You are herePHYTO PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND ISOLATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LEAF EXTRACT

PHYTO PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND ISOLATION OF CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM BAUHINIA VARIEGATA LEAF EXTRACT


RESEARCH:

  • Plant was found to have anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer, anti-helminthic, anti-microbial, amphetamine, hyperactivity, hypothermic activities, chemoprevention, and cytotoxic effect.
  • It is found due to its potency septic activity.it controls internal bleeding from intestines in raktapitta.
  • It is also an anti-fat remedy and therefore valuable for corpulent persons.

Anti-tumour activity:1&2&3
The anti-tumor activity of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata has been evaluated against Dalton’s ascetic lymphoma in Swiss albino mice.

Chemoprevention and cytotoxic effect:1&2&5
Chemoprevention and cytotoxic effect of ethanol extract of Bauhinia variegata was evaluated in N-nitrosodiethylamine (200mg/kg) induced experimental liver tumor in rats and human cancer cell lines.

Serine protease inhibitor:1&8&10

  • In this report the properties of two highly homologous inhibitors respectively isolated for Bauhinia variegata and Bauhinia urgulate seeds both inactivate plasma kallikreina.
  • Bark decoction of Bauhinia variegata inhibited the activities of protopectinase and polygalacturonase.
  • The decoctions inhibiting the enzyme activity show the presence of tannins or phenolic Compounds in their tissues.

Anti-microbial activity:1&2&9
The anti-microbial activity of ethanolic extract of total seed proteins, globulins, albumins, fractions of albumins, lectins of Bauhinia variegata was investigated. Ethanol extracts and globulins of different species have no anti-microbial activity the alcoholic extract showed CNS activity.

The clinical studies have revealed that preparation of stem bark of kanchanara enhance the effect of anti-tuberculosis drugs used in cases of tubercular cervical lymphadenitis.

4. Aim & Objective of the Study

  • To carry out the pharmacognostical studies and isolation ofmajor phytochemical constituents fromBauhinia variegata leaf extract.
  • Structural characterization of the isolated compounds by analytical methods

Need of study:
* Bauhinia variegata
is a species of flowering plant in the family Fabaceae.Bauhinia variegatais native to southeastern Asia, from southern China west to Pakistan and India.

* The major chemical constituents of the plant was found to beflavanone1, 5,7-dimethoxy-30,40-methylenedioxy flavones and a new dihydrodibenzoxepin, 5,6-dihydro-1, 7-dihydroxy-3, 4-dimethoxy-methyldibenz doxepin, flavonolglycoside2, Triterpene saponin3, phenanthraquinone4, flavonoids.

* Bauhinia variegata is found as chemoprotective6 antitumour activity7, hepatoprotectivity8, anti inflammatory2, antimutagenicity9, anti diabetic10, ant nociceptive, antioxidant and antihyperlipidemic12etc.

* In our present investigation I propose to isolate the major phytochemical constituents from Bauhinia variegate to carry out structural characterisation by analytical methods for the isolated phytochemical constituents.

A through survey of literature indicates that there is a no work done on the pharmacognosy of the drug. The present study is therefore undertaken to study the pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening of Bauhinia variegata Linn leaves which could be used as one of the parameter for the standardization of the crude drug.

4.Plan of Work
1. Pharmacognostical Studies.
a. Collection of plant material.
b. Authentication.
c. Microscopical Study.

2. Stomatal Index & Stomatal Number.

3. Vien islet & Vien termination Number.

4. Physical Evaluation
a. Determination of Moisture Content.
b. Determination of Extractive Value.
c. Determination of Ash Value.

5. Extraction of Plant material and Isolation of chemical constituents

6. To carry out isolation and characterization of major constituents fromBauhinia    variegata leaf extract.

7. Preparation of extracts fromBauhinia variegata.

8. To study the TLC of the prepared extracts Bauhinia variegata.

9. Isolation of phytochemical constituents.

10. Isolation of  markers from extract of Bauhinia variegata by column chromatography / HPLC, Identification and characterization of the isolated phytochemical markers from analytical data’s – IR, NMR.

Materials:

  • The collected plant material was ofter removal of soil and adhering material dried at room temperature for 5-6 days.
  • Powdered to 60 # and were used for the powder study.

