Anti-inflammatory activity of Methanolic extract of Aerial parts of Emblica officinalis on Carragenin induced rat paw edema

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About Authors:
Gourab Saha*, Sabitri Bindhani, Niranjan Kumar Manna
Department of Pharmaceutics,
College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mohuda,
Berhampur – 760002, Orissa, India


This study investigated the anti-inflammatory potential of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis (Amla) in male albino rats after intramuscular administration. This was done using the Carragenin-induced paw edema method (acute inflammatory model).Methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis showed significant anti-inflammatory activity similar to ketoprofen and indomethacin.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1293

The search for new pharmacologically active agents obtained by screening natural sources and plant extracts has led to the discovery of many clinically useful drugs that play a major role in the treatment of human diseases. In India, a small proportion of wild plants have been investigated both phytochemically and pharmacologically. Emblica officinalis (Amla) is a deciduous tree.Amla is highly nutritious and is an important dietary source of Vitamin C, minerals and amino acids.It is known for its edible fruit. The amla fruit is sour and astringent in taste with sweet, bitter and pungent secondary taste. Amla is used for all Pitta diseases, all obstinate urinary conditions, anemia, biliousness, bleeding, colitis, constipation, convalescence from fever, cough, diabetes, gastritis, gout, hepatitis, hemorrhoids, liver weakness, to relieve stress ,osteoporosis, palpitation, spleen weakness, tissue deficiency, vertigo rebuilds blood, bones, cells, and tissues. It increases red blood cell count and regulates blood sugar; heart tonic, cleanses mouth, stops gum bleeding, cleanses intestines, ulcerations, G.I. disorders, painful urination, and internal bleeding. We report here on the anti- inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis using the carragenin-induced paw edema method (acute inflammatory model) in male albino rats.

Materials and methods:

Healthy adult cross-breed albino male rats (150–200 g) were used in the study. The animals were kept in plastic cages (four per cage) under standardized animal house conditions with continuous access to pellet feed and tap water. Every effort was made to minimize animal suffering and to reduce the number of animals used in this study.

Plant material
The fresh plant of Emblica officinalis were collected from the local market in the month of October 2009.

Extraction:The aerial part (50 g) was powdered and extracted with methanol (50–60ºC) for 6 h using the Soxhlet extraction process. The extract was subjected to vacuum distillation under reduced pressure. Here the solvent distillated off and concentrated into syrup mass then to it 5ml of concentrated HCl was added and then allow to still the mixture under reflux for 2 hours. Then kept the mixture for cooling below 5ºC for 2 hours. Then it was filtered under vacuum. Then the filtered was made alkaline pH 9 with 10% ammonia solution before addition of few drops of boiling water to the precipitate. Then allow the mixture into reflux for 2 hours. Then cooled at room temperature and filter it under vacuum. The precipitate was taken and dried properly to make the powder form.

Anti-inflammatory activity:

Carragenin-induced paw edema

Thirty five male albino rats were utilized for studying carragenin induces hind paw edema. The rats were divided into three groups. The suspension of  the drug (test as well as standard to respective groups) were administrate intramuscularly 30 min before injection of carragenin an paw volume was measured and the percentage inhibition of edema at different time interval was calculated.

Table 1: Acute anti-inflammatory activity of the methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis, indomethacin (reference drug), ketoprofen (reference drug) on Carragenin induced paw edema in male albino rats.



Edema rate (%)

1 hr

2 hr

3 hr

4 hr

5 hr




0.45 + 0.01


0.68 + 0.03


0.74 + 0.02


0.77 + 0.01


0.79 + 0.01



0.25 + 0.02


0.36 + 0.01


0.48+ 0.02


0.59 + 0.01


0.63 + 0.03




0.22 + 0.02


0.24 + 0.01


0.26 + 0.02


0.29 + 0.01


0.38 + 0.03


Extract (methanolic Emblica officinalis)

0.22 + 0.02


0.29 + 0.01


0.40 + 0.00


0.51 + 0.01


0.54 + 0.04


The results obtained are summarized in Table 1. As shown, all the doses of methanolic extract of Emblica officinalis tested caused a significant (p < 0.05) and marked reduction in paw edema (32–40.5%) compared to control at each time point measured. Indomethacin and ketoprofen also impaired the edema formation, but this anti- inflammatory effect was much stronger (56–69%).

· Bhatterjee SK (2001): Handbook of Medicinal Plants, 3rd ed. Jaipur, Pointer Publisher, pp. 11
· Hostettmann K (1997): Strategy for the biological and chemical evaluationof plant extracts. Presented at: International Conferenceon Biodiversity and Bioresources: Conservation and Utilization,23–27 November, Thailand, abstr. no. 178.
· Pharmacopoeia of India, Vol. 11, 3rd edition, Govt. of India, New Delhi. Page – 64.
· Arregoni – mastellie, E (1977) inflammatory and anti-inflammatory, spectrum publications Inc New York Page – 119 to 120.
· Kavinavis, Vetricholvan T, Liango R, Jaykar B (1966) anti- inflammatory action of volatile oil of toddalin artatica, Indian J. pharm science. Page 67 to 70.
· D’ areay P.D., Howard E.M., Mugglton w/w, Townsend S.B. (1960) The anti-inflammatory acivity



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vatupali's picture

carragene is too costly know sir
where did you got this sir
please let me know about the suppliers and its cost