Pharma Admission

pharma admission


Intra peritoneal injection reported that survival of cells in circulation was equivalent to the cells administered by i.v injection .They reported that 25% of resealed cell remained in circulation for 14 days they also proposed this method of injection as a method for extra vascular targeting of RBCs to peritoneal macrophages. Subcutaneous route for slow release of entrapped agents. They reported that the loaded cell released encapsulated molecules at the injection site.(42- 44)


These are specially engineered vesicular systems that are chemically cross-linked to human erythrocytes’ support upon which a lipid bilayer is coated. This process is achieved by modifying a reverse-phase evaporation technique. These vesicles have been proposed as useful encapsulation systems for macromolecular drugs.(45-46)

These are prepared by extrusion of erythrocyte ghosts to produce nm. Daunorubicin was covalently conjugated to nanoerythrosomes using gluteraldehyde spacer. This complex was more active than free daunorubicin alone.(47-48)

Future prospects:
The concept of employing erythrocytes as drug or bioactive carrier still need further optimization. A large amount of valuable work is needed so as to utilize the potentials of erythrocytes in passive as well as active targeting of drugs in diseases like cancer. For the present, it is concluded that erythrocyte carriers are most effective in novel drug delivery systems considering their tremendous potential. Genetic engineering aspects can be coupled to give a newer dimension to the existing cellular drug carrier concept. Main suggestion for future study is that by using RBCs as carrier through we can transplant steroids and hormones to the targeting site by reducing their side effects.