5. Methodology:

Pharmacognostical Evaluation:
After decades of serious obsession with the modern medicinal system, people have started looking at the ancient systems like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. This is because of the adverse effects associated with synthetic drugs (Thomas et al. 2008). Plants have been associated with the health of mankind from time immemorial

In the past sickness was viewed as a punishment from the god’s hence was treated with prayers and rituals which included “magic proportion” prepared from local herbs (Sandhya et al . 2010).

Herbal drugs play an important role in health care programs especially in developing countries However a key obstacle, which has hindered the acceptance of the alternative medicines in the developed countries, is the lack of documentation of research work carried out on traditional medicines and stringent quality control that have been suitably prepared and standardized (Donald kar et al. 2000) .

With this backdrop, it becomes extremely important to make an effort to wards standardization of the plant material to be used as medicine Pharmacognostical parameters like microscopy, quantitative leaf microscopy, fluorescence, physicochemical and phytochemical studies are few of the basic protocol for standardization of herbals

Hence, in the present work establishment of the pharmacognostical profile of the leaves of Bauhinia variegatais carried out.

Which will assist in standardization, can guarantee quality, purity and it can also be used to prepare a monograph for the proper identification of the plant

5.1 Organoleptic Evaluation:
In organoleptic evaluation, various sensory parameters of the plant material, such as color, odour, taste, shape and texture of the powder were recorded.

TABLE 4

1

Color

Greyish-Brown

2

Odor

Characteristic

3

Taste

Astringent

4

Shape

Curved

5

Texture

Rough

5.2 Microscopical Study.

Leaf constants of Bauhinia variegata
Free hand transverse sections of fresh leaf were taken. Leaf constant such as Stomatal index, palisade ratio, vein islet and vein termination number were determined.
Stomatal index:
Stomatal index is the percentage which the numbers of stomata form to the total number of epidermal cells each stoma being counted as one cell.
Stomatal number:
is average number of stomata per sq.mm of epidermis of the leaf.

Procedure:
Small piece of Bauhiniavariegataleaf were taken in a test tube with chloral hydrate solution and boiled till chlorophyll is removed and from that small portion of leaf taken and kept on the glass slide covered with cover slip with a drop of glycerin and observed under compound microscope using 10x eye piece and camera Lucida and number of stomata were counted.

Palisade ratio: is defined as average number of palisade cells beneath each epidermal cell.

Procedure:
Small piece of Bauhiniavariegataleaf were taken in a test tube with chloral hydrate solution and boiled till chlorophyll is removed and from that small portion of leaf taken and kept on the glass slide covered with cover slip with a drop of glycerin and observed under compound microscope using high magnification.

Vein-islet number: is defined as the number ofvein-isletsper sq.mm of the leaf surface mid-way between mid-rib and the margin.

Vein-termination number: is defined as the number ofvein-let terminationsper sq.mm of the leaf surface mid-way between mid-rib and the margin

Procedure:
Small piece of Bauhiniavariegataleaf were taken in a test tube with chloral hydrate solution and boiled till chlorophyll is removed and from that small portion of leaf taken and kept on the glass slide covered with cover slip with a drop of glycerin and observed under compound microscope.

Microscopical Investigation:

  • Bauhinia variegata leaf shows single layered epidermis covered with thin cuticle.
  • Epidermis is made up of thin walled, rectangular cells, is followed by 2-3 layers of collenchymatous tissues which are arranged compactly and this is followed by parenchymatous cells which are thin walled and 2-4 layered.
  • Some of the cells Show abundant solitary calcium oxalate crystals.
  • Xylem and phloem are well developed.


Fig 1 Transverse section of petiole of Bauhinia variegata

Lamina:

  • Bauhinia variegata shows well developed upper and lower epidermis covered by thin cuticle and made up of thin walled rectangular Cells.
  • Palisade tissue is 2 layered, cells are columnar and sponge tissues, are loosely arranged and each nerve of the leaf shows well developed vascular bundle with xylem and phloem.


Fig 2 Transverse section of Lamina of Bauhinia variegata

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


FIND MORE ARTICLES

Subscribe to RSS headline updates from:
Powered by FeedBurner