A REVIEW ON PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND PHARMACOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE GENUS ALSTONIA

 

 

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ABOUT AUTHORS
RAMYA MADHIRI1, G. VIJAYALAKSHMI2
1Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, AU college of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam - 530 003.
2Department of Biotechnology, GIT,  GITAM University, Visakhapatnam -530 045
*ramyapraveen2709@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Herbal medicines contribute a major share of officially recognized health care systems. Scientific research was trending on the isolation of active compounds of herbal origin. The present review concentrate on important species, active constituents, pharmacological aspects, identification tests for active constituents and the important research work carried out on the genus   Alstonia which may be helpful for the future research work.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2560

PharmaTutor (Print-ISSN: 2394 - 6679; e-ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 6, Issue 1

Received On: 17/10/2017; Accepted On: 13/11/2017; Published On: 01/01/2018

How to cite this article: Madhiri R, Vijayalakshmi G; A Review on Phytochemical Composition and Pharmacological Aspects of the Genus Alstonia; PharmaTutor; 2018; 6(1); 50-55; http://dx.doi.org/10.29161/PT.v6.i1.2018.50

INTRODUCTION
Genus Alstonia  R Br., belongs to the family Apocynaceae .Alstonia is a wide spread genus of evergreen shrubs and trees and consists   40-60 species. Plants of this genus commonly called   as Australian fever   bush, Australian quinine, and Devil’s tree.  It was named by Robert Brown in 1811, after Alston (1685-1760). Plants grow upto 60 mts height and girth upto 2 mts.

Stem is woody, erect with excurrent canopy.  The bark is grey in colour ,younger stem is green in colour,shows lenticles ,bark have many active principles with therapeutic activity.
Leaves are simple, sessile, pinnate, leathery and dorsiventral with whorled phyllotaxy.  Leaves vary in their shape ranging from ellipticle, ovate, linear and lanceolate with entire margin and reticulate venation.

The inflorescence is cymose, terminal or axiliary compound umbles blooms in the month of October with fragrance.  The flowers are small, white, yellow, pink or green funnel-shaped.  The fertile flowers are hermaphrodite. The fertile flowers are bracteates, complete, hypogynous, sepals and petals 5 each and united.  The corolla lobes overlapping to the left in A. rostrata and A. scholaris andto the right in A. macrophylla in the bud.  Stamens 5 with short filaments, epipetalous.  The ovary is bicarpellary, carpels separate at the base and develops into two separate podlike follicles of 7–40 cm long.

Traditional uses:
The bark, the latex   from the bark or other plant parts of Alstonia is widely used in traditional medicine throughout  south east Asia. The bitter taste   is due to tonic and febrifuge activity, it is further credited with astringent and anthelminthic properties.  It is employed in liver and intestinal troubles, heart diseases, asthma, various skin diseases, fever, vulnerary andemmenagogue.The timber of scholaris species is used for pencil manufacture, matches, tea chests, crates, plywood, pulp, carpentry and carving. The latex of Alstonia is used for chewing gum. Some species of Alstonia are planted as ornamental trees.

 

Images of Alstonia species

fig 1.Alstolnia scholaris R.Br[Photograph by Ramya.M]

Fig  2.Alstonia macrophylla Wall.[leaves& fruit in Hyderabad,Wikipidea]

fig3. Alstonia booneiDe Wild.[Sciencebeing journal]

Fig 4. Alstonia angustifolia Ex G Dou.[Department of  Agriculture,Union Territory of Puducherry]

Basic features of species of Alstoniagenus
Alstonia scholaris R.Br
It is commonly known as black board tree, devil tree, Dita bark is an evergreen tree with large canopy native to India, Indo malaya, Malaysia and Australia .In Telugu is Devasuruppi. The flower, root ,stem bark, leaves are proved to have pharmacological activity.

Alstonia macrophylla Wall.
It is also called as Alstonia acuminata.It is straight and tallest   tree with narrow crowned. native to Indonesia ,Malaysia, Thailand. wood is of superior quality than the scholaris wood. Stem bark has showed maximum therapeutic effect commonly called as Barakir.it is a potential antidyssentric, emmanogogue, antiperiodic agent.
Alstonia boonei De Wild.

It is commonly called as cheese wood , pattern wood very large tropical forest tree ,native to tropical west part of Africa. Root ,leaves, stem showed potential activity. the active principles of Alstonia boonei were effective and safe.it has potential aphrodiastic ,antipyretic, antidiabetic activities.
Alstonia angustifolia Ex G Dou.

It is commonly known as red leafed pulai  ,distributed in Africa it had wide pharmacological  action, it is medium size tree native to Indonesia ,Malaysia ,Philippines .stem part showed potential therapeutic activity.

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