1. Green R and. Widder KJ, Methods in Enzymology (Academic Press, San Diego, 1987:pp149.
2. Tortara GJ, Derrickson B, The Cardiovascular System The Blood in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 669-672
3. G.J. Torotra and S.R. Grabowski, “The Cardiovascular System: The Blood,” in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, Publishers, New York, NY, 7th ed., (1993), pp. 566–590.
4. G.M. Ihler,“Erythrocyte Carriers,”Pharmacol. Ther.(1989).20, 151–169
5. Green R and Widder K.J., Methods in Enzymology (Academic Press, San Diego, 1987), p. 149.
6. Ropars C., Chassaigne M., and Nicoulau C., Advances in the BioSciences, Pergamon Press, Oxford, 1987), p. 67.
7. Guyton A.C. and Hall J.E., “Transport of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide in the Blood and Body Fluids,” Textbook of Medical Physiology (W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA, 1996), pp. 513–523.
8. Jain S. and Jain N.K., “Engineered Erythrocytes as a Drug Delivery ystem,” Indian J. Pharm. Sci. 1997; 59: 275–281.
9. Lewis D.A. and Alpar H.O. Therapeutic Possibilities of DrugsEncapsulatedin Erythrocytes. Int. J. Pharm. 1984; 22: 137–146.
10. Jaitely V. et al., “Resealed Erythrocytes: Drug Carrier Potentials and Biomedical Applications,” Ind. Drugs1996; 33: 589–594.
11. Summers M.P., “Recent Advances in Drug Delivery,” Pharm. J. 1983; 230: 643–645.
12. M.P. Summer. Recent Advances in Drug Delivery, Pharm. J., 1983; 230, 643–645.
13. Torotra G.J. and Grabowski S.R. The Cardiovascular System: The Blood, in Principles of Anatomy and Physiology Harper Collins College Publishers, New York, NY, 7th ed., 1993; 566–590. System’s Activity in Lowering Blood Levels of Urea in Animal Models, biochemistry soc.trans, 1976; 4:677.
14. M. Hamidi and H. Tajerzadeh, “Carrier Erythrocytes: An Overview,” Drug delivery(2003)10, 9–20 .
15. J.R. Deloach, R.L. Harris, and G.M. Ihler, “An Erythrocyte Encapsu- lator Dialyzer Used in Preparing Large Quantities of Erythrocyte Ghosts and Encapsulation of a Pesticide in Erythrocyte Ghosts,”Anal. Biochem. (1980)102, 220 227
16. E. Pitt et al., “Encapsulation of Drugs in Intact Erythrocytes: An Intravenous Delivery System,” Biochem. Pharmacol. 22, (1983) 3359–3368 .
17. J.R. Deloach and G.M. Ihler, “A Dialysis Procedure for Loading of Erythrocytes with Enzymes and Lipids,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta. (1977). 496, 136–145
18. D.A. Lewis and H.O. Alpar, “Therapeutic Possibilities of Drugs Encapsulated in Erythrocytes,” Int. J. Pharm. 22, (1984)137–146
19. H. Davson and J.F. Danielli Dannen Conn.(Hanfer Publishing Co Germany, 1970), p. 80.
20. U. Benatti et al., “Comparative Tissue Distribution and Metabolism of Free Versus Erythrocyte-Encapsulated Adriamycin in the Mouse, Adv. Biosci. (series) 67, (1987)129– 136.
21. K. Kinosita and T.Y. Tsong , “Hemolysis of Human Erythrocytes by a Transient Electric Field,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74, (1977)1923–1927.
22. Jain S, Jain NK, and Dixit VK, “Erythrocytes Based Delivery of Isoniazid: Preparation and In VitroCharacterization,” Indian Drugs 1995; 32: 471–476.
23. M. Hamidi et al., “In VitroCharacterization of Human Intact Erythrocytes Loaded by Enalaprilat,”Drug Delivery 2001; 8:231–237.
24. Updike SJ and Wakamiya RT, “Infusion of Red Blood Cell- Loaded Asparaginase in Monkey,” J. Lab. Clin. Med. 1983; 101: 679–691.
25. D.A. Lewis. Red Blood Cells for Drug Delivery, Pharm. J., 1984; 32: 384–385.
26. H.O. Alpar and W.J. Irwin. Some Unique Applications of Erythrocytes as Carrier Systems, Adv. Biosci. (Series) 1987; 67: 1–9.
27. Alvarez IJ. Cross- Linking Treatment of Loaded Erythrocytes Increases delivery of Encapsulated Substance to Macrophages, Biotechnology. Appl. Biochem. 1998; 27:139-143.
28. M Gallo, P K Gupta, C T Hung, D G Perrier, J. Pharm. Sci. 1978. 78-190.
29. J.R. Deloach and G.M. Ihler, A Dialysis Procedure for Loading of Erythrocytes with Enzymes and Lipids, Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1977; 496, 136–145.
30. V. Jaitely et al. Resealed Erythrocytes: Drug Carrier Potentials and Biomedical Applications, Indian Drugs, 1996; 33:589– 594.
31. M.P. Summer. Recent Advances in DrugDelivery, Pharm. J., 1983; 230, 643–645.
32. Talwar N, Jain NK. Erythrocytes as carriers of primaquin preparation, characterization and evaluation. J. Control Release 1992; 20: 133–142.
33. Pei I, Encapsulation of Phosphotriesterase within Murine Erythrocytes, Toxicol, Appl. Pharmacol. 1994; 124: 296-301.
34. Zocchi E. et al. In-Vivo Liver and Lung Targeting of Adriamycin Encapsulated in Glutaraldehyde Treated Murine Erythrocytes, Biotechnology.Appl.Biochem.1988; 10:555–562.
35. Fraternale A, Rossi L., and M.Magnani. Encapsulation, Metabolism, and Release of 2-Fluoro-Ara-AMP from Human Erythrocytes, Biochim.Biophys. Acta.1996; 1291(2):149–154.
36. R. Baker. Entry of Ferritin into Human Red Cells during Hypotonic Haemolysis, Nature, 1967; 215: 424–425.
37. X. Zhou and T. R. Graham. Reconstitution of phospholipid translocase activity with purified Drs2p, a type-IV P-type ATPase from budding yeast Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.USA 2009; 106: 16586-16591
39. Magnani M. et al. Acetaldehyde Dehydrogenase-Loaded Erythrocytes as Bioreactors for Removal of Blood Acetaldehyde, Alcoholism, Clin. Exp. Res.1989; 13:849–859.
40. H.O. Alpar and W.J. Irwin. Some Unique Applications of Erythrocytes as Carrier Systems, Adv. Biosci. (Series) 1987; 67: 1–9.
41. Gothoskar AV. Resealed erythrocytes: a review, Pharmaceutical Technology 2004; 1: 140-158.
42. Vyas S. P. ; Naresh Talwar ; Karajgi J. S. ;Jain N. K. An erythrocyte based bioadhesive system for nasal delivery of propranolol , Journal of controlled release, 1993; (23): 231-237.
43. R Green, J Miller and W Crosby Enhancement of iron chelation by desferrioxamine entrapped in red blood cell ghosts, The American Society of Hematology 57( 5), 866-872 .
44. B. C. Pressman, Biological Applications of Ionophores, Annual Review of Biochemistry, (45): 501-530.
45. J. Cuppoletti et al. Erythrosomes: Large Proteoliposomes Derived from Cross- Linked Human Erythrocyte Cytoskeletons and Exogenous Lipid, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1981; 78(5): 2786–2790.
46. S.P. Vyas and V.K. Dixit, Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 1 (CBS Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi). 1999:655.
47. M. Moorjani et al. Nanoerythrosomes, A New Derivative of Erythrocyte Ghost II: Identification of the Mechanism of Action, Anticancer Res. 1996; 16 (5A): 2831– 2836.
48. A. Lejeune et al. Nanoerythrosomes, A New Derivative of Erythrocyte Ghost: III. Is Phagocytosis Involved in the Mechanism of Action, Anticancer Res. 1997: 17- 5.



Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email