Pharmacological properties:-

Nephroprotective activity
Present study was carried out to evaluate the Nephroprotective activity of an aqueous extract of Leaves of Aegle marmelos in Wistar rats. The aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos leaves was administered at three doses (250, 500, and 750 mg/kg, p.o.) to Wistar rats in Gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity model. The rats were pre-fed experimental diets for 8 days and then received GM (100 mg/kg body weight/day) treatment for 8 days while still on diet. Serum parameters, oxidative stress in rat kidney were analyzed. GM nephrotoxicity was recorded by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen level. GM increased MDA level whereas decreased catalase reduced glutathione level, while AEAM significantly reduced the elevated MDA levels and increased GSH and catalase concentration. GM increased serum creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen level, while AEAM reduced serum creatinine, urea and blood urea nitrogen level in gentamicin toxicity indicating a nephroprotective effect. The aqueous extract of A. marmelos leaves possesses the Nephroprotective activity.20

Anti-ulcer activity
The present study was aimed to investigate anti-ulcer activity of methanolic and aqueous extract of Aegle marmelos seeds using indomethacin induced ulceration, stressed induced ulceration and pylorus ligation induced ulcerations. Ranitidine (50 mg/kg) was used as standard antiulcer agent. The ulcer index and percentage protection was estimated in all three models. Volume of gastric secretion, free acidity, total acidity and pH was estimated in pylorus ligation induced ulcer model. Methanolic extract showed significant (p<0.01) ulcer protective action at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg b.w. in all animal model. The aqueous extract was also found to possess significant (p<0.05) ulcer healing property at the same doses as of methanolic extract. A significant reduction in volume of gastric juice, free acidity and total acidity, along with increase in pH was observed in pylorus ligated rats. The antiulcer property of both the extracts was attributed due to the presence of quercetin like (Flavonoid) contents. 21

In the present research studies, Bael leaves (Aegle marmelos, family of Rutaceae) which are also called as Bilva in ancient Sanskrit was used as herbal drug and its hepatoprotective effect in alcohol induced liver injury in albino rat was evaluated using essential biochemical parameters. The experiments were performed with four groups of animals.The experimental animals were administered with 30% ethyl alcohol for a period of 40 days and the fine crude plant leaves powder was fed to animals for next 21 days. The observed values of TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) in healthy, alcohol intoxicated and herbal drug treated animals were 123.35, 235.68 and 141.85 μg/g tissue respectively. The results were compared with the standard herbal drug silymarin (133.04 μg/g tissue). The experimental results indicate that, the Bael leaves have excellent hepatoprotective effect. A similar experimental Result was also observed in other biochemical parameters.[22]

Physico-chemical analysis of ethnolic extracts from leaves of Aegle marmelos
The present study was carried out in physico-chemical analysis of ethnolic extracts from leaves of Aegle marmelos variants. It is commonly called Vilvam in Tamil. The leaves of Aegle marmelos variant-I and variant-II of the plant were collected and investigated for their phyto-chemical. The leaves of variants showed distinct variations. Anti microbial activity of ethanolic extracts both the variants of A.marmelos showed positive result against tested organism in a concentration dependent manner. 23

Folk therapy
Aegle marmelos L. belongs to the family Rutaceae; an important medicinal plant being used in the folk therapy. It is the most useful medicinal plant of India. Its medicinal properties have been described in the ancient medical literature. All parts of the tree (stem, bark, root, leaves and fruit at all stages of maturity) have medicinal virtues and have been used as medicine for a long time. A number of chemical constituents have been isolated from various plant parts including alkaloids, coumarin and steroids. The leaves contain skimianinc, sterol and aegelin. In the present investigation antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity of the methanolic extract of A. marmelos leaves  was examined on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated rats. MEAML hold considerable amount of phenolic (9.8367±0.0235 mg/kg) and flavonoid (8.248 ± 0.029 mg/kg) contents, which confirmed the antioxidant property of the leaves. The MEAML with different doses (50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight) and standard silymarin (40 mg/kg body weight) were orally administered to CCl4 treated rats and the effect was studied on serum enzymes (AST), (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and bilurubin, protein, albumin, thiobarbutiric acid (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH)]. In addition, in-vitro antioxidant activity of MEAML was also evaluated using (DPPH) radical. We noticed a significant hepatoprotective activity of MEAML on CCl4 intoxicated rats which support folkloric utilisation of A. marmelos, and it was further confirmed by the histological investigation. The findings of the present investigation revealed that the MEAML possess significant hepatoprotective activity by suppressing CCl4 induced cellular oxidative stress.24

