NUTRACEUTICAL: A NEW SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITY OF HEALTHCARE

ABOUT AUTHORS
Abhishek Kumar*, Sandhya Singh, Rajesh Kumar, Pankaj Maurya, Devendra Nath
Department of Pharmacy
Ashoka Institute of Technology and Management,
Varanasi, U.P., India

ABSTRACT
Nutraceutical from Nutrition and Pharmaceutical, in 1989. Nutraceuticals refers to foods having a medicinal effect on health of human beings. It consist of food supplements, herbal products, probiotics and prebiotics, medical foods meant for prevention and treatment of diseases. Major nutraceuticals posses multiple therapeutic effect with lacking of unwanted effects. A nutraceutical is demonstrated to have a physiological benefit or provide protection against chronic disease. I try to redefine functional foods and nutraceuticals. When food is being cooked or prepared using scientific intelligence with or without knowledge is called functional food. Thus, functional food provides the body with the required amount of vitamins, fats, proteins, carbohydrates, etc, needed for its healthy survival When functional food aids in the prevention, treatment of disease(s) and disorder(s) other than anemia, it is called a nutraceutical. Nutraceuticals are non toxic food components which claimed to possess multiple therapeutic benefits. Some popular nutraceuticals include glucosamine, ginseng, echinacea, folic acid, cod liver oil, omega-3 fatty acid(MUFA,PUFA), calcium-enriched orange juice, green tea, plant phenols etc.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-2599

INTRODUCTION
"Nutraceutical" was coined from "nutrition"and "pharmaceutical" in 1989 by Stephen Defelice, MD, founder and chairman of the Foundation for Innovation in Medicine (FIM), Cranford, NJ. According to him, nutraceutical can be defined as, "a food  that provides medical or health benefits, including the prevention and/or treatment of a disease." [Brower V., 1998]. Today, Nutraceutical in market consist of both traditional food and non traditional food.

Traditional food: Consist of natural, whole foods with new information about their potential health qualities, no change to actual foods. Example: lycopene in tomatoes, omega-3fatty acids in salmon.

Non traditional food: Resulting from agricultural breeding or added nutrients and ingredients, that is to boost their nutritional values. Example – β carotene enriched rice and soybeans. Cereals with added vitamins or minerals, orange juice fortified with calcium, cereals with added vitamins and minerals [Neutraceuticals. Aboutbioscience. Org.2007.]

Dietary supplement: FDA regulates both finished dietary supplement products and dietary ingredients. FDA regulates dietary supplements under a different set of regulations than those covering "conventional" foods and drug products. Under the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 (DSHEA):
• Manufacturers and distributors of dietary supplements and dietary ingredients are prohibited from marketing products that are adulterated or misbranded.  That means that these firms are responsible for evaluating the safety and labeling of their products before marketing to ensure that they meet all the requirements of DSHEA and FDA regulations.
• FDA is responsible for taking action against any adulterated or misbranded dietary supplement product after it reaches the market.

Examples:
•  Yogurts - Probiotics for intestinal health.
•  Foods/cereals/snacks enriched with s oluble fibres, vitamins and minerals.
•  Omega-3 milk in prevention of heart disease
•  Canola oil with lowered triglycerides for cholesterol reduction
•  Oats, bran, ps yllium and lignin's fo r heart disease and colon cancer
•  Prebiotics - oligofructose for control of in testinal flora

•  Stanols (Benecol) in reduction of cholesterol adsorption

Medicinal Foods:
•  Health bars with added medications
•  Transgenic cows and lacto-ferrin for immune enhancement
•  Transgenic plants f or oral vaccinatio n against infectious diseases

A Nutraceutical is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient.[ Sarris et al.,2016] In the US, "nutraceuticals" do not exist as a regulatory category; they are regulated as dietary supplements and food additives by the FDA under the authority of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

Indian, Egyptians, Chinese and Sumerians are just a few civilizations that have used foods medicine. [Wildman and Robert E. C., ed. (2001).] “Let food be the medicine “ is a common misquotation[Cardenas and Diana (2013). ] attributed to Hippocrates, who considered by some to be the father of western medicine. Nutraceutical is a combination of  two words [Juan Carlos]

1. Nutrional and
2. Pharmaceutical.   

2. Classification of nutraceuticals.
Regarding to nutraceuticals, they should be considered in two ways.

Nutraceuticals
1.Potential nutraceuticals
2.Stablised nutraceuticals

Classification of neutraceuticals based upon it therapeutical implications for treatment or prevention of Specific condition.

They are specially directed for its treatment, prevention or support are given in table-1

Table-1 Nutraceuticals used in various disease conditions

Classification on the bases therapeutically important compounds of the neutraceuticals products responsible for the health benefit as shown in table-2  [Vinod D. Rangari, 2007]

Role of Research and Development in nutraceuticals
• To test safety, purity and potency of products.
• To develop more effective and efficient means of producing ingredients for use in products.
• To develop testing methods for ensuring and verifying the consistency of the dosage of ingredients included in the company’s products.
• Develop the new products either by combining existing ingredients used in nutritional supplements or identifying new ingredients.

Nutraceutical use in some diseases

Glucosamine and Chondroitin
Glucosamine is a precursor to a molecule called a glycosaminoglycan-this molecule is used in the formation and repair of cartilage. Source-bovine or calf cartilage.Glucosamine sulphate in several.European countries used as first line of treatment for arthritis. There side effects and contraindications are less but diabetics need to be careful as glucosamine might have an effect on insulin resistance. Glucosamine sulphate stimulates the production of hyaluronic acid in joint fluid. Hyaluronic acid relieves pain and improves mobility by repairing particularly fermented milk products, orhave been investigated with regard to their medicinal use.
In vitro experiment of Glucosamine has shown a dose dependent increase in proteoglycan after administering it. It is marketed usually as hydrochloride or sulfate salt. Both compounds have anti inflammatory effects. [European Food Safety Authority, 2008]

Chondroitin-is glycosaminoglycan in cartilage that is responsible for resiliency of cartiliage.

Methylsulfonyl Methane:
MSM used as nutritional and dietary supplement  used in combination with glucosamine and Chondroitin. Both compound used for pain and inflammation.MSM is the source of sulphur for the formation of the cartilage matrix or the antioxidant system [European Food Safety Authority, 2008]
China is grown commercially for its seeds rich in-α linolenic acid.

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