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Biochemistry Articles


BIOCHEMISTRY OF PROSTAGLANDINS AND CYCLOOXYGENASE IN CANCER

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Rajwinder Rattan*, Tapan Behl, Puneet Sudan, Rashi Wanchoo Misri, Dharmender Jaglan
Department of Applied Sciences,
Doaba Group of Colleges, Kharar, Punjab, India.
rajwinder.rattan1990@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Colorectal is the third most prevalent form of cancer in the world. Several studies report that prostaglandins are mediators of carcinogenesis cyclooxygenase known as prostaglandin endoperoxidase H synthase. Levels of COX-2 isoenzyme and prostaglandins like PGE2, PGF2 alpha and PGE1 are found to be higher in certain cancers like colorectal carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck, also in certain types of breast cancer. Prostaglandins may contribute to the cancer processes through one or more of several mechanism including increased proliferation, apoptosis, inhanced carcinogen metabolism of immune system. Decreasing the high level of COX-2 and prostaglandins already mentioned has shown to decrease carcinogenesis. The understanding of the regulation of substrate availability and of a regulation (Dysregulation in many neoplasis) of the synthesis enzymes has opened avenues leading to design of isoenzyme specific inhibitors and better cancer strategies.


Require Assistant Professor/Associate Professor in Smriti College of Pharmaceutical Education

SCOPE was established in the year 1999, under the banner of B. R. Nahata Smriti Sansthan in the memory of great social leader, renowned parliamentarian and educationalist, Late "Shri Bhanwarlalji Nahata". The institute is solely dedicated to Noble Profession of Pharmacy.
The college is situated on Mayakhedi Road with total constructed area of about 6500 sq. mt. All courses are self-financed, approved by AICTE New Delhi, PCI, DTE, Government of Madhya Pradesh, and affiliated to Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal.


SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF AMINO ACIDS IN TRYPSIN AND RAT TONIN

About Authors:
Emanual Michael Patelia*, Rakesh Thakur, Jayesh Patel
Department of Pharmaceutical analysis and chemistry (Gujarat technical university)
Department of Pharmacology (University of Bedfordshire)
ricky.emanual@gmail.com

Abstract:
Amino acid sequence comparisons have several distinct advantages over nucleotide sequence comparisons, which, at least potentially, lead to a much greater sensitivity. Firstly, because there are 20 amino acids but only four bases, an amino acid match carries with it >4 bits of information as opposed to only two bits for a nucleotide match. Thus, statistical significance can be ascertained for much shorter sequences in protein comparisons than in nucleotide comparisons. Secondly, because of the redundancy of the genetic code, nearly one-third of the bases in coding regions are under a weak (if any) selective pressure and represent noise, which adversely affects the sensitivity of the searches. Thirdly, nucleotide sequence databases are much larger than protein databases because of the vast amounts of non-coding sequences coming out of eukaryotic genome projects, and this further lowers the search sensitivity.


DETERMINATION OF PURITY AND RELATIVE MOLECULAR WEIGHT OF PURIFIED HUMAN IgG

About Authors:
1M Prasad Naidu, 2Dr Madhu Sudan Reddy, 3T Madhu Chaithanya, 4N Mallikarjun Rao

1(Medical Biochemistry) NMCH, Nellore, AP, India.
2(MD Pharmacolgy) NMCH, Nellore, AP, India.
3(Medical Pharmacology) MIMS, Vijayanagaram, AP, India.
4(MSc Botany). Acharya Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP, India.
*www.prasadnaidu.com@gmail.com

Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)
An important technique for the separation of proteins is based on the migration of charged proteins in an electric field, a process called electrophoresis. These procedures are not generally used to purify proteins in large amounts, because simpler alternatives are usually available and electrophoretic methods often adversely affect the structure and thus the function of proteins. Electrophoresis is, however, especially useful as an analytical method. Its advantage is that proteins can be visualized as well as separated, permitting a researcher to estimate quickly the number of different proteins in a mixture or the degree of purity of a particular protein preparation. Also, electrophoresis allows determination of crucial properties of a protein such as its isoelectric point and approximate molecular weight. The polyacrylamide gel acts as a molecular sieve, slowing the migration of proteins approximately in proportion to their charge-to-mass ratio. Migration may also be affected by protein shape. In electrophoresis, the force moving the macromolecule is the electrical potential, E. The electrophoretic mobility of the molecule, µ, is the ratio of the velocity of the particle molecule, V, to the electrical potential. Electrophoretic mobility is also equal to the net charge of the molecule, Z, divided by the frictional coefficient, f, which reflects in part a protein’s shape.


PREPARATION OF ANTI HUMAN IgG – HRP CONJUGATE BY WESTERN BLOT TECHNIQUE

About Authors
*1
M Prasad Naidu, 2T Madhu Chaithanya, 3N Mallikarjun Rao, 4Muneer Bhanu , 5Dr Madhu Sudan Reddy
1Medical Biochemistry, NMCH
2Medical Pharmacology
, NMCH
3Biochemistry, NMCH
4Biotechnology, NMCH
5MD Pharmacolgy, NMCH
*www.prasadnaidu.com@gmail.com

Introduction
Conjugation of enzymes to antibodies involves the formation of a stable, covalent linkage between an enzyme [e.g., horseradish peroxidase (HRPO), urease, or alkaline phosphatase] and an antigen-specific monoclonal or polyclonal antibody in which neither the antigen-combining site nor the active site of the enzyme is functionally altered. The chemistry of cross-linking HRPO or urease to immunoaffinity purified monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies (IgG) is presented in. The chemistry of cross-linking alkaline phosphatase to antibodies is presented in. The enzyme most commonly used in the immunoreagent (the antibody enzyme conjugate) preparation is horseradish peroxides. This enzyme is cheap and can be attached to the immunoreagent by a variety of methods. Moreover many chromogenic substrates for it are also available.