Antibacterial activity
Three medicinal plant Aegle marmelos, Lawsonia inermis, Albizzia libbeck were extracted by soxhlet apparatus using petroleum ether, ethanol, chloroform and aqueous as solvent. Among those extract, the petroleum ether was considered as effective one. The extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and the three plants with four extracts were tested against three Gram positive bacteria (B.cereus, B.subtilis, S. aureus) and three Gram negative bacteria (E.coli, P.vulgaris, and P.aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method. Maximum inhibition (3.8cm) was recorded in Lawsonia inermis. It also showed inhibitory action against all the six pathogen tested. The zone of inhibition of the extracts was compared with the standard antibiotics Streptomycin and Spectinomycin. The study suggests that the plant is promising the development of phytomedicine for antimicrobial properties. 25

Antidiabetic activity
Diabetes mellitus is associated with disturbances of learning and memory and cognitive functioning. Aegle marmelos Corr. from Rutaceae family, is widely used in Iranian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. It decreases blood glucose level by improving glucose tolerance and also has lipid-lowering and antioxidant properties. Considering the beneficial antidiabetic potential of A. marmelos, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chronic oral administration of A. marmelos as cognitive enhancer, on learning and spatial memory in diabetic rats using Morris water maze test. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal-control, diabetic-control, and A. marmelos-treated diabetic groups (100, 250 and 500 mg/kg, p.o., 4 weeks). Diabetes was induced by a single dose i.p. injection of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg). In each group of animals, spatial learning and memory parameters were analyzed. A. marmelos showed dose dependent improvement in spatial learning and memory parameters. Swimming time (Escape Latency) in normal-control and A. marmelos-treated diabetic animals rats was significantly lower than diabetic-control, while swimming speed was significantly higher. The study demonstrated that A. marmelos has a significant protective effect against diabetes-induced spatial learning and memory deficits. This effect can be attributed to hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of A. marmelos. 26

Antigenotoxic activity
The present paper deals with the antigenotoxic activity of Aegle marmelos fruit extracts employing short term assays i.e. the SOS chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Comet assay in peripheral human blood lymphocytes. Methanol extract and Acetone extract were quite effective in decreasing the SOS response induced by hydrogen peroxide and aflatoxin B1 in the SOS chromotest. Methanol extract inhibited the genotoxicity of H2O2 by 70.48% and that of AFB1 by 84.65%. The extracts showed significant decrease in the tail moment induced by hydrogen peroxide (9μM) in the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE) assay. The antigenotoxic activity exhibited by the extracts may be attributed the various polyphenolic constituents present in these extracts.27

Studied the effects of skimmianine on the histamine release from rat mast cells
Skimmianine is a quinoline alkaloid isolated from the roots of Aegle marmelos Correa. In the study, we studied the effects of skimmianine on the histamine release from rat mast cells. The study was performed by using two cell lines, rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cell line, and rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMCs). DNP24-BSA, thapsigargin, ionomycin, compound 48/80 and PMA were used as inducers for histamine release from rat mast cell. Skimmianine markedly inhibited the histamine release from RBL-2H3 cells induced by DNP24-BSA, thapsigargin and ionomycin. The effec  suggested is related to Ca2+ signaling since skimmianine showed strong effects when the histamine release induced by Ca2+ signal stimulants (thapsigargin and ionomycin). It is supported that skimmianine altered the influx of 45Ca2+ into the cells. In RPMCs experiment, skimmianine also suppressed the histamine release induced by Ca2+ stimulants, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). However, skimmianine had no effect on the histamine release induced by compound 48/80. Based on the results, the inhibitory effects of skimmianine on the histamine release from mast cells might involve some mechanisms related to intracellular Ca2+ signaling events and protein kinase C signaling possessing a main role in granule exocytotic processes

