You are hereA PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF MANGIFERA INDICA

A PHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW OF MANGIFERA INDICA


About Author:
Pallab Kalita
M.Pharm (pharmacology), nshm knowledge campus,
kolkata, West bengal
kalitapallab@gmail.com

Abstract
The use of medicinal plants as herbal remedies to prevent and cure several ailments differs from community to community. Most studies on the exploitation of mango have been dealing with mango peels, juices and stem bark, however a little attention has been given to mango leaves. Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae), reported to contain active substances like mangiferin. In ayurveda, one of its uses is clearing digestion and acidity. Mangiferin is a pharmacologically active flavonoids, which having the anti bacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, antidiabetes, hepatoprotective, anti inflammatory activities.


REFERENCE ID: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1798

Introduction
Mango (Mangifera indica) is one of the most important tropical plants[4].Mangifera indica is a species of mango in the Anacardiaceae family. It is found in the wild in India and cultivatedvarieties have been introduced to other warm regions of the world. It is the largest fruit-tree in the world, capable of a height of one-hundred feet and an average circumference of twelve to fourteen feet, sometimes reaching twenty. Mangiferin (a pharmacologically active flavonoid, a natural xanthone C-glycoside) is extracted from Mango at high concentrations from the young leaves (172 g/kg), bark (107 g/kg), and from old leaves (94 g/kg)[8] . In ayurveda, one of its uses is clearing digestion and acidity due to pitta (heat). Mango is one of the most popular of all tropical fruits. Mangiferin, being a polyphenolic antioxidant and a glucosyl xanthone, it has strong antioxidant, anti lipid peroxidation, immunomodulation, cardiotonic, hypotensive, wound healing, antidegenerative and antidiabetic activities. Various parts of plant are used as a dentrifrice, antiseptic, astringent, diaphoretic, stomachic, vermifuge, tonic, laxative and diuretic and to treat diarrhea, dysentery, anaemia, asthma, bronchitis, cough, hypertension, insomnia, rheumatism, toothache, leucorrhoea, haemorrhage and piles. All parts are used to treat abscesses, broken horn, rabid dog or jackal bite, tumour, snakebite, stings, datura poisoning, heat stroke, miscarriage, anthrax, blisters, wounds in the mouth, tympanitis, colic, diarrhea, glossitis, indigestion, bacillosis, bloody dysentery, liver disorders, excessive urination, tetanus and asthma.

Mangiferin, C19H18O11, a glucoxanthone (1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-β-Dglucoside) has been reported to be present in various parts of M. indica (Anacardiaceae) and was encountered for the first time by Wiechowski [1]. The conclusive structure of mangiferin has been established as 2-C-β-D-gluco-pyranosyl- 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone. Mangiferin occurs widely among angiosperms and has also been identified in ferns.


phytochemical constituents:
The freshly prepared extracts were subjected to standard phytochemical analyses for different constituents such as tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, glycosides, saponins and phenols.

RECENT PHARMACOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF Mangifera indica:

Antibacterial activity:
Pet ether, ethyl acetate , ethanolic extract of mangifera indica showed significant activity against four clinical strains of bacteria S. typhi, B.subtilis, E.coli and  K.pneumonia. The standard drug used was amoxicillin 5mg/ml . All solvents extracts at dose range 2mg/ml-4mg/ml showed significant antibacterial activity[4].

Anti inflammatory activity:
Aqueous extract of leaves of Mangifera indica L. Var. Thotapuri for its anti-inflammatory activity. The activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced rat paw edema method for acute inflammation and cotton pellet granuloma method for chronic inflammation. The standard drug used was Diclofenac sodium (10 mg/kg) for both the models. In these methods, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts at a dose level of 300 mg/kg has shown significant activity which is comparable to that of the standard[6].

Antioxidant activity:
Several methods have been used to determine antioxidant capacity of plants. Study involved three methods to evaluate the antioxidant activity of the mango seed kernel  extract, namely, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS cation radical scavenging activity and ferric thiocyanate assay in comparision to α-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, methyl gallate and tannic acid. The result of the study revealed that the extract has significant anti oxidant activity [2].

Antiallergic and Anthelmintic activity:
The aquous extract of  stem bark of mango (mangifera indica) having the chemical constituents of  vimang and mangiferin . The vimang and magiferin having the antiallergic and anthelmintic activities . The vimang and mangiferin  (500 or 50 mg per kg body weight per day, respectively) administered orally  to mice experimentally infected with the nematode, Trichinella spiralis. Treatment with Vimang or mangiferin likewise led to a signi?cant decline in serum levels of speci?c anti-Trichinella IgE, throughout the parasite life cycle. Finally, oral treatment of rats with Vimang or mangiferin, daily for 50 days, inhibited mast cell degranulation as evaluated by the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test (sensitization with infected mouse serum with a high IgE titre, then stimulation with the cytosolic fraction of T. spiralis muscle larvae). Since IgE plays a key role in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, these results suggest that Vimang and mangiferin may be useful in the treatment of diseases of this type [3,5] .

Hepatoprotective activity:
Three polyphenolic principles, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG), methyl gallate (MG), and gallic acid (GA), were isolated from the ethanolic extract of seed kernels of Thai mango. evaluating their hepatoprotective potential against liver injury in rats induced by carbon tetrachloride . The result of the study revealed that the extract has significant anti oxidant activity[7] .

Anticancer activity:
90% methanolic extract of mango leaves extract having  antiproliferative effect was preceded by accumulation of cells in G2/M phase of cell cycles. The leaf extracts will be inhibiting AGS cancer cell proliferation in vitro mainly by accumulating cells in G2/M phase .The different concentrations range (62.5-500μg/ml) showed anticancrr activity of the leaves extract of mangifera indica [1].

 

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