A REVIEW ON MUSSAENDA SPECIES

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Few Structures of Phytoconstituents isolated from mussaenda species:


Mussaendoside W

INTRODUCTION OF RUBIACEAE FAMILY:
The Rubiaceae are trees, shrubs, or infrequently herbs comprising about 450 genera and 6,500 species, including some lianous forms.

The leaves are simple and usually entire, and are opposite or sometimes whorled; stipules are present and interpetiolar.

The flowers are nearly always bisexual and actinomorphic, often heterostylous, and usually are in cymose inflorescences.

The fruit is variable, sometimes forming multiples.

The calyx is mostly somewhat reduced and 4-5-lobed or sometimes the lobes are obsolete or rarely one of them greatly expanded and brightly colored.

 The sympetalous corolla is mostly 4-5-lobed, occasionally with 3 or up to 10 lobes.

 The androecium consists of as many stamens as corolla lobes and is adnate to the corolla tube or epigynous zone, alternate with the lobes.

The gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of 2 or seldom more carpels, a single style, and a nearly always inferior ovary with the number of locules equaling the number of carpels, each with 1-many axile ovules. An epigynous nectary disk is usually present.

Past work reported on some plants of Mussaendagenus

Mussaendaerythrophylla
Mussaendaerythrophylla (Rubiaceae) is native to western tropical Africa, occasionally seen in gardens and parks as ornamental plant in India  and is commonly known as mussenda (telugu), nagavalli (Sanskrit) and red flag bush (English)(33).It is a perennial, evergreen shrub with branched tap root system.

Phytoconstituents reported:
Qualitative phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate extract of M.erythrophyllastem revealed the presence of steroids(β-Sitosterol), triterpenoids ( 3-iso cumaryloxy-cyclopropane-1-oic acid ) and flavonoids ( 5-hydroxy-7, 4’-dimethoxy flavones ). Phytochemical analysis reveal that Mussaendaerythrophylla stem contains phytosterols, triterpenoids, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides and tannins.

Biological activities reported:
Roots are useful for cough, jaundice, when chewed acts as an appetizer.The ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts from roots of M. erythrophylla showed concentration dependent anthelmintic activity against earthworms.

Natural antioxidants such as phenolic acids, flavonoids and tannins possess potent antioxidant activity(30).Sterols like ßsitosterol  have been reported for antioxidant activity(31).Terpenoids are also reported to possess antioxidant activity (32).

Mussaendafrondosa(Dhobi tree)
It is found from Indo-China to Malaysia. And also is distributed in Central Nepal, India and Srilanka. It is somewhat smaller and more upright than the above two species, 6 to 9 ft tall, with an equal spread. The foliage is a lighter green, and the terminal flower clusters have orange to yellow, tubular corollas with a single white enlarged calyx lobe. This species is often grown in clumps(04).

Phytoconstituents reported:
The phytochemical screening subjected to detect the presence of some secondary plant metabolites. Ethyl alcohol extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, steroids, alkaloids, terpenoids, flavanoids, tannins and poly phenols, while aqueous extract showed presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins and poly phenols.

Biological activities reported:
that alkaloids and flavanoids shows antioxidant property and their effects on human nutrition and health care are considerable(Kumpulainen). Mechanism of action of alkaloids are through inhibition of  roxidation(20, 21)

Compounds such as flavanoids are responsible for inhibition of lipid peroxidation(22). Scavenging activity of free radicals of 1,1 diphenyl-1,2-picryl hydrazyl(DPPH) has been widely used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plants. The DPPH radical scavenging activity increases with increasing concentration. Ethyl alcohol and aqueous extract of MussaendaFrondosaexhibited good reducing power. The juice of the root is used to treat blemishes on the tongue and the sepals are diuretic(05).

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