FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL CREAM

 

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS
The Turmeric and Aloe were collected from the local market of Dehrakhas, Dehradun in month of April. These items were purchased from the authentified shop “x y z Shop” Dehradun. Those item were checked by Mr. Nardev Singh,Assistant Professor, Division of Pharmaceutical Science, Shri Guru Ram Rai Institute of Technology and Sciences, Patel Nagar, Dehradun. 

Plant material

Aloe vera
Aloe vera
is a species of succulent plant that probably originated in northern Africa. The species does not have any naturally occurring populations, although closely related aloes do occur in northern Africa. The species is frequently cited as being used in herbal medicine since the beginning of the first century AD. Extracts from A. vera are widely used in the cosmetics and alternative medicine industries, being marketed as variously having rejuvenating, healing or soothing properties. there is, however, little scientific evidence of the effectiveness or safety of A. vera extracts for either cosmetic or medicinal purposes, and what positive evidence is available is frequently contradicted by other studies. Medical uses of aloe vera are being investigated as well.


Chemical constituents
Aloe vera
leaves contain phytochemicals under study for possible bioactivity, such as acetylated mannans, polymannans, anthraquinone C-glycosides, anthrones and anthraquinones, and various lectins.

Uses

Aloe vera may be effective in treatment of wounds. Evidence on the effects of its sap on wound healing, however, is limited and contradictory. Some studies, for example, show that aloe vera promotes the rates of healing, while, in contrast, other studies show that wounds to which aloe vera gel was applied were significantly slower to heal than those treated with conventional medical preparations.

The cumulative evidence supports the use of aloe vera for the healing of first to second degree burns.Topical application of aloe vera may also be effective for genital herpes and psoriasis. However, it is not effective for the prevention of radiation-induced injuries. Although anecdotally useful, it has not been proven to offer protection from sunburn or suntan.

In a double-blind clinical trial, both the group using an aloe vera containing dentifrice and the group using a fluoridated dentifrice had a reduction of gingivitis and plaque, but no statistically significant difference was found between the two.

There is preliminary evidence that A. vera extracts may be useful in the treatment of diabetes and elevated blood lipids in humans. These positive effects are thought to be due to the presence of compounds such as mannans, anthraquinones and lectins.Internal intake of aloe vera has been linked in preliminary research with improved blood glucose levels in diabetics although it has been suggested by the NTP that aloe may lower blood glucose levels.

It has also been linked with lower blood lipids in hyperlipidaemic patients, but also with acute hepatitis (liver disease).13

Turmeric
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae. It is native to tropical South Asia and needs temperatures between 20 °C and 30 °C (68 °F and 86 °F) and a considerable amount of annual rainfall to thrive. Plants are gathered annually for their rhizomes, and propagated from some of those rhizomes in the following season.


When not used fresh, the rhizomes are boiled for several hours and then dried in hot ovens, after which they are ground into a deep orange-yellow powder commonly used as a spice in curries and other South Asian and Middle Eastern cuisine, for dyeing, and to impart color to mustard condiments. Its active ingredient is curcumin and it has a distinctly earthy, slightly bitter, slightly hot peppery flavor and a mustardy smell.

Turmeric is commonly called Haridra in Sanskrit and Haldar or Haldi  in Hindi.

Turmeric grows wild in the forests of South and Southeast Asia. It is one of the key ingredient for many Indian, Persian and Thai dishes such as in curry and many more. Ancient Indian medicine, Ayurveda has recommended its use in food for its medicinal value, much of which is now being researched in the modern day. Its use as a coloring agent is not of primary value in South Asian cuisine.

Chemical constituents


Turmeric contains up to 5% essential oils and up to 5% curcumin, a polyphenol. Curcumin is the active substance of turmeric and curcumin is known as C.I. 75300, or Natural Yellow 3. The systematic chemical name is (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione.

It can exist at least in two tautomeric forms, keto and enol. The keto form is preferred in solid phase and the enol form in solution. Curcumin is a pH indicator. In acidic solutions (pH<7.4) it turns yellow, whereas in basic (pH > 8.6) solutions it turns bright red.

Uses
Turmeric is currently being investigated for possible benefits in Alzheimer's disease, cancer, arthritis, and other clinical disorders. As an example of preliminary laboratory research, turmeric ameliorated the severity of pancreatitis-associated lung injury in mice.Some research shows compounds in turmeric to have anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties, however, curcumin is not one of them.

Turmeric paste is traditionally used by Indian women to keep them free of superfluous hair and as an antimicrobial. Turmeric paste, as part of both home remedies and Ayurveda, is also said to improve the skin and is touted as an anti-aging agent. Extract and isolate tetrahydrocurcuminoids (THC) from turmeric. THCs are colorless compounds that might have antioxidant and skin-lightening properties, and might be used to treat skin inflammations, making these compounds useful in cosmetics formulations.

Turmeric makes a poor fabric dye, as it is not very light fast (it fades with exposure to sunlight). However, turmeric is commonly used in Indian clothing.14

Almond Oil
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn.Prunus amygdalus Batsch., Amygdalus communis L., Amygdalus dulcis Mill.), is a species of tree native to the Middle East and South Asia. Almond is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with the peachin the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed.


The fruit of the almond is not a true nut, but a drupe, consisting of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed ("nut") inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are commonly sold shelled (i.e., after the shells are removed), or unshelled (i.e., with the shells still attached). Blanchedalmonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seed coat, which is then removed to reveal the white embryo.

Chemical constituents
The bitter almond is slightly broader and shorter than the sweet almond, and contains about 50% of the fixed oil that occurs in sweet almonds. It also contains the enzyme emulsin which, in the presence of water, acts on a soluble glucoside, amygdalin,yielding glucose, cyanide and the essential oil of bitter almonds, which is nearly pure benzaldehyde.

Bitter almonds may yield from 4–9 mg of hydrogen cyanide per almond. Extract of bitter almond was once used medicinally, but even in small doses, effects are severe, and in larger doses can be deadly; the cyanide must be removed before consumption.

Almonds contain approximately 49% oils, of which 62% is monounsaturated oleic acid (an omega-9 fatty acid), 24% is linoleic acid (a polyunsaturated omega-6 essential fatty acid), and 6% is palmitic acid (a saturated fatty acid). The other main fatty acids contained in sweet almond oil are:myristic, palmitoleic, heptadecenoic, 9-heptadecenoic, stearic, linolenic, arachidic, eicosenoic.

Uses
Almonds are a rich source of vitamin E, About 20 percent of raw almond is high quality protein, a third of which are essential amino acids.

They are also rich in dietary fiber, B vitamins, essential mineralsand monounsaturated fat(see nutrient table), one of the two fats which potentially may lower LDL cholesterol. Typical of nuts and seeds, almonds also contain Phyto- sterols, associated with cholesterol-lowering properties.

Potential health benefits, which have not been scientifically validated, include improved complexionand possibly a lower risk of cancer. Preliminary research associates consumption of almonds with elevating blood levels of high density lipoproteinsand lowering low density lipoproteins.

A preliminary trial showed that, in spite of the high fat content of almonds, using them in the daily diet might lower several factors associated with heart disease, including cholesterol and blood lipids.

Almond oil is popular as base oil for massages because it's hypoallergenic and can be used on sensitive skin. It is good softener as well as gives a healthy radiant glow. It is Nourishing because almonds are a powerhouse of antioxidants, almond oil contains these beneficial nutrients that work to protect skin from environmental damageand boost the natural repair mechanisms in skin.15

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