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REVIEW ARTICLE : ANTIAGING COSMETICS


About Authors:
Joshi B.*, Agarwal P., Sahu D., Dashora A.
Geetanjali Institute of Pharmacy,
Udaipur Rajasthan, India

*bhavesh.joshi8@gmail.com

Abstract:
Antiaging is emerging class of cosmetics which combine the benefit of anti aging ingredients with the elegance skin feel and delivery system of cosmetics antioxidants, anti cellulites and anti microbial have been use in maintaining and enhancing human beauty. Anti aging ingredients also help to reduce the fine lines, increasing the moisture level and reduces wrinkles and puffness to keep the skin in good condition. New delivery system is a more effective solution for the skin aging resulting from photoaging. New vehicle like liposome and nanoparticles is a new generation for antioxidants with enhanced bioavailability and very stable activity. Our objective is to review present state of the art knowledge pertaining to mechanisms involved in skin aging, factor responsible for aging and various new ingredients use to treat aging defect.

Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1342

INTRODUCTION:
Skin appearance is a primary indicator of age. During the last decade, substantial progress has been made toward understanding underlying mechanisms of human skin aging. This understanding provides the basis for current use and new development of Antiaging treatments. A major feature of aged skin is fragmentation of the dermal collagen matrix. Fragmentation results from actions of specific enzymes (matrix metalloproteinase’s) and impairs the structural integrity of the dermis. Fibroblasts that produce and organize the collagen matrix cannot attach to fragmented collagen. Loss of attachment prevents fibroblasts from receiving mechanical information from their support, and they collapse. Stretch is critical for normal balanced production of collagen and collagen-degrading enzymes.
In aged skin, collapsed fibroblasts produce low levels of collagen and high levels of collagen-degrading enzymes. This imbalance advances the aging process in a self-perpetuating, never-ending deleterious cycle.

SKIN:
The skin mainly intends to protect human beings against environmental aggressions.
The skin is the outer covering of the body. The adjective Cutaneous literally means "of the skin" (from Latin cutis, skin). Because it interfaces with the environment, skin plays a key role in protecting (the body) against pathogens and excessive water loss. Skin has mesoderm cells, pigmentation or melanin provided by Melanocytes, which absorb some of the potentially dangerous ultraviolet radiation (UV) in sunlight. It also contains DNA-repair enzymes that help reverse UV damage (Zoe Diana drelas. et al., 2006).

Skin is composed of three primary layers:
1. Epidermis
2. Dermis,
3. Hypodermis (subcutaneous adipose layer).

Sub layers:
Epidermis is divided into the following 5 sub layers
·               Stratum corneum
·               Stratum lucidum
·               Stratum granulosum
·               Stratum spinosum
·               Stratum germinativum (Nema R.K.et al.,2009).

The keratinocytes develop at the bottom and rise to the top, where they are shed from the surface as dead cells. So this layer is constantly renewing itself, the live cells changing into dead, hard, flattened cells. Melanocytes and Langerhans cells are other importantcells found in the epidermis which have special functions:
Ø   Melanocytes :
These cells produce a dark pigment called melanin which contributes to skin color and provides UV protection. They are located at the bottom of the epidermis.
Ø   Dendrite (Langerhans):
These cells are involved in the epidermal immune system. They engulf foreign material that invades the epidermis and migrate out of the skin to stimulate an immune response.

2.            Dermis:
The dermis consists mostly of connective tissue and is much thicker than the epidermis. It is responsible for the skin's pliability and mechanical resistanceand is also involved in the regulation of the body temperature.The structures in the dermis are:
·               Blood vessels
·               Sebaceous glands
·               Sweat Glands

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