Ulcer protective
The effect of 50% ethanolic extract of Aegle marmelos (AM) root was assayed in different acute and chronic gastric ulcer model in rats. AM, 200-400mg/kg administered orally, twice daily for 5 days showed dose dependent ulcer protective effect in pylorus ligation (19.3-69.5% protection, p<0.05 to p<0.001), Aspirin + PL (24.4- 68.0 % protection, p<0.001), ethanol (26.0 – 72.0 % protection, p< 0.001), cold restrain stress (31.6 -65.4% , p< 0.01 to p< 0.001) and acetic acid (16.8- 90.4% protection, p<0.001). The effect of extract on gastric content volume, ph, acidity, using PL models was also evaluated. Regarding the models of gastric secretion, a reduction on volume of gastric juice and acidity was observed as well as increase in gastric pH. The extract was screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity (DPPH), hydroxyl radical, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity (HPSA). These results clearly indicate that aerial parts of Aegle marmelos were effective in scavenging free radicals and has the potential to be a powerful antioxidant. However, AM reduced the ulcer index with significant decreasein lipid peroxidation (27.9 – 55.4% protection, p< 0.001), superoxide dismutase (23.0- 41.5% protection p< 0.01 and 0.001) and increased in catalase (35.9 – 79.8% protection p< 0.01 and p< 0.001) activity respectively. Preliminary phytochemical screening of AM gave the positive tests for flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids,terpenoids, saponins and tannins etc. The purpose of present study was to study the safety and efficacy of this extract against peptic ulcer diseases and provideprotection against free radical to gain the balance. 28

Antimicrobial activity
Aegle marmelos
is a medicinal herb belongs to the family Rutaceae. The different parts of plants like leaves and flowers are extracted by using the solvent methanol. The methanol extracts were screened for the antimicrobial activity. They showed greater inhibitory effect against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. The organisms used were such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus. Based on the present investigation results it is concluded that the methanolic extracts of Aegle marmelos has great potential as antimicrobial agent against different microorganisms and they can be used in the treatment of infectious diseases caused by the resistant microorganisms. 29

Antibacterial activity:-
The principal objective of the present research work was to determine the antibacterial potential of Aegle marmelos against seven standard pathogenic bacterial strains. To evaluate antibacterial activity the agar-well diffusionassay was used. All the three extracts showed the highest and significant antibacterial activity against both Gramnegativeand Gram-positive bacteria. It is the strain Bacillus subtilis that is almost resistant to the three extracts of Aegle marmelos.30

Antioxidant Activity
Antioxidants are the compounds with free radicals scavenging activity and capable of protecting the cells from free radical mediate oxidative stress. The antioxidant compounds can be derived from natural sources such as plants. Antioxidant activity of these plants is due to the presence of flavones, isoflavones, flavonoids, anthocyanin, coumarin lignans, catechins and isocatechins. A. marmelos is extensively reported to possess antioxidant activity against a variety of free radicals. Antioxidant activity of the fruit of A. marmelos was reported. Antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging activity of the ripe and unripe fruit of Aegle marmelos was compared. Results indicate that the enzymatic antioxidants increased in ripe fruit when compared to unripe fruit extract (except glutathione peroxidase). The percentage of free radical inhibition was also high in unripe fruit than that of the ripe fruit 31. Methanol and aqueous extract of A. marmelos fruit pulp was screened for antioxidant activity by DPPH radical scavenging method, reducing power assay, nitric oxide scavenging assay, superoxide radical scavenging assay, ABTS radical scavenging assay and H2O2 radical scavenging assay. Both aqueous and alcoholic extract exhibited good antioxidant activity.32 The antioxidant activity of the fruit of A. marmelos was reported. The aqueous extract of A. marmelos fruit was screened for antioxidant activity by the DPPH radical scavenging. The extract showed efficient antioxidant activity.33

Ant diarrheal Activity
Antidiarrheal activity is one of the major medicinal properties of A. marmelos and traditionally it is extensively used to control chronic diarrhea and dysentery. Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies have been conducted to confirm the antidiarrheal property of A. marmelos. The in vitro antidiarrheal activity of dried fruit pulps of A. marmelos was reported. Antidiarrheal activity was performed by MIC method against the causative organisms of diarrhea. The ethanolic extract showed good activity against Shigella boydii, S. sonnei and S. flexneri, moderate against S. dysenteriae34. Crude aqueous extract of unripe fruits of A. marmelos was screened for causative agents ofdiarrhea. The extract was analyzed for antibacterial activity, antigiardial activity and antirotaviralactivity. The extract exhibited inhibitory activity against Giardia and rotavirus whereas viabilityof none of the six bacterial strains tested was affected. 35

Antiproliferative activity
The different solvent fractions of ethanol extract of the stem barks of A. Marmelos were Reported to possess antiproliferative effects against human tumor cell lines. The results showed The inhibition of in vitro proliferation of human tumor cell lines, including the leukemic K562, Tlymphoid Jurkat, Blymphoid Raji, erythroleukemic HEL, melanoma Colo38, and breast cancer MCF7 and MDAMB-231 cell lines. 36

