You are hereA REVIEW: PLANTS AND HERBS USED IN ANXIETY

A REVIEW: PLANTS AND HERBS USED IN ANXIETY


Azadirahta indica(Meliaceae)
Of current interest is the tree known as Neem, all parts of the plant continue to receive extensive phytochemical and pharmacological investigation [11]. Aqueous extract of Neem leaves (10-200mg/kg, p.o.) produced Anxiolyitc effect in Elevated Plus Maze and Open Field test in Rats. The extract (500mg/kg/dayX15 days) reduced Cerebral Hypoperfusion induced behavior disturbance of anxiety in rats, assessed in open field test [20, 21].

Citrus sinensis (Rutaceae)
The essential oils from peel (1.0g/kg, p.o.) showed Anxiolytic activity in mice tested in Elevated plus Maze [22].


Euphorbia hirta(Euphorbiaceae)
Lyophilized aqueous extract (12.5 & 25 mg/kg, p.o) produced Anxiolytic effect in Mice employing staircase test & light/ dark situation test. Euphorbane is the active constituents [23].


Ginkgo biloba(Ginkgoaceae)
The leaves of Ginkgo are obtained from the dioeceous tree, the only extant species of an otherwise fossile family of the pre-Ice age flora [11]. The extract (0.063-1g/kg, p.o) administered daily for 7 days in Male ddY mice produced Anxiolytic in Elevated plus Maze [24].

Withania somnifera(Solanaceae)
This plant grows widely in all dry parts and subtropical India. The mail constituents of Ashwagandha are alkaloids and steroidal lactones [17]. Intraperitoneal & oral administration of Glycowithanolides (20 & 50 mg/kg) once daily for 5 days resulted in Anxiolytic effects in Rats employed EPM and Social interaction test. The therapeutic potential of Withania somnifera appears to be related inhibition of both the lipid peroxidation & protein oxidative modification [25].

Zingiber officinale(Zingiberaceae)
Ginger (Zingiber) is the scarped or unscraped rhizome of Zingiber officinale. Ginger contains about 1-2% of Volatile oil and 5-8% of resinous matter, starch and mucilage [17]. Animal treated with butanolic fraction showed anxiolytic activity in Elevated Plus Maze [26].

Panax ginseng(Araliaceae)
Ginseng is the dried root of various species of Panax. Ginseng has generated large interest because of its novel pharmacological actions [17]. Ginseng powder and crude saponin ginseng fraction significantly increased the frequency and duration of open arm entries in male ICR albino mice. Pure ginsenoside; ginsenoside Rb1 (2.5 mg/kg; p.o) increased both frequency and duration of open arm entries [27].

Casimiroa edulis(Rutaceae)
It is found in Mexico. Administration of aqueous extract of leaves (25 mg/kg, p.o) to male Wistar rats increased the exploration of open arms in EPM [28].


CONCLUSION
Although 28 species of plants have shown Anxiolytic activity in laboratory animals. All plants have been reported to be effective clinically. Most of the species shows aqueous extract of the plant shows anxiolytic activity on different doses as compared to test and the standard drug Diazepam. Diazepam is the most effective and standard drug used in the Anxiolytic activity in pharmacological actions on Animals.

