You are hereMICROSCOPICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ‘Piper betel’

MICROSCOPICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ‘Piper betel’



Fig. No.3. Vein lets present in the upper surface of the leaf

Stomatal number:
The stomatas present in the 1 sq mm of the leaf were 32.

Stomata index:


Fig .No.4.T.S. View of Stomata present in the upper epidermis

The stomata having the more than two guard cells- so it is Anamocytic type stomata

Trans version section of betel leaf:
* It shows that upper, lower epidermal cells and it gives pink colour stain with a drop of phloroglucinol and concentrated hydrochloric shows that presence of lignified cells like xylem and phloem in the vascular bundles of midrib region. And also present prismatic calcium oxalate crystals.


Fig. No.5.T.s view of betel leaf in the mid rib region

* Powder microscopy :the powder microscopy shows that presence of starch grains, calcium oxalate crystals and xylem, phloem

3.2. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening:

  • Preliminary phytochemical screening: The qualitative chemical tests were performed for the P. betel dried powder according to the methods described by Farnsworth with some modifications.
  • It shows that presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and steroid glycosides, terpens, anthraquinones, and steroids
  • Terpenes or terpenoids have been identified as active antiprotozal and antimalarial agents in many pharmacological studies Flavonoids are the other forms of Piper betel phenolic structures. Flavonoids revealed significant anti-parasitic activities against different parasite strains of malaria, trypanosome and leis mania Derivatives of 9, 10-anthraquinone include many important drugs including antimalarials like rufigallol. These chemical compounds which were found in this extract may be acting singly or in synergy with one another to exert the observed antiplasmodial activity of Piper betel.

IV. Conclusion:
The present study reveals that the microscopically evidence was strong enough to prove the leaf and the phytochemical screening reports the presence of alkaloids, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids and steroid glycosides, terpenes, anthraquinones, and steroids which may be responsible for various therapeutic activities.
So there is a lot of scope for in vivo studies due to presence of different phytoconstituents.

V. REFERENCES:
1.Agarwal T, Singh R, Shukla AD, Waris I, Gujrati A., Comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of four Piper betel varieties. Adv Appl Sc Res, 2012, 3: 698-705.
2.Ahmed F, Hussein MH, Rahman AA, Shahid IZ., Antinociceptive and sedative effects of the bark of Cerebra odollam Gareth. Orient Pharm Exp Med, 2006, 6: 344-348.
3.Antonio AM, Brito ARMS. Oral anti-inflammatory activity of a hydro alcoholic extract and partitioned reactions of Turnera ulmifolia (Turneraceae). J Ethnopharmacol, 1998, 61: 215- 228
4.Arambewela LSR, Arawwawala LDAM, Ratnasooriya WD., antidiabetic activities of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Piper betel leave in rats. J Ethnopharmacol, 2005, 102: 239-245.
5. Braca A, Tommasi ND, Bari LD, Pizza C, Politi M, Morelli I., Antioxidant principles from Bauhinia terapotensis. J Nat Prod, 2001, 64: 892–895
6. Choudhary D, Kale RK., Antioxidant and non toxic properties of Piper betel leaf extract: in vitro and in vivo studies. Phytother Res, 2002, 16: 461-466.
7.Dasgupta N, De B. Antioxidant activity of Piper betel L. leaf extract in vitro. Food Chem, 2004, 88: 219-224.
8. Elisabetsky E, Amador TA, Albuquerque RR, Nunes DS, Cavalho ACT., Analgesic activity of Psychotria colorata (Willd. Ex R. and S.) Muell. Arg. Alkaloids. J Ethnopharmacol, 1995, 48: 77-83.
9. Garg SC, Jain R., Biological activity of the essential oil of Piper betel L. J Essen Oil Res, 1992, 4: 601-606.
10. Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Gomathi P, Selvan VT., Anti-inflammatory evaluation of leaves of Plumeria acuminate. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2006, 6: 36-39.
11.Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Kumar RS, Gomathi P, Rajeshwar Y, Kakoti BB, Selven VT., Anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic effects of methanol extract from Bauhinia racemosa stem bark in animal models. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2005, 98: 267-273.
12.Hela AE, Abdullah A., Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of methanol extracts of some Verbena species: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activity in relation to polyphenolic content. Journal of Applied Science Research, 2010, 6: 683-689.
13.Hassan MS, Alam MB, Chowhdury NS, Asadujjaman M, Zahan R, Islam MM, Mazumder MEH, Aqua ME, Islam A., Antioxidant, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the herb Eclipta prostrata. J Pharmacol Toxicol, 2011, 6: 468-480.

NOW YOU CAN ALSO PUBLISH YOUR ARTICLE ONLINE.

SUBMIT YOUR ARTICLE/PROJECT AT articles@pharmatutor.org

Subscribe to Pharmatutor Alerts by Email

FIND OUT MORE ARTICLES AT OUR DATABASE


FIND MORE ARTICLES

Subscribe to RSS headline updates from:
Powered by FeedBurner