About Authors:
Kambham Venkateswarlu1, N.Devanna2, N.B.L.Prasad3
1M.Pharm Scholar, Department Of Pharmaceutics,
2Director of JNTUA-Oil Technological Research Institute,
3Head of Examination branch-JNTUA-OTRI

The aim of the present study was to develop the microscopical authentication for the selected leaf of piper betel from the literature were the microscopical evidence is not available earlier and also to develop the pharmacognostic evaluation for the leaf of the crude drug and to evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters of the piper betel leaf. This work has clearly shown that the microscopical evidence for the leaf and what are the phytoconstituents present in the leaf.


PharmaTutor (ISSN: 2347 - 7881)

Volume 2, Issue 4

Received On: 05/02/2014; Accepted On: 25/02/2014; Published On: 01/04/2014

How to cite this article: K Venkateswarlu, N Devanna, NBL Prasad, Microscopical and Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of ‘Piper betel’, PharmaTutor, 2014, 2(4), 112-118

Piper betel (
L. Piperaceae) leaves is widely used as a mouth freshener after meal. This plant is extensively grown in Bangladesh, India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan and other Southeast Asian countries. Its common name is betel in English, paan in India and Bangladesh, phlu in Thailand and sirih in Bahasa Indonesian. Betel leaf is edible that has achieved an esteemed position in the human society right from the dawn of  civilization, particularly in Bangladesh, Burma, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Thailand etc., where strong pungent aromatic  flavoured leaves are traditionally used for chewing in their natural raw condition along with many other ingredients like sliced areca nut, slaked lime, coriander, aniseed, clove, cardamom, sweetener, coconut scrapings, ashes of diamond, pearl, gold and silver  (Ayurvedic preparations), jelly, pepper mint, flavouring agent, fruit pulp etc. by the peoples.

Betel vine Piper betel (P. betel) belongs to the family of Piperaceae, popularly regarded as a medicinal plant in the South East Asia region. Experimentally, leaves of Piper betel are shown to possess antimicrobial [1, 12], antinociseptive & sedative activity [2], anti-inflammatory activity [10, 11, 13], anti-diabetic activity [4], antioxidant activity [5, 6, 7, 12, 13], analgesic activity [9, 11, 13], biological effects of some volatile oils [10], antipyretic activity[11]. The chief constituent of the leaves is a volatile oil which contains phenols, betel phenol, chavibetol and chavicol, cadinene and hydroxychavicol. The tribal population and aborigines of Bangladesh chew the leaves as a narcotic which causes swooning and profuse sweating and also helps to give warmth to the body during winter.

Medicinal plant have great value to phytochemists because of their medicinal properties, so that, the study of plants that have been  traditionally used as pain killers should still  be seen as a fruitful and logical research  strategy in the search for new analgesic  drugs and pain mechanisms.

Betel Plant cultivation in chittoor

Varieties include 'Magadhi' from Bihar, Gundi, Rasi & Bada varieties from Hinjilicut, Orissa which is more popular in Benaras, Mirzapur, Tunda, Agra & southern districts of Orissa, in India, and 'Venmony Vettila' from Kerala.

Betel leaf and cultivation in the world.

II. Methodology:

2.1. Plant collection:
The piper betel plant was collected around the Chittoor, in the Vengampalle village in the month of January-February. The whole plant collected was taken for authentication.

2.2. Pharmacognostic Evaluation:

2.2.1. Morphology of the leaf:
It refers to study of crude drugs by colour, odour, taste, size, shape and special features, like touch, texture etc.

2.2.2. Microscopy:
This microscopic study involves more detailed examination of a drug and it can be used to identify the organized drugs. The piper betel leaf microscopic study was focused towards

Leaf constants or Diagnostic characters of leaf:

1. Vein-islet number:
It is defined as the number of vein-islets per sq.mm of the leaf surface mid way between the mid rib and margin.

2. Vein-termination:
It is defined as the number of veinlet terminations per sq.mm of the leaf surface mid way between mid rib and margin.

3. Stomatal number:
It is average number of stomata per sq.mm of epidermis of the leaf.

4. Stomatal index:
It is the percentage which the number of stomata forms to the total number of epidermal cells; stomata being counted as one cell.

It is calculated by using the following equation.


Where S.I=stomata index
S= no. of stomata per unit area
E=no. of epidermal cells in the same unit area.

5. Stomata:
A stomata is minute epidermal opening present on Arial parts of the plants, with following characteristics
I. A central pore
II. Two kidney shaped similar cells containing known as guard cells and varying number of subsidiary cells covering the guard cells.

6. Trichomes: Trichomes are the hairy outergrowth of the epidermal cells of the leaf.

7. Tran version section of betel leaf:
The transverse section was carried out through the mid rib region. The arrangement of tissues in transverse and longitudinal sections and type of cells and cell contents are revealed by suitable histological study of a crude drug with the aid of microscope.

2.3. Powder microscopy:
The dried piper betel leafs are make a fine powder by using mortar pestle and pass it on the sieve. Then it is used for the tests.

2.3.1. Test for starch grains:
Take a pinch of betel leaf powder and to this add N/50 iodine solution and focus on the microscope. The hemicelluloses blue stain is present means it shows that presence of starch grains.

2.3.2. Test for calcium oxalate crystals:
In a watch glass take a pinch of betel leaf powder, to this add few ml of glycerine water and focus on the microscope. If it shows the yellow colour cubical shape crystals, it means presence of calcium oxalate crystals. 

2.3.3. Test for lignified cells:
Take a pinch of betel leaf powder and to this add Phloroglucinol and concentrated hydrochloric acid and mount the sample in a slide and cover the slide with cover slip under observe under microscope for any lignified cells.

2.4. Preliminary Phytochemical Screening:

* Preparation of extracts:
100 gm of powdered material was cold macerated with distilled water (500ml) for 24 hours to obtain aqueous extract. Extract was filtered and concentrated by distilling of the solvent and then evaporates to dryness on the water bath. They were stored in desiccators until further use.


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