PHARMACOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF STEM BARK EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. FOR ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY
About Authors:Kamal Sachdeva*2, Preeti Garg1, Manmohan Singhal2, Birendra Srivastava2
1. School of Pharmacy, Suresh Gyan vihar University, Jaipur
2. School of Pharmaceutical sciences,
Jaipur National University,
Abstract: The extracts of the stem bark of Jatropha curcas (Family-Euphorbiaceae) were tested for anti-diabetic activity, using blood glucose level in normal fasted rats, glucose tolerance test. Methanol: acetone: water (70:20:10) crude extract of Jatropha curcas at the dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg had shown significant protection and lowered the blood glucose levels to normal in glucose tolerance test. The extract showed a significant anti- diabetic activity comparable with that of glibenclamide. These results indicate that the Jatropha curcas stem bark possess significant anti – diabetic activity.
Reference Id: PHARMATUTOR-ART-1162
Diabetes is a major degenerative disease in the world today, 1 affecting at least 15 million people and having complications which include hypertension, atherosclerosis and microcirculatory disorders.2 Diabetes mellitus is also associated with long-term complications, including retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy and angiopathy and several others.3 India has today become the diabetic capital of the world with over 20 million diabetics and this number is set to increase to 57 million by 2025.4 Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a multifactorial disease which is characterized by hyperglycemia,5 lipoprotein abnormalities,6 raised basal metabolic rate,7 defect in reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes8 and high oxidative stress induced damage to pancreatic beta cells.9 Diabetes mellitus is ranked seventh among the leading causes of death and is considered third when it’s fatal complications are taken into account.10 Plants are well known in traditional herbal medicine for their hypoglycaemic activities, and available literature indicate that there are more than 800 plant species showing hypoglycaemic activity.11 There has been increasing demand for the use of plant products with antidiabetic activity due to low cost, easy availability and lesser side effects. Therefore, plant materials are continuously scrutinized and explored for their effect as hypoglycemic agents. Jatropha, a drought resistant shrub or tree, its wood and fruit can be used as for numerous purpose including fuels. It is used against mucosal diseases, arthritis, gout, jaundice, toothache, gum inflammation, gum bleeding. Plant extract used to treat allergies, burns, cuts and wounds, inflammation, leprosy, luekooderma, scabies and small-pox. Water extract of branches used in HIV, tumor, wound healing.12 The plant contains organic acid, cyclic triterpenes, stigmasterol,13 curcacycline A, curcin, a lectin Phobolesters Esterases, sitasterol and its d-glucoside.14 So this plant is studied for antidiabetic activity.
MATERIALS AND METHOD
Plant material and preparation of extract
Fresh stem bark of Jatropha curcas was collected from local area of Jaipur was identified in the department of botany, Rajasthan University, Jaipur. A voucher specimen number RUBL20844 was deposited in the department. The fresh stem bark was air dried to constant weight, pulverized. 200 gm powder of stem bark was subjected to soxhlet extraction with methanol: acetone: water (70:20:10). The extract was then filtered and concentrated to dryness. The extract was subjected to phytochemical test using reported methods.15, 16
Albino rats of either sex (150-200 g) were used for experimental purpose. The animals were housed in hygienic cages (6 rats / cage) under standard conditions of temperature (25±2)0C, relative humidity (45±20) % and (light) 12h: (dark) 12h cycle. The rats were fed with standard pellet diet (Amrut feeds, Chakan) and water ad libitum. The animals were allowed to acclimatize to experimental conditions by housing them for 8-10 days prior to the experiments. The experimental design and research plan along with animals handling and disposal procedure were approved by Institutional Animal Ethical Committee of Jaipur National University (1054/ac/07/CPCSEA) and IAEC approval number was JNU/IAEC/2010/02.
Acute toxicity studies
The acute toxicity was performed according to OECD guidelines (OECD 423, 2001). The selected female albino rats were used for toxicity studies. The animals were divided into four groups of three in each. The animals were fasted overnight prior to the acute experimental procedure. Extract was given orally to rats at the graded dose like 100, 300, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg Body Wt. Immediately, after dosing, the animals were observed continuously for first four hours for behavioral changes and for mortality at the end of 24 h, and daily up to 14 days for any behavioural change or mortality.
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