You are hereNovel approach of Buccal Drug Delivery System: An Overview

Novel approach of Buccal Drug Delivery System: An Overview


11. Different Types of Buccal Dosage Form

11.1. Buccal tablets
Tablets have been the most commonly investigated dosage form for buccal drug delivery to date. Buccal tablets are small, flat, and oval, with a diameter of approximately 5–8 mm. Unlike conventional tablets, buccal mucoadhesive tablets allow for drinking and speaking without major discomfort. They soften, adhere to the mucosa, and are retained in position until dissolution and/or release is complete. These tablets can be applied to different sites in the oral cavity, including the palate, the mucosa lining the cheek, as well as between the lip and the gum. Successive tablets can be applied to alternate sides of the mouth. The major drawback of buccal bioadhesive tablets is their lack of physical flexibility, leading to poor patient compliance for long-term and repeated use [24].

11.2. Buccal patches
Patches are laminates consisting of an impermeable backing layer, a drug-containing reservoir layer from which the drug is released in a controlled manner, and a bioadhesive surface for mucosal attachment. Buccal patch systems are similar to those used in transdermal drug delivery. Two methods used to prepare adhesive patches include solvent casting and direct milling. In the solvent casting method, the intermediate sheet from which patches are punched is prepared by casting the solution of the drug and polymer(s) onto a backing layer sheet, and subsequently allowing the solvent(s) to evaporate. In the direct milling method, formulation constituents are homogeneously mixed and compressed to the desired thickness, and patches of predetermined size and shape are then cut or punched out. An impermeable backing layer may also be applied to control the direction of drug release, prevent drug loss, and minimize deformation and disintegration of the device during the application period.

11.3 Buccal films
Films are the most recently developed dosage form for buccal administration .Buccal films may be preferred over adhesive tablets in terms of flexibility and comfort. In addition, they can circumvent the relatively short residence time of oral gels on the mucosa, which are easily washed away and removed by saliva. Moreover, in the case of local delivery for oral diseases, the films also help protect the wound surface, thus helping to reduce pain and treat the disease more effectively. An ideal film should be flexible, elastic, and soft, yet adequately strong to withstand breakage due to stress from mouth movements. It must also possess good bioadhesive strength in order to be retained in the mouth for the desired duration of action. Swelling of film, if it occurs, should not be too extensive in order to prevent discomfort.

11.4. Buccal gels and ointments
Semisolid dosage forms, such as gels and ointments, have the advantage of easy dispersion throughout the oral mucosa. However, drug dosing from semisolid dosage forms may not be as accurate as from tablets, patches, or films. Poor retention of the gels at the site of application has been overcome by using bioadhesive formulations .Certain bioadhesive polymers, e.g. poloxamer 407, sodium carboxy methylcellulose, carbopol, hyaluronic acid, and xanthan gum, undergo a phase change from a liquid to a semisolid. This change enhances the viscosity, which results in sustained and controlled release of drugs. However, these polymers have been investigated for this purpose primarily in ocular drug delivery [118,119].

Conclusion
The buccal mucosa offers several advantages. Drugs which have low oral bioavailability due to first pass hepatic metabolism or degradation in the acidic environment of the stomach can be efficiently administered through the buccal mucoadhesive films which deliver the drugs directly into the systemic circulation. Buccal drug delivery system can also sustain the drug release and hence the drug action, so they can be used as an alternative to sustained release tablets. The additional advantage in case of buccal dosage form is that the drug source can be withdrawn at any time if required, but in case of ordinary oral dosage form, this is not possible. Buccal drug delivery is a promising area for continued research with the aim of systemic delivery of orally inefficient drugs as well as a feasible and attractive alternative for non-invasive delivery of potent peptide and protein drug molecules. However, the need for safe and effective buccal permeation/absorption enhancers is a crucial component for a prospective future in the area of buccal drug delivery.

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