SUB-ACUTE HEPATO TOXICITY OF TAMOXIFEN CITRATE

About Author:
Zehira Nazir
Master’s In Clinical Biochemistry
University Of Kashmir
zzehra275@gmail.com

Introduction
There has been increasing public concern that chemicals in the environment are affecting human health by disrupting normal endocrine function. The exposure to these chemicals with steroid-like activity can disrupt normal endocrine function leading to altered reproductive capacity, infertility, endometriosis and breast and uterine cancer. In order to detect and evaluate the safety of such chemicals, several rodent experimental models have been developed. The OECD Enhanced Test Guideline 407 (repeated 28-day oral dose toxicity study) is one of rodent experimental models for detection of endocrine disrupters of these chemicals [1].


ANTIOXIDANT AND THEIR THERAPEUTIC ROLE IN HUMAN HEALTH CARE

ABOUT AUTHORS:
Mrs.R.Deepa
Assistant professor, Department of biochemistry
Madha dental college and hospital, kundrathur
Chennai, Tamil Nadu.                                  
deepanish1981@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:
Reactive Oxygen Species are widely believed to be involved in the etiology of many diseases as indicated by the sign of oxidative stress seen in those diseases. Conversely antioxidants are believed to be protective. This article reviews the role of antioxidant in human health care.



STAGE IV CANCER: BATTLE NOT LOST YET !

About Author:
Dr. Vishwas B. Chavan
Ph.D. (Biochemistry)
Andheri (East), Mumbai – 400069
vishwaschavan2003@yahoo.co.in

Abstract:
The word “Cancer” is still synonymous with death for common people and the “stage IV cancer”, which is typically known as “last stage cancer”, is loss of hope even for medical community.
Many times patient presents to clinic, when cancer had already crossed IInd or IIIrd stage. This is mostly due to the reason that cancer may not have any symptoms at initial stages. Even if there are any symptoms, they can be mild and vague. Further rising cost of healthcare forced many patients, particularly women, to delay approach to physician. Therefore it is not uncommon for cancer patients to hear sentences like, “You are too late”, “You should have come earlier” etc. which is more depressing. This is a humble attempt to give the these patients some ray of hope.
So, in this 21st Century, is it necessary, that cancer should be equal to death all the times, even when it has reached stage IV? To get answer of this question, we need to first know what stage IV cancer is and what its effects on human body are.
As most people know, cancer or malignancy means uncontrolled growth of any cell of the body. The mechanism which controls the growth of cells is lost in malignant cells. Cancer can occur in any cell of body and hence any organ can be affected by cancer, though cancers of some organs are more prevalent in some populations.


GLUCOSAMINE- AN ADVANCED BIOMOLECULE OF GREAT POTENTIAL WITH INNUMERABLE APPLICATIONS

About Authors:
Priya M. Padalia*, Manthan A. Padalia
Dagon Pharmaceuticals Pvt. Ltd.
*modiyapriya@gmail.com

ABSTRACT
Of the truly abundant polysaccharides in Nature, only glucosamine has yet to find utilization in large quantity. It is the content of exoskeletons of crustaceans and also from cell walls of fungi and insects. The linear β- 1,4 linked polymer of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is known as chitin, whereas chitosan, a copolymer of GlcNAc (~20%) and glucosamine (GlcN, 80%) residues, is a product derived from de-N-acetylation of chitin in the presence of hot alkali. Glucosamine and their modified derivatives find extensive applications in medicine, agriculture, food, and non-food industries as well. Glucosamine derivative have emerged as a new class of physiological materials of highly sophisticated functions. The development of technologies based on the utilization of its derivatives is caused by their polyelectrolite properties, the presence of reactive functional groups, gel-forming ability, high adsorption capacity, biodegradability and bacteriostatic, fungistatic, antitumour influence, anti inflammatory, wound healing property, lubricating material in joints to provide strength. It is having ability to form self assembly nenoparticles. All these are the result of their versatile biological activity, excellent biocompatibility, and complete biodegradability in combination with low toxicity. With more and more useful and specific properties have led to an unlimited R&D efforts on this most versatile amino polysaccharide, to find new applications, which are necessary to realize its full potential. Incidentally, this too has become an environmental priority. No doubt, glucosamine is surely an undisputed biomolecule of great potential.


CLINICAL SPECTRUM OF CITRULLINE-A NON ESSENTIAL AMINO ACID PRESENT IN WATERMELON: AN OVERVIEW

About Authors:
Gaurav Singh*1, Prof. Satyanand Tyagi2, Patel Chirag J3, Patel Pinkesh3, Tarun Parashar1, Soniya1
1*Himalayan Institute of Pharmacy and Research, Rajawala, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India-248007.
2President & Founder, Tyagi Pharmacy Association (TPA) & Scientific Writer (Pharmacy), Chattarpur, New Delhi, India-110074.
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Maharishi Arvind Institute of Pharmacy, Mansarovar, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India-302020.
*gaurav.hipr@gmail.com, +91-8057832184/9236167104

ABSTRACT:
Citrulline is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that the body can manufacture it from other nutrients. Within the body, citrulline is converted to the amino acid L-arginine i.e. citrulline acts as a precursor of amino acid arginine.  Some of the proposed uses of citrulline supplements are based on raising levels of arginine. Citrulline also plays a role in a physiological process called “the urea cycle,” in which toxic ammonia is converted to urea. Citrulline boosts our energy levels by lowering blood lactate concentration. It also enhances the process of elimination of ammonia. Although citrulline is not coded for by DNA directly, several proteins are known to contain citrulline as a result of a posttranslational modification.