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Master’s In Clinical Biochemistry
University Of Kashmir
There has been increasing public concern that chemicals in the environment are affecting human health by disrupting normal endocrine function. The exposure to these chemicals with steroid-like activity can disrupt normal endocrine function leading to altered reproductive capacity, infertility, endometriosis and breast and uterine cancer. In order to detect and evaluate the safety of such chemicals, several rodent experimental models have been developed. The OECD Enhanced Test Guideline 407 (repeated 28-day oral dose toxicity study) is one of rodent experimental models for detection of endocrine disrupters of these chemicals .
Assistant professor, Department of biochemistry
Madha dental college and hospital, kundrathur
Chennai, Tamil Nadu.
Reactive Oxygen Species are widely believed to be involved in the etiology of many diseases as indicated by the sign of oxidative stress seen in those diseases. Conversely antioxidants are believed to be protective. This article reviews the role of antioxidant in human health care.
Dr. Vishwas B. Chavan
Andheri (East), Mumbai – 400069
The word “Cancer” is still synonymous with death for common people and the “stage IV cancer”, which is typically known as “last stage cancer”, is loss of hope even for medical community.
Many times patient presents to clinic, when cancer had already crossed IInd or IIIrd stage. This is mostly due to the reason that cancer may not have any symptoms at initial stages. Even if there are any symptoms, they can be mild and vague. Further rising cost of healthcare forced many patients, particularly women, to delay approach to physician. Therefore it is not uncommon for cancer patients to hear sentences like, “You are too late”, “You should have come earlier” etc. which is more depressing. This is a humble attempt to give the these patients some ray of hope.
So, in this 21st Century, is it necessary, that cancer should be equal to death all the times, even when it has reached stage IV? To get answer of this question, we need to first know what stage IV cancer is and what its effects on human body are.
As most people know, cancer or malignancy means uncontrolled growth of any cell of the body. The mechanism which controls the growth of cells is lost in malignant cells. Cancer can occur in any cell of body and hence any organ can be affected by cancer, though cancers of some organs are more prevalent in some populations.
Priya M. Padalia*, Manthan A. Padalia
Dagon Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd.
Of the truly abundant polysaccharides in Nature, only glucosamine has yet to find utilization in large quantity. It is the content of exoskeletons of crustaceans and also from cell walls of fungi and insects. The linear β- 1,4 linked polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is known as chitin, whereas chitosan, a copolymer of GlcNAc (~20%) and glucosamine (GlcN, 80%) residues, is a product derived from de-N-acetylation of chitin in the presence of hot alkali. Glucosamine and their modified derivatives find extensive applications in medicine, agriculture, food, and non-food industries as well. Glucosamine derivative have emerged as a new class of physiological materials of highly sophisticated functions. The development of technologies based on the utilization of its derivatives is caused by their polyelectrolite properties, the presence of reactive functional groups, gel-forming ability, high adsorption capacity, biodegradability and bacteriostatic, fungistatic, antitumour influence, anti inflammatory, wound healing property, lubricating material in joints to provide strength. It is having ability to form self assembly nenoparticles. All these are the result of their versatile biological activity, excellent biocompatibility, and complete biodegradability in combination with low toxicity. With more and more useful and specific properties have led to an unlimited R&D efforts on this most versatile amino polysaccharide, to find new applications, which are necessary to realize its full potential. Incidentally, this too has become an environmental priority. No doubt, glucosamine is surely an undisputed biomolecule of great potential.
Gaurav Singh*1, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Patel Chirag J3, Patel Pinkesh3, Tarun Parashar1, Soniya1
1*Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Rajawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India-248007.
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can manufacture it from other nutrients. Within the body, citrulline is converted to the amino acid L-arginine i.e. citrulline acts as a precursor of amino acid arginine. Some of the proposed uses of citrulline supplements are based on raising levels of arginine. Citrulline also plays a role in a physiological process called “the urea cycle,” in which toxic ammonia is converted to urea. Citrulline boosts our energy levels by lowering blood lactate concentration. It also enhances the process of elimination of ammonia. Although citrulline is not coded for by DNA directly, several proteins are known to contain citrulline as a result of a posttranslational modification.
*C.P. Meher, S.P.Sethy, B.Pochaiah
Department of pharmaceutical Bio-Chemistry,
Maheshwara college of Pharmacy, chitkul (V),
Isnapur “X” Road, patancheru, Hyderabad.
