HERBAL ANTIOXIDANT: A REVIEW
A powdered preparation of freeze-dried açaí fruit pulp and skin was reported to contain (per 100 g of dry powder) 533.9 calories, 52.2 gcarbohydrates, 8.1 g protein, and 32.5 g total fat. The carbohydrate portion included 44.2 g of dietary fiber and low sugar value (pulp is not sweet). The powder was also shown to contain (per 100 g): negligible vitamin C, 260 mg calcium, 4.4 mg iron, and 1002 U vitamin A, as well asaspartic acid and glutamic acid; the amino acid content was 7.59% of total dry weight (versus 8.1% protein).
The fat content of açaí consists of oleic acid (56.2% of total fats), palmitic acid (24.1%), and linoleic acid (12.5%). Açaí also contains beta-sitosterol (78–91% of total sterols). The oil compartments in açaí fruit contain polyphenols such as procyanidin oligomers and vanillic acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, protocatechuic acid, and ferulic acid, which were shown to degrade substantially during storage or exposure to heat.
Alfalfa is high in protein, calcium, plus other minerals, vitamins in the B group, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin E, and vitamin K. The sun-dried hay of alfalfa (also known as Lucerne) has been found to be a source of vitamin D, containing 48 ng/g (1920 IU/kg) vitamin D2 and 0.63 ng/g (25 IU/kg) vitamin D3. There is reference to vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 being found in the alfalfashoot; this is awaiting verification. Mushrooms are not allowed in Jain vegetarianism, making alfalfa the only known source Jains can use to make vitamin D2 supplements
Allspice contains about 4% volatile oil, which is rather stable compared with those of tarragon and black pepper. However, there is evidence that storage of the undried berries under conditions that prevent rapid removal of moisture can increase the volatile oil content by up to 50%; it appears that enzymes released in the fruit after harvest are responsible for producing volatile components from their precursors. The major component of the volatile oil (known as pimenta, pimento, or allspice oil) is eugenol, present at 60–80%. Other constituents include methyleugenol, 1,8- cineole, l-α-phellandrene, caryophyllene, epimeric 10-cadinols (2%), β-phellandrene, camphene, and guaiene. Total identified constituents number more than three dozen.
Other constituents of the berries include pimentol, gallic acid, galloylglucosides, phenylpropanoids, vanillin, quercetin glycosides, catechins, proanthocyanidins, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, vitamins (A, C, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin), and minerals.
The leaf oil (pimenta leaf oil) contains more eugenol (up to 96%) than the berry oil and is similar in composition to clove leaf oil. Annual leaf oil production exceeds that of the oil of the berries.
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