REFERENCES
1.    K.G.Lalitha et al , “Pharmacological Evaluation of Clerodendrum Philippinum Schauer Flowers for Antianxiety and Central Nervous System Depressant Activity”  International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research Volume 2, issue 2, 2010, ISSN 0975-2366, Page no. 13
2.    Bloom FE, Kupfer DJ. Psychopharmacology: The Fourth Generation of Progress. Raven Press, New York 1994, pp. 1301-1310
3.    Reecha Madaan et al,”Evaluation of Anti-anxiety Activity of Actaea spicata Linn”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2011; 3(1): 45-47
4.    Nielsen M, Frokjaer S, Braestrup C. High affinity of the naturally-occurring biflavonoid, amentoflavon, to brain benzodiazepine receptors in vitro. Biochem Pharmacol 1988;37:3285-7
5.    Dutt V et al,” Antianxiety activity of Gelsemium sempervirens” Pharm Biol. 2010 Oct;48(10):1091-6. doi: 10.3109/13880200903490521.
6.    Poonam Mahendra et al, “Anti-anxiety activity of Coriandrum sativum assessed using different experimental anxiety models’, Indian Journal of Pharmacology, Year : 2011 Volume : 43 Issue : 5  Page : 574-577, DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.84975
7.    Mani V, Parle M, Ramasamy K, Abdul Majeed AB. Reversal of memory deficits by Coriandrum sativum leaves in mice. J Sci Food Agric 2011; 1591:186-92.
8.    Sarris J et al,” Kava: a comprehensive review of efficacy, safety, and psychopharmacology”, Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2011 Jan; 45(1):27-35. Doi: 10.3109/00048674.2010.522554. Epub 2010 Nov 15.
9.    Kumar S et al, “Anti-anxiety activity studies of various extracts of Turnera aphrodisiaca Ward”, J Herb Pharmacother. 2005;5(4):13-21
10.    Rabbanj M at all,” Anxiolytic effects of Echium amoenum on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice”, Fitoterapia. 2004 Jul; 75(5):457-64.
11.    Evans, W.C., Trease and Evans, Pharmacognosy, (15th edition) Saunders: Elsevier, 2009,p 249, 282, 470,277-278,322
12.    Dhawan K, “Anxiolytic activity of aerial and underground parts of Passiflora incarnate”, Fitoterapia. 2001 Dec; 72(8):922-6.
13.    Amsterdam JD et al, “Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) may provide antidepressant activity in anxious, depressed humans: an exploratory study”, Altern Ther Health Med. 2012 Sep-Oct; 18(5):44-9.
14.    Singh Bora K et al,” Evaluation of anxiolytic effect of Medicago sativa in mice”, Pharm Biol. 2012 Jul; 50(7):878-82. Doi: 10.3109/13880209.2011.641227. Epub 2012 Apr 10.
15.    Gupta K et al, “Anti-anxiety and anti-depressant activities of Sarasvata choorna in experimental animals”, Ayu. 2011 Oct; 32(4):590-3. Doi: 10.4103/0974-8520.96139.
16.    Willis JC, Airyshaw HK, A Dictionary of Flowering Plants and Ferns, Cambridge University Press, London, 1973, p.1214.
17.    Kokate C K et al, “Pharmacognosy”, Nirali Prakashan, 36th edition, Sep 2006,  217-218, 518-519, 221
18.    Ernst E,” Herbal Remedies for anxiety- a systematic review of controlled clinical trials”, Phytomed, 2006, 13(3), 205-208.
19.    Kumar V ,” Potential Medicinal Plants for CNS disorders; An overview, Phytother Res , 2006, 20(12), 1023-1035
20.    Jaiswal A K et al,” Anxiolytic activity of Azadirchta indica leaf extract in Rats”, Indian J Exp. Biol,1994, 32(7), 489.491
21.    Yanpallewar S et al,” Neuroprotective effect of Azadirchta indica on Cerebral Postischemic reperfusion and hypoperfusion in Rats”, Life Science, 2005, 76(12), 1325, 1338.
22.    Freitas M R and Cosra M, “ Anxiolytic and Sedative effects of Extracts & Essential oil from Citrus aurantium L”, Biol Pharm Bull, 2002, 25(12), 1629-1633
23.    Lauhers M C et al,” Behavioural effects of E hirta L.: Sedative & Anxiolytic Properties”, J. Ethnopharmacol, 1990, 29(2), 189-198.
24.    Kuribara H et al,” An Anxiolytic like effects of Ginkgo biloba extract & its constituents, Ginkgolide- A in Mice”, J Nat Prod, 2003, 66, 1333-1337
25.    Battacharya SK et al, “Anxiolytic- depressant activity of Withania somnifera glycowithanolides; an experimental study”, Phytomed, 2000, 7(6), 463-469.
26.    Vishwakarma SL et al,” Anxiolytic & Antiemetic Activity of Zingiber officinale”, Phytother Res, 2002, 16(7), 621-626.
27.    Carr MN et al,” Identification of Anxiolytic ingredients in Ginseng root using Elevated Plus Maze test in Mice”, Eur J Pharmacol, 2006, 531(1-3), 160-165.
28.    Hernandez MM et al, “Anxiolytic- like actions of leaves of Casimiroa edulis in male Wistar rats”, J Ethnophamacol, 2004, 93(1), 93-98.

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


AMIT KUMAR 87 (not verified)
any alternatives???

any alternatives???

FIND MORE ARTICLES

Subscribe to RSS headline updates from:
Powered by FeedBurner