basically tobacco is a semi tropical crop but can be successfully grown in tropical region. It requires 2100 C to 3100 C temperature during growth period.The cultivation of tobacco usually take place annually . It has a height of 1 to 3 metres. It has erect stem and few branches. The tobacco is germinated in cold frames or in early spring. Depending upon the nature of the tobacco ,the requirements of the soil and climate also vary, Seeds are used for the cultivation.
• The majority of varieties will start showing germination in 7-10 days,or even a little sooner but different varieties do germinate at different speeds .It is unusual for some to take a long as two weeks to show signs of germination and this can stretch into 3-4 weeks in cold soil and in summer heat. The crop can be grown on heavy textured soils (sand clay loam and heavier) provided. The limitation  of the appropriate measures taken to over come this by late ploughing. Tobacco is sensitive to water logging.
• Warm season veggies require both warm soil and high temperature (with a little cooling at night). To grow staidly and produce crops they include traditional summer crops such as beans etc. (Kokatec.k 2017).

MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
COLOUR :- Green or slightly brown
ODOUR :-Characteristic to nicotine
TASTE :-  Bitter
SIZE  :-  62 to 80 cm in length, 35 to 45 cm width
SHAPE :- Ovate. Elliptic or lanceolate

EXTRA FEATURES
The leaves are usually sessile, sometimes petiolate and with frilled wing.

TOP 10 LARGEST  TOBACCO PRODUCING COUNTRIES ACROSS THE WORLD IN 2018-2019
1) CHINA
2) BRAZIL
3) INDIA
4) UNITED STATE OF AMERICA
5) INDONESIA
6) ARGENTINA
7) ZIMBABWE
8) TURKEY
9) MALAWI
10) PAKISTHAN

ISOLATION OF TOBACCO MESOPHYLL CELLS IN INTACT AND ACTIVE STATE
A Procedure using a fungal pectinase was developed to rapidly release mesophyll cells from tobacco leaves. 50 % to 90 % of the released cells were morphologically intact and were converted into spherical protoplasts by cellulose treatment. cells isolated from tobacco mosaic virus inoculated leaves supported multiplication of the virus during subsequent incubation. (James F, Shepard 1995)

INFECTION OF TOBACCO  MESOPHILE PROTO PLASTS MESOPHYLL VIRUS
It was provided at that the protoplasts prepared from mesophyll of nicotinatabaccum  are infected by tobacco mosaic virus. The infection occurred when purified tobacco mosaic virus particles were added to a protoplast suspension in the presence of poly -L- ornithine. The virus multiplied in these protoplast to a level of 10 ‘6virus particles per infected protoplast during 24 hours of incubation. The efficiency of infection was remarkably high exceeding that by mechanical inoculation of tobacco leaves.

Isolated protoplasts from healthy tobacco mesophyll tissues were infected by contact with infectious RNA from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV).During subsequent incubation of the protoplasts in a liquid medium ,a synchronous multiplication of TMV occurred and the amount of intracellular virus reached a maximum after 22 hrs. Fluorescent antibody staining showed that 3-7% of the protoplasts were infected. Average virus yield per infected protoplast was estimated to be 0.9-5.5*10. 5 particles (saoki ,takebei,otsaki,1969).

CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS
Tobacco contains pyridine –Piperidine type of alkaloids ,(0.5 to 1.5%) among which the most prominent is nicotine . The other alkaloids are nornicotine and anabasine
The in vitro addition of 7,8 benzoflavone inhibits the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in hepatic microsomes  from methylcholanthrene treated male rats,but not in hepatic microsomes from control or phenobarbital treated animals .(kokatec.k 2017).

CHEMICAL TEST
Aqueous extract of tobacco when treated with cyanogen bromide solution gives orange colour.(kokatec.k 2017).

HOW DO PEOPLE USE TOBACCO
People can smoke ,chew or sniff tobacco .tobacco smoked products has cigarette cigars bidis and kreteks  and some other people will smoke loose tobacco in a pipe or hookah it is also called water pipe. products of chewed tobacco include chewing tobacco ,snuff ,dip and snus; snuff can also be sniffed (Ibrahim al ,msjygross 1990).

HOW DOES TOBACCO EFFECT THE BRAIN
The nicotine in any tobacco product readily absorbs into the blood when person uses it  upon entering the blood ,nicotine immediately stimulates the adrenal glands to release the harmone epinephrine (adrenaline). epinephrine stimulates the central nervous system and increases blood pressure breathing and heart rate .as with drugs such a cocaine and heroin , the brain is activated by nicotine which reward circuits and also increases  level of the chemical messenger dopamine which reinforces rewarding behaviours,by this studies suggests that other chemicals in tobacco  smoke such as acetaldehyde, it may enhance nicotine`s effects on the brain.(Ibrahim al ,msjygross 1990).

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