“Enzyme are the catalyst of the living world ! protein in nature, and in action in specific ,rapid and accurate; huge in size but with small active centers; highly exploited for disease diagnosis in lab centers” Enzyme promotes & control the conversion of the complex carbohydrates, fats & protein of our body into simple substances which the intestine can absorb & also the various reaction by which these simple substances are used in the body for building up new tissue or producing energy. The enzyme are not broken down or changed in the process . they are as potent at the end of the reaction at the beginning & very small amounts can effect the conversion of large quantity of material . they are the true catalyst. They are actively take part in every metabolic pathways that occur in our body. This review is concern with comparative study of the various enzyme related with various metabolic pathways as well as the drugs associated for inhibition to give respective pharmacological responses.
P.Abisha1*, D.ANANTHA LAKSHMI2
1 II M.Sc Biochemistry,
2 HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
DEPARTMENT OF BIOCHEMISTRY
ST.PIOUS X DEGREE AND PG COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, NACHARAM, HYDERABAD
Sodium is an essential element for all animal life (including human) and for some plant species. In animals, sodium ions are necessary for regulation of blood and body fluids, transmission of nerve impulses, heart activity, and certain metabolic functions. Sodium is the chief cation in extracellular compartment of animal body.
Sodium plays a vital role not only in human body but also in various food types. Sodium chloride is the principal source of sodium in the diet, and is used as seasoning and preservative, such as for pickling and jerky; most of it comes from processed foods.
The sodium content in various foods can be analyzed by using Flame Photometry. Flame photometry also called flame atomic emission spectrometry is a branch of atomic spectroscopy in which the species examined in the spectrometer are in the form of atoms.
The samples used for analysis are junk foods which have become a common trend among all generations. A total of 15 junk foods were processed and analyzed for estimating the sodium content in them by Flame Photometry.
Based on the analysis the samples were categorized into low, moderate and high sodium containing foods. The analysis helps in creating awareness among all the generations to reduce the sodium intake in order to prevent problems like hypertension, hyponatremia, hypernatremia and associated medical complications in their future.
Masani Jigneshkumar Naranbhai
School Of Science
Jiwaji University, Gwalior
A supernumerary marker chromosome is an extra structurally abnormal chromosome of unknown origin. Various factors contribute to the difficulty of clarifying the phenotypicrisks of super numerary marker chromosomes (SMC), including differences inthe size, structure, and origin of marker chromosomes.
All marker chromosomes do not contribute the same risk of recurrence. Therefore characterization of the marker chromosomes is of utmost importance for Genetic Counseling. Different molecular techniques can be used to identify the chromosome material present in the markers. In the present retrospective data analysis of 15,000 karyotypes of all patients referred to the Center of Medical Genetics, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital from 1998 to 2012. For constitution chromosome abnormality detection, we found fifteen (0.01%) patients had presence of the SMC. Of these fifteen, eight markers had been characterized after FISH was introduced in the year 2004. This contributed to personalized Genetic Counseling and help for future pregnancies.
Rajender Kumar1*,Dr.Sukhbir L.Khokara2,
1Department of Pharmacy, Manav Bharti University, Solan (H.P.) 173229
2Institute of pharmaceutical sciences, Kurukshetra University,
Butenolides (furanones) consist of unsaturated γ- lactone which occur in plants as glycosides.There is a group of steroids which contain α,β unsaturated butenolide ring in the side chain such steroids are known as cardeno1ides. The presence of γ - lactone ring contain natural products like Goniobutenolides A & B ,Digitoxigenin and lignans .These compound have biological properties like antibiotic,antitumor, anticiconvulsant, antimicrobial and medicinal uses like fungicides, bactericides and allergic inhibitor.
Chhavi Bartaria*, Javed Ali Khan
Institute of Biomedical Education and Research,
Biocatalysis involving certain enzymes like NHase, Nitrilase, Tannase and Amidase produces certain commercially important compounds .NHase are used for the synthesis of certain compounds such as acrylamide and nicotinamide. Thermostable Nitrilase from the Rhodococcus strains is used for the modification of acrylic fiber surface. The activity of amidase enzymes is five times increased and inhibited with the use of Co2+and Hg2+, 2-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, and ethylene diaminetetraceticacid respectively. Furthermore the production of amidesis done as a by the help of a nitrilase-catalysed reaction of a heterolytic amino nitriles by a enzyme. For the hydrolysis of Gallic acid esters and hydrolysable tannis the tannase is use as catalyst and this gallic acid is produced by the hydrolysis of methyl gallate by fungal tannase, the tannase activity is also shown by lactic acid bacteria and the nitrilase is used for the modification of acrylic fibers by the help of a reaction media with some parameters like time, enzyme activity and its formulation.