Cytoprotective Effect
The cytoprotective effect of the leaves of Aegle marmelos was reported in Cyprinus carpio (freshwater fish) exposed to heavy metals. C. carpio was exposed to heavy metals followed by the treatment with the dried powder of Aegle marmelos leaves. Treatment resulted in cytoprotective effect by stabilization of plasma membrane and modulation of antioxidant enzyme System. 37

Antifertility Effect
The antifertility effect of the aqueous extracts of leaves of Aegle marmelos was reported in male Albino rats. The rats were administered with aqueous extracts (250 mg/kg body weight) of leaves of Aegle marmelos for 45 days. Treatment resulted in reduction in the weights of testis, epididymes and seminal vesicle. The extract also resulted in reduction of testicular sperm count, epididymal sperm count and motility and abnormal sperm count. 38

Insect controlling properties
Essential oil from the leaves of A. marmelos was reported for showing insecticidal activity against four stored grain insect pests included Callosobruchus chinensis (L.), Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum. In the study grains were infected with test insects, and were fumigated with essential oil of A. marmelos . The oil treatment significantly reduced the grain damage as well as weight loss in fumigated grains samples infested with all insects except T. castaneum. The essential oil at different doses significantly reduced oviposition and adult emergence of C. chinensis in treated cowpea seeds[39].Essential oil from the leaves of A. marmelos was reported for insect repellent activity against Sitophilous oryzae and Tribolium castaneum. However A. marmelos essential oils didn’t showed 100% repellent activity against the test insects. 40

Analgesic activity
Leaves of A. marmelos were reported to possess analgesic activity. Methanol extract of leaves of A. marmelos was screened for analgesic activity by Acetic acid-induced writhing test in Swiss mice. The results indicated that methanol extract significantly reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid. In tail flick test methanol extract (200 and 300 mg/kg body weight) showed significant analgesic activity in the. 41

Antiarthritis activity
Leaves of A. marmelos were reported to possess antiarthritis activity against collagen induced arthritis in Wistar rats. Methanol extract treatment of rats showed the reduction of paw swelling and arthritic index. Radiological and histopathological changes were also significantly reduced in methanol extract treated rats.42

Anti-inflammatory activity
Unripe fruit pulp of A. marmelos was reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity. Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml of 1% λ carrageenan into the sub planer side of left Hind paw of Sprague Dawley rats. Extract treatment of the inflammated rats significantly reduced the λ carrageenan induced inflammation.43

Medicinal properties
The roots are useful for treating diarrhoea, dysentery, and dyspepsia1, 44. The leaf is used for opthalmia, diabetes, and asthmatic complaints. Unripe fruit is useful for treating diarrhoea, dysentery and stomachalgia. The aqueous extracts of the stem and root bark are used to treat malaria, fever, jaundice, and skin diseases such as ulcers, urticaria, and eczema44, 45.In pharmacological trials, both the fruit and root showed antiamoebic and hypoglycaemic activities44, 46, 34. Aqueous leaf extract and methanolic extract of the root bark of A. marmelos showed preventive effects on myocardial diseases1, 45, and 46. The leaves are used to cure sinusitis, dyspepsia and anorexia6. This fruit was used to cure tuberculosis, loss of appetite, emaciation etc. There are several such pharmacopoeias in Siddha medicine. Aegle marmelos (Linn) family Rutaceae was highly reputed ayurvedic medicinal tree1. Various phytochemical and biological evaluations have been reported as anti-diabetic47, 48, antioxidant, antithyroid36. It is astringent, cooling, carminative, laxative, restorative and stomachic and is used in dysentery, diarrhoea, flatulence, fever, vomiting and colic. The leaves are astringent, laxative, febrifuge and expectorant and are useful in ophthalmia, deafness, inflammations, diabetes and asthmatic complaints. The tender fruit is bitter, astringent, antilaxative, digestive and promotes digestion and strength, overcomes vata, colics and diarrhoea. The ripe fruits are astringent, sweet, aromatic, cooling, febrifuge, laxative and tonic and are good for the heart and brain. Antidiabetic property, antidiarrhoeal activity, antiulcer activity of seeds, antifungal activity of leaves and antitumour and antimutagenic activity of this plant are clinically evaluated, 50,51



Subscribe to PharmaTutor Alerts by Email



Subscribe to RSS headline updates from:
Powered by FeedBurner